Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 44
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110878, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056654

RESUMO

We determined levels of mercury, cadmium, lead and selenium in muscle and liver of 29 specimens of a large pelagic fish rarely investigated, the Mediterranean spearfish Tetrapturus belone (Raf., 1810). The following element concentration ranking (mean ± S.D.; espressed in mg/kg dry weight) was recorded in muscle: Hg (3.401 ± 1.908) > Se (1.727 ± 0.232) > Pb (0.532 ± 0.322) > Cd (0.019 ± 0.015), and Se (6.577 ± 1.789) > Cd (5.815 ± 3.038) > Hg (2.698 ± 2.214) > Pb (0.661 ± 1.334) in liver. Levels of Hg, Se and Cd were compared to those reported for other Istiophoridae from oceanic areas and for other large predators of Mediterranean Sea, like swordfish and tuna. Organotropism of trace elements and their relation to size was discussed. Ecophysiological considerations regarding the Se-Hg relationship as well as Se-Cd indicate a possible detoxification mechanism. The implications for human consumption are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Fígado , Mar Mediterrâneo , Mercúrio , Selênio
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110763, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910520

RESUMO

Citizen science programs carried out by volunteers are fundamental for the collection of scientific data on a wide spatial scale. From 2011 to 2018, 468 survey dives were conducted in 172 coastal locations of the Mediterranean Sea through Project AWARE's citizen science program, Dive Against Debris®. During the dives, information was collected on quantity, typology and distribution of seafloor litter in shallow coastal waters. Overall, the observed average density was 43.55 items/100 m2 and plastic was largely the dominant material (55% of the total collected items) on basin scale. The most abundant seafloor litter items were plastic fragments with 9.46%, followed by beverage cans (7.45%). Single-use plastic items constituted 33% of the total marine litter. The results of the study can be used to inform policymakers of the European Community towards specific management action to contrast the marine litter in relation to the distribution of the recorded litter category.


Assuntos
Mergulho , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos , Poluentes da Água/análise , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos , Água do Mar/química
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15775, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673028

RESUMO

Microplastics have become pervasive environmental pollutants in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. The presence of microplastics have been recorded in the tissues of many wild fish species, and laboratory studies have demonstrated that microplastics can exert adverse health effects. To further investigate the biological mechanisms underlying microplastics toxicity we applied an integrated approach, analyzing the effects of microplastics at transcriptomic, histological and behavioral level. Adult zebrafish have been exposed to two concentrations of high-density polyethylene and polystyrene microplastics for twenty days. Transcriptomic results indicate alterations in the expression of immune system genes and the down-regulation of genes correlated with epithelium integrity and lipid metabolism. The transcriptomic findings are supported by tissue alterations and higher occurrence of neutrophils observed in gills and intestinal epithelium. Even the daily rhythm of activity of zebrafish appears to be affected, although the regular pattern of activity is recovered over time. Considering the transcriptomic and histological findings reported, we hypothesize that the effects on mucosal epithelium integrity and immune response could potentially reduce the organism defense against pathogens, and lead to a different utilization of energy stores.

4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 140: 129-137, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803626

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tracts of 229 demersal fish belonging to two species (Mullus barbatus, Merluccius merluccius) were examined for microplastic ingestion. Samples were collected in 3 different FAO Geographical Sub-Areas (GSA-9, GSA-17, GSA-19) of the Mediterranean Sea. Ingested microplastics were characterized using a stereo-microscope: observed, photographed, measured and categorized according to size class, shape and colour. Plastic fragments (ranging from 0.10 to 6.6 mm) were detected in 23.3% of the total investigated fish; a total of 65 plastic particles (66% constituted by fibers) were recorded. The percentage of plastic ingestion shows high variability between the two species and among the different sampling area. The highest frequency (48%) was found in European hake from GSA-19. These preliminary results represent a baseline for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptor 10 in Italy as well as an important step for detecting microplastics in bioindicator species from different GSAs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Plásticos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Gadiformes/metabolismo , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Perciformes/metabolismo
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 140: 315-319, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803650

RESUMO

In this study we have identified and characterized microplastic particles (MPs) found in six fish species of commercial importance in central Chile. The fish species belong to different trophic levels and were obtained from the oceanic and coastal habitats. To analyze MPs, the fish gastrointestinal content was extracted, analyzed and characterized using a microscopy equipped with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The MPs found in fish samples were mainly constituted by red microfibers (70-100%) with sizes ranging between 176 and 2842 µm. Polyester, polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were identified as the prevalent polymers detected. The coastal species showed the presence of microfibers with a higher size and abundance (71%) compared to oceanic species (29%), suggesting there is a greater exposure risk. These findings are consistent with results found in other investigations worldwide. However, further research is still needed to accurately establish the potential exposure risk for the public consuming these fish and the impact of MPs in the Chilean fishery activities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/metabolismo , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Chile , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
6.
Environ Pollut ; 247: 72-79, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654256

RESUMO

Marine litter is a pollution problem affecting thousands of marine species in all the world's seas and oceans. Marine litter, in particular plastic, has negative impacts on marine wildlife primarily due to ingestion and entanglement. Since most marine mammal species negatively interact with marine litter, a first workshop under the framework of the European Cetacean Society Conference, was held in 2017 to bring together the main experts on the topic of marine mammals and marine litter from academic and research institutes, non-governmental organisations, foundations and International Agreements. The workshop was devoted to defining the impact of marine litter on marine mammals by reviewing current knowledge, methodological advances and new data available on this emerging issue. Some case studies were also presented from European waters, such as seals and cetaceans in the North, Baltic, and Mediterranean Seas. Here, we report the main findings of the workshop, including a discussion on the research needs, the main methodological gaps, an overview of new techniques for detecting the effects of marine litter (including microplastics) on marine mammals and, also, the use of citizen science to drive awareness. The final recommendations aim to establish priority research, to define harmonised methods to detect marine litter and microplastics, enforce networking among institutions and support data sharing. The information gathered will enhance awareness and communication between scientists, young people, citizens, other stakeholders and policy makers, and thereby facilitate better implementation of international directives (e.g., the Marine Strategy Framework Directive) in order to answer the question about the actual status of our oceans and finding solutions.


Assuntos
Cetáceos/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Política Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos/análise
7.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 658-667, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611942

RESUMO

Marine mammals in the Barents Sea region have among the highest levels of contaminants recorded in the Arctic and the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) is one of the most contaminated species within this region. We therefore investigated the relationships bewteen blubber concentrations of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and plasma concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and markers of endocrine and immune functions in adult male Atlantic walruses (n = 38) from Svalbard, Norway. To do so, we assessed plasma concentrations of five forms of thyroid hormones and transcript levels of genes related to the endocrine and immune systems as endpoints; transcript levels of seven genes in blubber and 23 genes in blood cells were studied. Results indicated that plasma total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations and ratio of TT4 and reverse triiodothyronine decreased with increasing blubber concentrations of lipophilic POPs. Blood cell transcript levels of genes involved in the function of T and B cells (FC like receptors 2 and 5, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22) were increased with plasma PFAS concentrations. These results suggest that changes in thyroid and immune systems in adult male walruses are linked to current levels of contaminant exposure.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/análise , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Morsas/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/sangue , Masculino , Svalbard , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Morsas/imunologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue
8.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 207: 18-24, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593346

RESUMO

The sea turtles maintaining in rescue centres can cause physiological stress to the animals with subsequent effects, such as the imbalance of immune system components. It is therefore crucial to investigate how innate immune responses are influenced by stress within recovery centers with the aim to use them as primary tools for the evaluation of the rescued specimens' health status and for developing more effective conservative strategies. In this study we monitored for the first time different immune responses in hospitalized Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) (n = 88), comparing them with free-ranging animals (n = 11). The final scope was to identify sensitive tools based on immune responses parameters that rescue centers operators could use to verify the stress condition of hospitalized specimens. Blood samples were obtained from loggerhead sea turtles hospidalized for different periods (≤2 months; >2 months and ≤1 year; >1 year) in various Italian rescue centers. Free-ranging turtles were captured in the South of Spain during a shipboard survey with a minimal invasive technique. Samples were analyzed for different stress-associated parameters (white cells count, heterophils:lymphocytes (H:L) ratio, respiratory burst, total antioxidant status (TAS), lysozyme). Free-ranging specimens showed lower values for most of the measured parameters. The highest values of TAS, lysozyme activity, respiratory burst and leukocytes profile were detected during the first 2 months of hospitalization, that resulted as the most critical period for the rehabilitation of turtles. After more than 1 year, immune values were similar to the values of free-ranging, indicating an acclimatization to captivity and health conditions amelioration. Moreover, monocytes low levels and eosinophils significant decrease in hospitalized animals indicated the absence of chronic inflammations and reduction of parasitic load during rehabilitation. Statistical analysis pointed out that lysozyme activity and eosinophyls count represent valid methods to diagnose physiological stress and inflammation in hospitalized loggerhead sea turtles.


Assuntos
Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Tartarugas/imunologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/fisiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Muramidase/sangue , Muramidase/metabolismo , Explosão Respiratória/imunologia , Explosão Respiratória/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Tartarugas/sangue , Tartarugas/fisiologia
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 135: 303-310, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301042

RESUMO

Few studies have focused so far on plastic ingestion by sharks in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this paper was to determine, for the first time, the plastic litter ingested by blue sharks (Prionace glauca), categorized as "Critically Endangered" in the Mediterranean Sea by IUCN, caught in the Pelagos Sanctuary SPAMI (North-Western Mediterranean Sea). The analysis of the stomach contents was performed following the MSFD Descriptor 10 standard protocol implemented with FT-IR spectroscopy technique. The results showed that 25.26% of sharks ingested plastic debris of wide scale of sizes from microplastics (<5 mm) to macroplastics (>25 mm). The polyethylene sheetlike user plastics, widely used as packaging material, are the most ingested debris. This research raises a warning alarm on the impact of plastic debris on a threatened species, with a key role in the food web, and adds important information for futures mitigation actions.


Assuntos
Plásticos/metabolismo , Tubarões/metabolismo , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Plásticos/análise , Polietileno/efeitos adversos , Polietileno/análise , Polietileno/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11577, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068967

RESUMO

Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are rare in the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, in 2014 a pod of 7 specimens stranded alive along the Italian coast of the Central Adriatic Sea: 3 individuals died on the beach after a few hours due to internal damages induced by prolonged recumbency; the remaining 4 whales were refloated after great efforts. All the dead animals were genetically related females; one was pregnant. All the animals were infected by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and the pregnant whale was also affected by a severe nephropathy due to a large kidney stone. Other analyses ruled out other possible relevant factors related to weather conditions or human activities. The results of multidisciplinary post-mortem analyses revealed that the 7 sperm whales entered the Adriatic Sea encountering adverse weather conditions and then kept heading northward following the pregnant but sick leader of the pod, thereby reaching the stranding site. DMV infection most likely played a crucial role in impairing the health condition and orientation abilities of the whales. They did not steer back towards deeper waters, but eventually stranded along the Central Adriatic Sea coastline, a real trap for sperm whales.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Cachalote , Animais , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 133: 543-552, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041348

RESUMO

Monitoring efforts are required to understand the sources, distribution and abundance of microplastic pollution. To verify the abundance of microplastics along the Tuscan coastal waters (Italy), water-column and surface samples were collected in two seasons across four transects at different distances to the coast (0.5, 5, 10 and 20 km), within the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The results show an average concentration of 0.26 items/m3 in the water-column samples and 41.1 g/km2 and 69,161.3 items/km2 of floating microplastics, with an increase with the distance to the coast The seasonality and the sampling area do not affect the abundance of microplastics. The most abundant size class is 1-2.5 mm as fragments and sheets suggesting that fragmentation of larger polyethylene and polypropylene items could be the main source of microplastics. These data represent the application of a harmonized protocol to make the data on microplastics comparable and reliable.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/análise , Poluição Química da Água/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 631-632: 1221-1233, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727947

RESUMO

The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is a long-lived carnivorous reptile included in the IUCN Red List. The IUCN assessment for this species underlines the lack of information regarding pollution and pathogens and indicates as a priority effort to investigate and reduce the impacts of these threats. In this contest, the aim of our study was to conduct the first ecotoxicological assessment of this species in the Mediterranean Sea using a nondestructive integrated methodology. We set up and applied a monitoring protocol which includes endpoints, such as CYP1A, LPO, ENA assay, B esterases, never investigated before in this species. Seventy-five loggerhead turtles were sampled in a nondestructive way in Italian Sea Turtle Rescue Centers or free-ranging along the Spanish coasts. Blood, skin and carapace samples were used to test biomarker responses (CYP1A, VTG, LPO, Comet and ENA assay, BChE, GGT) and contaminant (OCs, PAHs, Pb, Cd, Hg) levels. Elaboration of experimental results was carried out taking also into consideration different age classes of the specimens. Among the main results obtained we should underline the statistically significant correlation between carcinogenic PAHs in blood and DNA fragmentation as well as between Cd in carapace and GGT in plasma. We also evidenced as youngest animals showed significantly higher DNA fragmentations, BChE inhibition and increase of GGT. Older specimens showed the highest levels of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities which may indicate a long term toxicological stress. This study contributed to expand the knowledge about the ecotoxicology of C. caretta in the Mediterranean. The nondestructive protocol could also be applied to other marine ecosystems and other sea turtle species.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Ecotoxicologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo
13.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 33(4): 227-232, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422348

RESUMO

Microplastic pollution can impact filter-feeding marine megafauna, namely mobulid rays, filter-feeding sharks, and baleen whales. Emerging research on these flagship species highlights potential exposure to microplastic contamination and plastic-associated toxins. Research and its wide communication are needed to understand the magnitude of the issue and improve marine stewardship.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Comportamento Alimentar , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Tubarões , Poluentes da Água/efeitos adversos , Baleias , Animais , Oceanos e Mares
14.
Environ Pollut ; 237: 1023-1040, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29153726

RESUMO

The Mediterranean Sea has been described as one of the most affected areas by marine litter in the world. Although effects on organisms from marine plastic litter ingestion have been investigated in several oceanic areas, there is still a lack of information from the Mediterranean Sea. The main objectives of this paper are to review current knowledge on the impact of marine litter on Mediterranean biodiversity, to define selection criteria for choosing marine organisms suitable for use as bioindicator species, and to propose a methodological approach to assessing the harm related to marine litter ingestion in several Mediterranean habitats and sub-regions. A new integrated monitoring tool that would provide the information necessary to design and implement future mitigation actions in the Mediterranean basin is proposed. According to bibliographic research and statistical analysis on current knowledge of marine litter ingestion, the area of the Mediterranean most studied, in terms of number of species and papers in the Mediterranean Sea is the western sub-area as well as demersal (32.9%) and pelagic (27.7%) amongst habitats. Applying ecological and biological criteria to the most threatened species obtained by statistical analysis, bioindicator species for different habitats and monitoring scale were selected. A threefold approach, simultaneously measuring the presence and effects of plastic, can provide the actual harm and sub-lethal effects to organisms caused by marine litter ingestion. The research revealed gaps in knowledge, and this paper suggests measures to close the gap. This and the selection of appropriate bioindicator species would represent a step forward for marine litter risk assessment, and the implementation of future actions and mitigation measures for specific Mediterranean areas, habitats and species affected by marine litter ingestion.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 230: 199-209, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651091

RESUMO

Marine litter is any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment. Ingestion of marine litter can have lethal and sub-lethal effects on wildlife that accidentally ingests it, and sea turtles are particularly susceptible to this threat. The European Commission drafted the 2008/56/EC Marine Strategy Framework Directive with the aim to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES), and the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta, Linnaeus 1758) was selected for monitoring the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. An analogous decision has been made under the UNEP/MAP Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea, following the Ecosystem Approach. This work provides for the first time, two possible scenarios for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive GES, both related to "Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals" in the Mediterranean Sea. The study validates the use of the loggerhead turtle as target indicator for monitoring the impact of litter on marine biota and calls for immediate use of this protocol throughout the Mediterranean basin and European Region. Both GES scenarios are relevant worldwide, where sea turtles and marine litter are present, for measuring the impact of ingested plastics and developing policy strategies to reduce it. In the period between 2011 and 2014, 150 loggerhead sea turtles, found dead, were collected from the Italian Coast, West Mediterranean Sea Sub-Region. The presence of marine litter was investigated using a standardized protocol for necropsies and lab analysis. The collected items were subdivided into 4 main categories, namely, IND-Industrial plastic, USE-User plastic, RUB-Non plastic rubbish, POL-Pollutants and 14 sub-categories, to detect local diversity. Eighty-five percent of the individuals considered (n = 120) were found to have ingested an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g of litter (dry mass) or 16 ± 3 items.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Meio Ambiente , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28274762

RESUMO

The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is an endangered species that may be exposed to micro- and macro-plastic ingestion as a result of their filter-feeding activity, particularly on the sea surface. In this pilot project we perform the first ecotoxicological investigation on whale sharks sampled in the Gulf of California exploring the potential interaction of this species with plastic debris (macro-, micro-plastics and related sorbed contaminants). Due to the difficulty in obtaining stranded specimens of this endangered species, an indirect approach, by skin biopsies was used for the evaluation of the whale shark ecotoxicological status. The levels of organochlorine compounds (PCBs, DDTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) plastic additives, and related biomarkers responses (CYP1A) were investigated for the first time in the whale shark. Twelve whale shark skin biopsy samples were collected in January 2014 in La Paz Bay (BCS, Mexico) and a preliminary investigation on microplastic concentration and polymer composition was also carried out in seawater samples from the same area. The average abundance pattern for the target contaminants was PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>HCB. Mean concentration values of 8.42ng/g w.w. were found for PCBs, 1.31ng/g w.w. for DDTs, 0.29ng/g w.w. for PBDEs and 0.19ng/g w.w. for HCB. CYP1A-like protein was detected, for the first time, in whale shark skin samples. First data on the average density of microplastics in the superficial zooplankton/microplastic samples showed values ranging from 0.00items/m3 to 0.14items/m3. A focused PCA analysis was performed to evaluate a possible correlation among the size of the whale sharks, contaminants and CYP1A reponses. Further ecotoxicological investigation on whale shark skin biopsies will be carried out for a worldwide ecotoxicological risk assessment of this endangerd species.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Tubarões/fisiologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluição da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia/veterinária , Família 1 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , DDT/análise , DDT/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Masculino , México , Oceano Pacífico , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Projetos Piloto , Plásticos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Análise de Componente Principal , Água do Mar/química , Tubarões/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/química , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Chemosphere ; 175: 391-400, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28236709

RESUMO

This is the first survey to investigate the occurrence and extent of microplastic (MPs) contamination in sub surface waters collected near-shore and off-shore the coastal area of the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Moreover, a non-invasive method to analyze MPs, consisting in filtration after water sampling and analysis of the dried filter through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) 2D Imaging, using an FPA detector, was proposed. The non-invasiveness of analytical set-up reduces potential bias and allows subsequent analysis of the filter sample for determination of other classes of contaminants. MPs ranged from 0.0032 to 1.18 particle per m3 of seawater, with a mean value of 0.17 ± 0.34 particle m-3, showing concentrations lower than those found in the oceans worldwide. MPs included fragments (mean 71.9 ± 21.6%), fibers (mean 12.7 ± 14.3%), and others (mean 15.4 ± 12.8%). The presence of different types of MPs was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, with predominant abundance of polyethylene and polypropylene. The potential environmental impact arising from scientific activities, such as marine activities for scientific purposes, and from the sewage treatment plant, was also evidenced.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
18.
Environ Pollut ; 212: 251-256, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26851981

RESUMO

This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p < 0.05) to different exposure times. These first results underline the need to assess the impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web.


Assuntos
Bass , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Enteropatias/veterinária , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Enteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Enteropatias/patologia
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 114: 74-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26794494

RESUMO

Chemicals discovered in water at levels that may be significantly different than expected are referred to as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) because the risk to environmental health posed by their occurrence/frequency is still unknown. The worldwide distributed compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and bisphenol A (BPA) may fall into this category due to effects on endocrine receptors. We applied an ex vivo assay using small slices of bioptic skin from the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, cultured and treated for 24 h with different PFOA or BPA concentrations to analyze global gene expression. RNA was labeled and hybridized to a species-specific oligomicroarray. The skin transcriptome held information on the contaminant exposure, potentially predictive about long-term effects on health, being the genes affected involved in immunity modulation, response to stress, lipid homeostasis, and development. The transcriptomic signature of dolphin skin could be therefore relevant as classifier for a specific contaminant.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/genética , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Feminino , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
20.
Environ Pollut ; 209: 68-78, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26637933

RESUMO

The impact that microplastics have on baleen whales is a question that remains largely unexplored. This study examined the interaction between free-ranging fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and microplastics by comparing populations living in two semi-enclosed basins, the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Cortez (Gulf of California, Mexico). The results indicate that a considerable abundance of microplastics and plastic additives exists in the neustonic samples from Pelagos Sanctuary of the Mediterranean Sea, and that pelagic areas containing high densities of microplastics overlap with whale feeding grounds, suggesting that whales are exposed to microplastics during foraging; this was confirmed by the observation of a temporal increase in toxicological stress in whales. Given the abundance of microplastics in the Mediterranean environment, along with the high concentrations of Persistent Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) chemicals, plastic additives and biomarker responses detected in the biopsies of Mediterranean whales as compared to those in whales inhabiting the Sea of Cortez, we believe that exposure to microplastics because of direct ingestion and consumption of contaminated prey poses a major threat to the health of fin whales in the Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Baleia Comum/metabolismo , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Animais , California , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental , Baleia Comum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mar Mediterrâneo , México , Plásticos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/análise , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA