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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(15): 150504, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499881

RESUMO

The ability to selectively measure, initialize, and reuse qubits during a quantum circuit enables a mapping of the spatial structure of certain tensor-network states onto the dynamics of quantum circuits, thereby achieving dramatic resource savings when simulating quantum systems with limited entanglement. We experimentally demonstrate a significant benefit of this approach to quantum simulation: the entanglement structure of an infinite system-specifically the half-chain entanglement spectrum-is conveniently encoded within a small register of "bond qubits" and can be extracted with relative ease. Using Honeywell's model H0 quantum computer equipped with selective midcircuit measurement and reset, we quantitatively determine the near-critical entanglement entropy of a correlated spin chain directly in the thermodynamic limit and show that its phase transition becomes quickly resolved upon expanding the bond-qubit register.

2.
Phys Rev X ; 10(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364075

RESUMO

Driven-dissipative systems are expected to give rise to nonequilibrium phenomena that are absent in their equilibrium counterparts. However, phase transitions in these systems generically exhibit an effectively classical equilibrium behavior in spite of their nonequilibrium origin. In this paper, we show that multicritical points in such systems lead to a rich and genuinely nonequilibrium behavior. Specifically, we investigate a driven-dissipative model of interacting bosons that possesses two distinct phase transitions: one from a high- to a low-density phase-reminiscent of a liquid-gas transition-and another to an antiferromagnetic phase. Each phase transition is described by the Ising universality class characterized by an (emergent or microscopic) ℤ 2 symmetry. However, they coalesce at a multicritical point, giving rise to a nonequilibrium model of coupled Ising-like order parameters described by a ℤ 2 × â„¤ 2 symmetry. Using a dynamical renormalization-group approach, we show that a pair of nonequilibrium fixed points (NEFPs) emerge that govern the long-distance critical behavior of the system. We elucidate various exotic features of these NEFPs. In particular, we show that a generic continuous scale invariance at criticality is reduced to a discrete scale invariance. This further results in complex-valued critical exponents and spiraling phase boundaries, and it is also accompanied by a complex Liouvillian gap even close to the phase transition. As direct evidence of the nonequilibrium nature of the NEFPs, we show that the fluctuation-dissipation relation is violated at all scales, leading to an effective temperature that becomes "hotter" and "hotter" at longer and longer wavelengths. Finally, we argue that this nonequilibrium behavior can be observed in cavity arrays with cross-Kerr nonlinearities.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(3): 030501, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735427

RESUMO

Trapped ions offer a pristine platform for quantum computation and simulation, but improving their coherence remains a crucial challenge. Here, we propose and analyze a new strategy to enhance the coherent interactions in trapped ion systems via parametric amplification of the ions' motion-by squeezing the collective motional modes (phonons), the spin-spin interactions they mediate can be significantly enhanced. We illustrate the power of this approach by showing how it can enhance collective spin states useful for quantum metrology, and how it can improve the speed and fidelity of two-qubit gates in multi-ion systems, important ingredients for scalable trapped ion quantum computation. Our results are also directly relevant to numerous other physical platforms in which spin interactions are mediated by bosons.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134654

RESUMO

In trapped-ion quantum information processing, interactions between spins (qubits) are mediated by collective modes of motion of an ion crystal. While there are many different experimental strategies to design such interactions, they all face both technical and fundamental limitations to the achievable coherent interaction strength. In general, obtaining strong interactions and fast gates is an ongoing challenge. Here, we extend previous work [W. Ge, B. C. Sawyer, J. W. Britton, K. Jacobs, J. J. Bollinger, and M. Foss-Feig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 030501 (2019)] and present a general strategy for enhancing the interaction strengths in trapped-ion systems via parametric amplification of the ions' motion. Specifically, we propose a stroboscopic protocol using alternating applications of parametric amplification and spin-motion coupling. In comparison with the previous work, we show that the current protocol can lead to larger enhancements in the coherent interaction that increase exponentially with the gate time.

5.
Phys Rev X ; 92019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117576

RESUMO

The propagation of information in nonrelativistic quantum systems obeys a speed limit known as a Lieb-Robinson bound. We derive a new Lieb-Robinson bound for systems with interactions that decay with distance r as a power law, 1/r α . The bound implies an effective light cone tighter than all previous bounds. Our approach is based on a technique for approximating the time evolution of a system, which was first introduced as part of a quantum simulation algorithm by Haah et al., FOCS'18. To bound the error of the approximation, we use a known Lieb-Robinson bound that is weaker than the bound we establish. This result brings the analysis full circle, suggesting a deep connection between Lieb-Robinson bounds and digital quantum simulation. In addition to the new Lieb-Robinson bound, our analysis also gives an error bound for the Haah et al. quantum simulation algorithm when used to simulate power-law decaying interactions. In particular, we show that the gate count of the algorithm scales with the system size better than existing algorithms when α > 3D (where D is the number of dimensions).

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(3): 030501, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085789

RESUMO

We make the case for studying the complexity of approximately simulating (sampling) quantum systems for reasons beyond that of quantum computational supremacy, such as diagnosing phase transitions. We consider the sampling complexity as a function of time t due to evolution generated by spatially local quadratic bosonic Hamiltonians. We obtain an upper bound on the scaling of t with the number of bosons n for which approximate sampling is classically efficient. We also obtain a lower bound on the scaling of t with n for which any instance of the boson sampling problem reduces to this problem and hence implies that the problem is hard, assuming the conjectures of Aaronson and Arkhipov [Proceedings of the Forty-Third Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (ACM Press, New York, New York, USA, 2011), p. 333]. This establishes a dynamical phase transition in sampling complexity. Further, we show that systems in the Anderson-localized phase are always easy to sample from at arbitrarily long times. We view these results in light of classifying phases of physical systems based on parameters in the Hamiltonian. In doing so, we combine ideas from mathematical physics and computational complexity to gain insight into the behavior of condensed matter, atomic, molecular, and optical systems.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(4): 043604, 2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095935

RESUMO

We derive a bound on the ability of a linear-optical network to estimate a linear combination of independent phase shifts by using an arbitrary nonclassical but unentangled input state, thereby elucidating the quantum resources required to obtain the Heisenberg limit with a multiport interferometer. Our bound reveals that while linear networks can generate highly entangled states, they cannot effectively combine quantum resources that are well distributed across multiple modes for the purposes of metrology: In this sense, linear networks endowed with well-distributed quantum resources behave classically. Conversely, our bound shows that linear networks can achieve the Heisenberg limit for distributed metrology when the input photons are concentrated in a small number of input modes, and we present an explicit scheme for doing so.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093589

RESUMO

Studies of quantum metrology have shown that the use of many-body entangled states can lead to an enhancement in sensitivity when compared with unentangled states. In this paper, we quantify the metrological advantage of entanglement in a setting where the measured quantity is a linear function of parameters individually coupled to each qubit. We first generalize the Heisenberg limit to the measurement of nonlocal observables in a quantum network, deriving a bound based on the multiparameter quantum Fisher information. We then propose measurement protocols that can make use of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states or spin-squeezed states and show that in the case of GHZ states the protocol is optimal, i.e., it saturates our bound. We also identify nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging as a promising setting for this technology.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(17): 170503, 2017 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219445

RESUMO

In short-range interacting systems, the speed at which entanglement can be established between two separated points is limited by a constant Lieb-Robinson velocity. Long-range interacting systems are capable of faster entanglement generation, but the degree of the speedup possible is an open question. In this Letter, we present a protocol capable of transferring a quantum state across a distance L in d dimensions using long-range interactions with a strength bounded by 1/r^{α}. If α

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(19): 190402, 2017 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219530

RESUMO

Exactly solvable models have played an important role in establishing the sophisticated modern understanding of equilibrium many-body physics. Conversely, the relative scarcity of solutions for nonequilibrium models greatly limits our understanding of systems away from thermal equilibrium. We study a family of nonequilibrium models, some of which can be viewed as dissipative analogues of the transverse-field Ising model, in that an effectively classical Hamiltonian is frustrated by dissipative processes that drive the system toward states that do not commute with the Hamiltonian. Surprisingly, a broad and experimentally relevant subset of these models can be solved efficiently. We leverage these solutions to compute the effects of decoherence on a canonical trapped-ion-based quantum computation architecture, and to prove a no-go theorem on steady-state phase transitions in a many-body model that can be realized naturally with Rydberg atoms or trapped ions.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(5): 050501, 2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949718

RESUMO

We prove that the entanglement entropy of any state evolved under an arbitrary 1/r^{α} long-range-interacting D-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonian cannot change faster than a rate proportional to the boundary area for any α>D+1. We also prove that for any α>2D+2, the ground state of such a Hamiltonian satisfies the entanglement area law if it can be transformed along a gapped adiabatic path into a ground state known to satisfy the area law. These results significantly generalize their existing counterparts for short-range interacting systems, and are useful for identifying dynamical phase transitions and quantum phase transitions in the presence of long-range interactions.

12.
Science ; 352(6291): 1297-301, 2016 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27284189

RESUMO

Quantum simulation of spin models can provide insight into problems that are difficult or impossible to study with classical computers. Trapped ions are an established platform for quantum simulation, but only systems with fewer than 20 ions have demonstrated quantum correlations. We studied quantum spin dynamics arising from an engineered, homogeneous Ising interaction in a two-dimensional array of (9)Be(+) ions in a Penning trap. We verified entanglement in spin-squeezed states of up to 219 ions, directly observing 4.0 ± 0.9 decibels of spectroscopic enhancement, and observed states with non-Gaussian statistics consistent with oversqueezed states. The good agreement with ab initio theory that includes interactions and decoherence lays the groundwork for simulations of the transverse-field Ising model with variable-range interactions, which are generally intractable with classical methods.

13.
Phys Rev B ; 932016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093592

RESUMO

Long-range quantum lattice systems often exhibit drastically different behavior than their short-range counterparts. In particular, because they do not satisfy the conditions for the Lieb-Robinson theorem, they need not have an emergent relativistic structure in the form of a light cone. Adopting a field-theoretic approach, we study the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with long-range interactions, and a fermionic model with long-range hopping and pairing terms, explore their critical and near-critical behavior, and characterize their response to local perturbations. We deduce the dynamic critical exponent, up to the two-loop order within the renormalization group theory, which we then use to characterize the emergent causal behavior. We show that beyond a critical value of the power-law exponent of the long-range couplings, the dynamics effectively becomes relativistic. Various other critical exponents describing correlations in the ground state, as well as deviations from a linear causal cone, are deduced for a wide range of the power-law exponent.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098434

RESUMO

We study a coupled array of coherently driven photonic cavities, which maps onto a driven-dissipative XY spin- 1 2 model with ferromagnetic couplings in the limit of strong optical nonlinearities. Using a site-decoupled mean-field approximation, we identify steady-state phases with canted antiferromagnetic order, in addition to limit cycle phases, where oscillatory dynamics persist indefinitely. We also identify collective bistable phases, where the system supports two steady states among spatially uniform, antiferromagnetic, and limit cycle phases. We compare these mean-field results to exact quantum trajectory simulations for finite one-dimensional arrays. The exact results exhibit short-range antiferromagnetic order for parameters that have significant overlap with the mean-field phase diagram. In the mean-field bistable regime, the exact quantum dynamics exhibits real-time collective switching between macroscopically distinguishable states. We present a clear physical picture for this dynamics and establish a simple relationship between the switching times and properties of the quantum Liouvillian.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(15): 157201, 2015 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25933335

RESUMO

In nonrelativistic quantum theories with short-range Hamiltonians, a velocity v can be chosen such that the influence of any local perturbation is approximately confined to within a distance r until a time t∼r/v, thereby defining a linear light cone and giving rise to an emergent notion of locality. In systems with power-law (1/r^{α}) interactions, when α exceeds the dimension D, an analogous bound confines influences to within a distance r only until a time t∼(α/v)logr, suggesting that the velocity, as calculated from the slope of the light cone, may grow exponentially in time. We rule out this possibility; light cones of power-law interacting systems are bounded by a polynomial for α>2D and become linear as α→∞. Our results impose strong new constraints on the growth of correlations and the production of entangled states in a variety of rapidly emerging, long-range interacting atomic, molecular, and optical systems.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(19): 195302, 2014 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25415911

RESUMO

We use Ramsey spectroscopy to experimentally probe the quantum dynamics of disordered dipolar-interacting ultracold molecules in a partially filled optical lattice, and we compare the results to theory. We report the capability to control the dipolar interaction strength. We find excellent agreement between our measurements of the spin dynamics and theoretical calculations with no fitting parameters, including the dynamics' dependence on molecule number and on the dipolar interaction strength. This agreement verifies the microscopic model expected to govern the dynamics of dipolar molecules, even in this strongly correlated beyond-mean-field regime, and represents the first step towards using this system to explore many-body dynamics in regimes that are inaccessible to current theoretical techniques.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(3): 030602, 2014 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25083624

RESUMO

Motivated by recent experiments with ultracold matter, we derive a new bound on the propagation of information in D-dimensional lattice models exhibiting 1/r^{α} interactions with α>D. The bound contains two terms: One accounts for the short-ranged part of the interactions, giving rise to a bounded velocity and reflecting the persistence of locality out to intermediate distances, whereas the other contributes a power-law decay at longer distances. We demonstrate that these two contributions not only bound but, except at long times, qualitatively reproduce the short- and long-distance dynamical behavior following a local quench in an XY chain and a transverse-field Ising chain. In addition to describing dynamics in numerous intractable long-range interacting lattice models, our results can be experimentally verified in a variety of ultracold-atomic and solid-state systems.

18.
Nature ; 511(7508): 198-201, 2014 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25008525

RESUMO

The maximum speed with which information can propagate in a quantum many-body system directly affects how quickly disparate parts of the system can become correlated and how difficult the system will be to describe numerically. For systems with only short-range interactions, Lieb and Robinson derived a constant-velocity bound that limits correlations to within a linear effective 'light cone'. However, little is known about the propagation speed in systems with long-range interactions, because analytic solutions rarely exist and because the best long-range bound is too loose to accurately describe the relevant dynamical timescales for any known spin model. Here we apply a variable-range Ising spin chain Hamiltonian and a variable-range XY spin chain Hamiltonian to a far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body system and observe its time evolution. For several different interaction ranges, we determine the spatial and time-dependent correlations, extract the shape of the light cone and measure the velocity with which correlations propagate through the system. This work opens the possibility for studying a wide range of many-body dynamics in quantum systems that are otherwise intractable.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(7): 075301, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25166378

RESUMO

Recent theory has indicated how to emulate tunable models of quantum magnetism with ultracold polar molecules. Here we show that present molecule optical lattice experiments can accomplish three crucial goals for quantum emulation, despite currently being well below unit filling and not quantum degenerate. The first is to verify and benchmark the models proposed to describe these systems. The second is to prepare correlated and possibly useful states in well-understood regimes. The third is to explore many-body physics inaccessible to existing theoretical techniques. Our proposal relies on a nonequilibrium protocol that can be viewed either as Ramsey spectroscopy or an interaction quench. The proposal uses only routine experimental tools available in any ultracold molecule experiment. To obtain a global understanding of the behavior, we treat short times pertubatively, develop analytic techniques to treat the Ising interaction limit, and apply a time-dependent density matrix renormalization group to disordered systems with long range interactions.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(8): 080405, 2012 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22463505

RESUMO

We have realized long-lived ground-state polar molecules in a 3D optical lattice, with a lifetime of up to 25 s, which is limited only by off-resonant scattering of the trapping light. Starting from a 2D optical lattice, we observe that the lifetime increases dramatically as a small lattice potential is added along the tube-shaped lattice traps. The 3D optical lattice also dramatically increases the lifetime for weakly bound Feshbach molecules. For a pure gas of Feshbach molecules, we observe a lifetime of greater than 20 s in a 3D optical lattice; this represents a 100-fold improvement over previous results. This lifetime is also limited by off-resonant scattering, the rate of which is related to the size of the Feshbach molecule. Individually trapped Feshbach molecules in the 3D lattice can be converted to pairs of K and Rb atoms and back with nearly 100% efficiency.

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