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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143794, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272603

RESUMO

Viticulture plays an important role in generating income for small farms globally. Historically, vineyards use large quantities of phytosanitary products, such as Bordeaux mixture [Ca(OH)2 + CuSO4], to control plant diseases. These products result in the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil and increases the risk of transfer to water bodies. Thus, it is important to evaluate whether the presence of Cu-bearing particles in water is toxic to aquatic fauna. This study conducted chemical, mineralogical, and particle size evaluations on water samples and sediments collected from a watershed predominantly cultivated with old vineyards. The proportion of Cu-rich nanoparticles (<10 nm) in the sediment was ~27%. We exposed zebrafish to different dilutions of water and sediment samples that collected directly from the study site (downstream river) under laboratory conditions. Then, we evaluated their exploratory behavior and the stress-related endocrine parameter, whole-body cortisol. We also carried out two experiments in which zebrafish were exposed to Cu. First, we determined the median lethal concentration (LC50-96 h) of Cu and then assessed whether Cu exposure results in effects similar to those associated with exposure to the water and sediment samples collected from the study site. The water and sediment samples directly impacted the exploratory behavior of zebrafish, showing clear anxiety-like behavioral phenotype and stress in terms of cortisol increase (during the second rain event). The Cu exposure did not mimic the same behavioral changes triggered by the water and sediment samples, although it had caused similar stress in the fish. Our results highlight that even at low concentrations, the water and sediment samples from vineyard watershed runoff were able to induce behavioral and endocrine changes that may harm the ecological balance of an aquatic environment.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800866

RESUMO

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant widely misused to increase wakefulness by drivers and students. Also, MPH can be found in dietary supplements in a clandestine manner aiming to burst performance of physical exercise practitioners. The abusive use of high doses of caffeine (CAF) in these contexts is equally already known. Here, we demonstrate the behavioral, oxidative and mitochondrial effects after acute exposure to high doses of MPH (80 mg/L) and CAF (150 mg/L), alone or associated (80 mg/L + 150 mg/L, respectively). We used zebrafish as animal model due to its high translational relevance. We evaluated the behavioral effects using the Novel Tank Test (NTT), Social Preference Test (SPT) and Y-maze Task and analyzed biomarkers of oxidative stress and activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. MPH alone induced antisocial behavior. MPH inhibited lipid peroxidation. The association of MPH + CAF presented memory impairment and anxiogenic behavior. In oxidative status, it inhibited lipid peroxidation, increased protein carbonylation and mitochondrial complex II, III and IV activity. Our results demonstrate that MPH and CAF alone negatively impact the typical behavioral of zebrafish. When associated, changes in cognition, memory, oxidative and mitochondrial status are more relevant.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38559-38567, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623676

RESUMO

Due to human activities, there is an increasing presence of agrochemicals residues in water bodies, which could be attributed to an increased use of these chemicals, incorrect disposal of packaging materials, and crop leaching. The effects of these residues on prey-predator relationship of aquatic animals are poorly known. Here, we show that fish acutely exposed to glyphosate, 2,4-D, and methylbenzoate-based agrichemicals have their anti-predatory responses impaired. We exposed zebrafish to sub-lethal concentrations of agrichemicals and evaluated their behavioral reaction against a simulated bird predatory strike. We observed that agrichemical-exposed fish spent more time in a risky area, suggesting that the pesticides interfered with their ability of risk perception. Our results highlight the impairment and environmental consequences of agrochemical residues, which can affect aquatic life and crucial elements for life (food web) such as the prey-predator relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Agroquímicos , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
4.
Mutat Res ; 823: 1-10, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985942

RESUMO

Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is a reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and the first-choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with myasthenia gravis and other neuromuscular junction disorders. However, evidence suggested that PB could be associated with the Gulf War Illness characterised by the presence of fatigue, headaches, cognitive dysfunction, and musculoskeletal respiratory and gastrointestinal disturbances. Given that a potential neurotoxic effect of PB has not yet been completely elucidated, the present investigation used neural SH-SY5Y cells to evaluate the effect of PB on the cellular viability, cell apoptosis, modulation of the cell cycle, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity variables, which indicate neurodegeneration. As expected, a PB concentration curve based on the therapeutic dose of the drug showed an inhibition of the AChE activity. However, this effect was transient and did not involve differential AChE gene regulation by PB. These results confirmed that undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells can be used as a cholinergic in vitro model. In general, PB did not trigger oxidative stress, and at a slightly higher PB concentration (80ng/mL), higher levels of protein carbonylation and DNA damage were detected, as determined by the marker 8-deoxyguanosine. The PB genotoxic effects at 80ng/mL were confirmed by the upregulation of the p53 and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) genes, which are associated with cellular DNA repair. PB at 40ng/mL, which is the minimal therapeutic dose, led to higher cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity compared with the control group. The effects of PB were corroborated by the upregulation of the telomerase gene. In summary, despite the methodological constrains related to the in vitro protocols, our results suggested that exposure of neural cells to PB, without other chemical and physical stressors did not cause extensive toxicity or indicate any neurodegeneration patterns.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Brometo de Piridostigmina/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1 , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miastenia Gravis/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
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