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Biol Open ; 7(10)2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291138


The cephalopod statocyst and lateral line systems are sensory organs involved in orientation and balance. Lateral lines allow cephalopods to detect particle motion and are used for locating prey or predators in low light conditions. Here, we show the first analysis of damaged sensory epithelia in three species of cephalopod hatchlings (Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Illex coindetii) after sound exposure. Our results indicate lesions in the statocyst sensory epithelia, similar to what was found in adult specimens. The novelty is that the severity of the lesions advanced more rapidly in hatchlings than in adult animals; i.e. the degree of lesions seen in hatchlings immediately after noise exposure would develop within 48 h in adults. This feature suggests a critical period of increased sensitivity to acoustic trauma in those species as has been described in developing mammalian cochlea and avian basilar papilla. The hair cells in the lateral lines of S. officinalis followed the same pattern of damage occurrence, while those of L. vulgaris and I. coindetii displayed a decreasing severity of damage after 24 h. These differences could be due to dissimilarities in size and life stages between the three species.

Sci Rep ; 6: 37979, 2016 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28000727


Jellyfishes represent a group of species that play an important role in oceans, particularly as a food source for different taxa and as a predator of fish larvae and planktonic prey. The massive introduction of artificial sound sources in the oceans has become a concern to science and society. While we are only beginning to understand that non-hearing specialists like cephalopods can be affected by anthropogenic noises and regulation is underway to measure European water noise levels, we still don't know yet if the impact of sound may be extended to other lower level taxa of the food web. Here we exposed two species of Mediterranean Scyphozoan medusa, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo to a sweep of low frequency sounds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in the statocyst sensory epithelium of both species after exposure to sound, that are consistent with the manifestation of a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species. The presence of acoustic trauma in marine species that are not hearing specialists, like medusa, shows the magnitude of the problem of noise pollution and the complexity of the task to determine threshold values that would help building up regulation to prevent permanent damage of the ecosystems.

Cnidários/fisiologia , Som/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cnidários/ultraestrutura , Exposição Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Microscopia Eletroquímica de Varredura , Comportamento Predatório , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/ultraestrutura
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0154050, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27111067


Here we present, for the first time, the elemental concentration, including C, N and O, of single phytoplankton cells collected from the sea. Plankton elemental concentration and stoichiometry are key variables in phytoplankton ecophysiology and ocean biogeochemistry, and are used to link cells and ecosystems. However, most field studies rely on bulk techniques that overestimate carbon and nitrogen because the samples include organic matter other than plankton organisms. Here we used X-ray microanalysis (XRMA), a technique that, unlike bulk analyses, gives simultaneous quotas of C, N, O, Mg, Si, P, and S, in single-cell organisms that can be collected directly from the sea. We analysed the elemental composition of dinoflagellates and diatoms (largely Chaetoceros spp.) collected from different sites of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). As expected, a lower C content is found in our cells compared to historical values of cultured cells. Our results indicate that, except for Si and O in diatoms, the mass of all elements is not a constant fraction of cell volume but rather decreases with increasing cell volume. Also, diatoms are significantly less dense in all the measured elements, except Si, compared to dinoflagellates. The N:P ratio of both groups is higher than the Redfield ratio, as it is the N:P nutrient ratio in deep NW Mediterranean Sea waters (N:P = 20-23). The results suggest that the P requirement is highest for bacterioplankton, followed by dinoflagellates, and lowest for diatoms, giving them a clear ecological advantage in P-limited environments like the Mediterranean Sea. Finally, the P concentration of cells of the same genera but growing under different nutrient conditions was the same, suggesting that the P quota of these cells is at a critical level. Our results indicate that XRMA is an accurate technique to determine single cell elemental quotas and derived conversion factors used to understand and model ocean biogeochemical cycles.

Diatomáceas/classificação , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Mar Mediterrâneo
J Comp Neurol ; 523(3): 431-48, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25269663


The morphological study of the Odontocete organ of Corti, together with possible alterations associated with damage from sound exposure, represents a key conservation approach to assess the effects of acoustic pollution on marine ecosystems. By collaborating with stranding networks from several European countries, 150 ears from 13 species of Odontocetes were collected and analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Based on our analyses, we first describe and compare Odontocete cochlear structures and then propose a diagnostic method to identify inner ear alterations in stranded individuals. The two species analyzed by TEM (Phocoena phocoena and Stenella coeruleoalba) showed morphological characteristics in the lower basal turn of high-frequency hearing species. Among other striking features, outer hair cell bodies were extremely small and were strongly attached to Deiters cells. Such morphological characteristics, shared with horseshoe bats, suggest that there has been convergent evolution of sound reception mechanisms among echolocating species. Despite possible autolytic artifacts due to technical and experimental constraints, the SEM analysis allowed us to detect the presence of scarring processes resulting from the disappearance of outer hair cells from the epithelium. In addition, in contrast to the rapid decomposition process of the sensory epithelium after death (especially of the inner hair cells), the tectorial membrane appeared to be more resistant to postmortem autolysis effects. Analysis of the stereocilia imprint pattern at the undersurface of the tectorial membrane may provide a way to detect possible ultrastructural alterations of the hair cell stereocilia by mirroring them on the tectorial membrane.

Células Ciliadas Auditivas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Órgão Espiral/ultraestrutura , Animais , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Toninhas , Especificidade da Espécie
J Phycol ; 45(1): 100-7, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27033649


Most pennate diatoms are allogamous, and various types of mating systems have been described. In Pseudo-nitzschia, reproductive stages have been identified in some species, and it is generally accepted that the genus is mainly heterothallic. Here we report homothallic auxosporulation of Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana Lundholm, Hasle et G. A. Fryxell. To our knowledge, this is the first verified description of homothallic sexual reproduction in the genus. Auxospore formation was observed in all 16 subclones derived from three initial clonal cultures of P. brasiliana. Pairing was followed by production of two gametes per gametangium, which fused to give two zygotes. Each zygote (early auxospore) was initially spherical and adhered to one girdle band of the parental frustule. The two auxospores tended to expand parallel to each other and perpendicular to the parental frustule. Elongation was synchronous, slightly asynchronous, or totally asynchronous. The entire process of sexual reproduction, from gamete formation to the appearance of the initial vegetative cells, took 2-4 d. The occurrence of sex in a homothallic species seems an advantageous life strategy for this species in that any encounter between cells of the right size class is potentially sexual.

Microsc Res Tech ; 68(5): 264-71, 2005 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16315231


Hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS) and tetramethylsilane are organic compounds that are volatile at ambient temperature and which can therefore be used for air-drying biological samples for SEM studies. The techniques using these compounds provide results that are comparable with those obtained by critical point drying, but which involve a very simple process that saves time and money. Both techniques were applied to SEM studies of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera eggs in order to assess their suitability as alternative methods to critical point drying for these kinds of biological material. The results show no morphological differences between eggs HMDS air-dried and critical point-dried.

Dessecação/métodos , Técnicas de Preparação Histocitológica/métodos , Insetos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Compostos de Organossilício , Óvulo/ultraestrutura , Silanos , Compostos de Trimetilsilil