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1.
J Comp Pathol ; 171: 30-37, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540623

RESUMO

The terminology applied to canine prostatic epithelial lesions, especially carcinomas, is currently not standardized and this hampers the ability of pathologists to study the biological and clinical significance of these lesions. The aim of this review is to present the essential histomorphological diagnostic attributes of a wide spectrum of prostatic epithelial lesions in dogs. In addition to the traditionally recognized prostatic hyperplasia, hormonal atrophy, prostatitis, squamous metaplasia, adenocarcinoma and transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma, new entities are described and discussed in order to provide veterinary pathologists with a basic atlas of common histological lesions of the canine prostate that is comprehensive and easy to use.

2.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 366(2)2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629176

RESUMO

Diatom diazotroph associations (DDAs) are a widespread marine planktonic symbiosis between several diatom genera and di-nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria. Combining single cell confocal microscopy observations and molecular genetic approaches on individual field collected cells, we determined the phylogenetic diversity, distribution and evolution of the DDAs. Confocal analyses coupled with 3-D imaging re-evaluated the cellular location of DDA symbionts. DDA diversity was resolved by paired gene sequencing (18S rRNA and rbcL genes, 16S rRNA and nifH genes). A survey using the newly acquired sequences against public databases found sequences with high similarity (99-100%) to either host (18S rRNA) or symbiont (16S rRNA) in atypical regions for DDAs (high latitudes, anoxic basin and copepod gut). Concatenated phylogenies were congruent for the host and cyanobacteria sequences and implied co-evolution. Time-calibrated trees dated the appearance of N2 fixing planktonic symbiosis from 100-50Mya and were consistent with the symbiont cellular location: symbioses with internal partners are more ancient. An ancestral state reconstruction traced the evolution of traits in DDAs and highlight that the adaptive radiation to the marine environment was likely facilitated by the symbiosis. Our results present the evolutionary nature of DDAs and provide new genetic and phenotypic information for these biogeochemically relevant populations.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cianobactérias/genética , Diatomáceas/genética , Variação Genética , Simbiose , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/microbiologia , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Água do Mar/parasitologia
3.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 53(3): 718-724, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29537110

RESUMO

Emerging research suggests that the nitric oxide system may play a role in persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) in the mare. Differences in uterine nitric oxide (NO) levels between mares susceptible or resistant to PBIE and a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of NO on uterine contractility have been demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to investigate the difference in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity of the endometrium between susceptible and resistant mares and the effect of a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor on the endometrial NOS activity in vitro. Six susceptible and six resistant mares were selected based on preset criteria and the results of an intrauterine challenge with killed spermatozoa during oestrus. Endometrial biopsy samples were collected 24 hr post-challenge and cultured at 37°C for 24 hr in L-arginine supplemented minimum essential medium with or without a specific iNOS inhibitor (1,400 W dihydrochloride, 1 mM). The medium and the cultured endometrial tissue were collected after 24 hr of culture and assayed for NO and total protein, respectively. Total NO content of the medium, normalized to endometrial tissue wet weight or total protein, was used as a measure of endometrial NOS activity. Non-parametric tests were applied for statistical analysis. Susceptible mares had significantly greater endometrial NOS activity than resistant mares. The iNOS inhibitor treatment significantly reduced NOS activity in endometrial samples derived from susceptible and resistant mares. These findings provide a basis for in vivo testing of specific iNOS inhibitors as preventative or therapeutic options for PBIE in mares.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Endometrite/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Animais , Endometrite/enzimologia , Endométrio/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Espermatozoides
4.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 53(3): 822-825, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575379

RESUMO

A 1-year-old, previously spayed phenotypic female Poodle/Soft-coated Wheaten Terrier (Whoodle) cross was presented for a suspected ovarian remnant. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration was below the detection limit (<1 ng/ml Witness® LH), and serum progesterone concentration was elevated in the chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA; 20 ng/ml), consistent with dioestrus and presence of ovarian tissue. Transabdominal ultrasound revealed a retroperitoneal soft tissue structure suspected to be a gonad. On exploratory laparotomy, a gonad was removed from the cranial retroperitoneum, cranial to the right kidney, after ligation of its primary blood supply. Histological examination proved the gonad to be an ovotestis. Subsequent cytogenetics revealed a 78 XX karyotype, thus confirming the diagnosis of ectopic ovotestis in a XX ovotesticular, SRY-negative, disorder of sexual development in a dog.


Assuntos
Cães/anormalidades , Transtornos Ovotesticulares do Desenvolvimento Sexual/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Cariótipo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Transtornos Ovotesticulares do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos Ovotesticulares do Desenvolvimento Sexual/cirurgia , Progesterona/sangue
5.
J Comp Pathol ; 155(1): 24-8, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27290644

RESUMO

Companion animals may serve as valuable models for studying human cancers. Although KRAS is the most commonly mutated gene in human ductal pancreatic cancers (57%), with mutations frequently occurring at codons 12, 13 and 61, human pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) lack activating KRAS mutations. In the present study, 32 pancreatic ACC samples obtained from 14 dogs and 18 cats, including seven metastases, were analyzed for six common activating KRAS mutations located in codons 12 (n = 5) and 13 (n = 1) using Sequenom MassARRAY. No KRAS mutations were found, suggesting that, similar to human pancreatic ACC, KRAS mutations do not play a critical role in feline or canine pancreatic ACC. Due to the similarity of the clinical disease in dogs and cats to that of man, this study confirms that companion animals offer potential as a suitable model for investigating this rare subtype of pancreatic carcinoma.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/genética , Doenças do Cão/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/veterinária , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Animais , Gatos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Cães , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
6.
Reprod Biol ; 16(2): 147-56, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27288339

RESUMO

Fertility-associated proteins (FAP) found in seminal plasma indicate sexual maturity, which appears to be influenced by feed efficiency in cattle. This study characterized FAP via proteomics and verified associations of these proteins with feed efficiency, body composition and fertility-related measures in yearling beef bulls. Assessments including testicular ultrasonography, infrared thermography, seminal quality, seminal plasma proteomics, carcass composition, and reproductive organ biometry were obtained. From a population of 31 bulls, the seven most and least feed efficient (efficient, inefficient) bulls were used for categorical comparisons. Correlations between FAP, productive performance and fertility-related measures were determined. These traits were also correlated with orthogonal factors summarized from the FAP. Efficient bulls had increased epididymal sperm-binding protein-1 and decreased concentration of protein-C inhibitor compared to inefficient bulls. Correlations between FAP with age, body size, body composition, reproductive organ biometry, scrotal temperature, and seminiferous tubule maturity are reported. Acrosin and cathepsin D increased with development of the testes and osteopontin increased with greater numbers of mature seminiferous tubules. Phosphoglycerate kinase-2 was higher in animals with a higher scrotum temperature and a higher prevalence of sperm morphology defects. The principal factor indicated that FAP variability concentrations were positively correlated with age, reproductive organ biometry, body size and composition. Our results indicate that FAP changes with body size and sexual development, and demonstrates differences in the proteomics of bulls with diverging feed efficiency. This is related to the delay in the sexual maturity of efficient young bulls.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Sêmen/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal/metabolismo , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos , Masculino , Proteômica , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
7.
Animal ; 10(1): 96-105, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26351012

RESUMO

The beef industry has emphasized the improvement of feed utilization, as measured by modeling feed intake through performance traits to calculate residual feed intake (RFI). Evidence supports an inverse relationship between feed efficiency and reproductive function. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of reproductive assessments and RFI unadjusted (RFI(Koch)) or adjusted for body composition (RFI(us)) and the relationship among fertility-related parameters. In total, 34 crossbred bulls were housed together for 112 days of performance evaluation, followed by assessment of scrotum IR imaging, scrotal circumference, testes ultrasonography and semen quality parameters at 377±33.4 days of age. Bulls were slaughtered at 389±34.0 days of age, and analyses of carcass composition, biometrics and histomorphometry of the testis and epididymis were conducted. Bulls were grouped into two subpopulations based on divergence of RFI, and within each RFI model either by including 50% of the population (Halves, high and low RFI, n=17) or 20.6% extremes of the population (Tails, high and low RFI, n=7). The means of productive performance and fertility-related measures were compared through these categories. Pearson's correlation was calculated among fertility-related measures. In the Halves subpopulation of the RFI(us), sperm of low-RFI bulls had decreased progressive motility (47.30% v. 59.90%) and higher abundance of tail abnormalities (4.30% v. 1.80%) than that of high-RFI bulls. In the Tails subpopulation of the RFI(Koch), low RFI displayed less variation in the scrotum surface temperature (0.62°C v. 1.16°C), decreased testis echogenicity (175.50 v 198.00 pixels) and larger (60.90 v. 56.80 mm(2)) but less-developed seminiferous tubules than high-RFI bulls. The evaluation of fertility-related parameters indicated that a higher percentage of immature seminiferous tubules was correlated with occurrence of sperm with distal droplets (r=0.59), a larger temperature variation at the top of the scrotum was correlated with improved sperm progressive motility (r=0.38), a lower occurrence of sperm loose head abnormalities was correlated with larger temperature variation at the lower part of the scrotum (r=-0.43), and a lower minimum testis echogenicity (r=-0.59) and smaller scrotal circumference (r=0.72) were correlated with age. The adjustment for body composition (RFI determination) enabled distinct biological inferences about reproduction and feed efficiency when compared with the non-adjusted model. However, both RFI models and the correlation analysis supported the hypothesis that feed-efficient bulls have features of delayed sexual maturity. Overall, the assessment of fertility-related measurements is important to avoid the improvement of feed efficiency at the expense of reproductive function in young bulls.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Reprodução , Sêmen/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Escroto/anatomia & histologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/anatomia & histologia
8.
Vet Pathol ; 53(3): 545-58, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26459517

RESUMO

The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) KIT is a major focus of current research into canine mast cell tumors (MCTs). Little is known about the role of other RTKs, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs). These RTKs are dysregulated in many human and animal cancers and are key regulators of tumor angiogenesis. The aims of this study were to assess the expression and activation (phosphorylation) status of KIT, VEGFR2, and PDGFR (α and ß) in canine MCTs and to examine associations with various clinical outcomes. c-KITmutational status and KIT cellular localization pattern were also evaluated for these tumors. Twenty-seven MCTs, consisting of 5 subcutaneous and 22 cutaneous tumors, from 25 dogs were evaluated. MCT biopsies, cultured mast cells, and skin from the surgical margin were analyzed through Western blotting. MCT biopsies were also used for KIT immunohistochemical labeling and polymerase chain reaction for c-KITmutational analysis. MCT had heterogeneous expression profiles for all 3 RTKs, which varied in intensity and activation status. Statistical analyses showed phosphorylated KIT, VEGFR2, and KIT cellular localization to be predictive of decreased survival time, disease-free interval, and increased metastatic rate. Expression of VEGFR2 and KIT diffuse cytoplasmic labeling were also significantly associated with increased rate of local recurrence. The results of the study show that phosphorylated KIT, KIT, VEGFR2, and PDGFRß, in addition to KIT localization, may be valuable prognostic determinants in MCTs and should be further studied to improve diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Mastócitos , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/enzimologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Mastócitos/enzimologia , Mastócitos/patologia , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
9.
Physiol Behav ; 138: 28-36, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25447477

RESUMO

Adolescence is a period of high vulnerability for alcohol use and abuse. Early alcohol use has been shown to increase the risk for alcohol-related problems later in life; therefore effective preventive treatments targeted toward adolescents would be very valuable. Many epidemiological and longitudinal studies in humans have revealed the beneficial effects of exercise for prevention and treatment of alcohol addiction. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that access to a running wheel leads to decreased voluntary alcohol consumption in adult mice, hamsters, and rats. However, age and sex may also influence the effects of exercise on alcohol use. Herein, we studied male and female C57BL/6 adolescent mice using a 24-hour two-bottle choice paradigm to evaluate 21 days of concurrent voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption and preference. Given previously known effects of exercise in increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and its role in regulating the reward system, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were measured at the end of the behavioral experiment. Our results demonstrate sex differences in the efficacy of voluntary exercise and its effects on decreasing alcohol consumption and preference. We also report increased BDNF expression after 21 days of voluntary exercise in both male and female mice. Interestingly, the distance traveled played an important role in alcohol consumption and preference in female mice but not in male mice. Overall, this study demonstrates sex differences in the effects of voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption in adolescent mice and points out the importance of distance traveled as a limiting factor to the beneficial effects of wheel running in female mice.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Corrida/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Volição
10.
Environ Microbiol ; 15(5): 1441-51, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22857133

RESUMO

Phaeocystis globosa is an ecologically important bloom-forming phytoplankton, which sequesters substantial amounts of inorganic carbon and can form carbon-enriched chitinous star-like structures. Viruses infecting P. globosa (PgVs) play a significant regulatory role in population dynamics of the host species. However, the extent to which viruses alter host physiology and its carbon assimilation on single cell level is still largely unknown. This study demonstrates for the first time the impact of viral infection on carbon assimilation and cell morphology of individual axenic P. globosa cells using two single cell techniques: high resolution nanometre-scale Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (nanoSIMS) approach and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Up until viral lysis (19 h post infection), the bulk carbon assimilation by infected P. globosa cultures was identical to the assimilation by the non-infected cultures (33 µmol C l(-1)). However, single cell analysis showed that viral infection of P. globosa impedes the release of star-like structures. Non-infected cells transfer up to 44.5 µmol C l(-1) (36%) of cellular biomass in the form of star-like structures, suggesting a vital role in the survival of P. globosa cells. We hypothesize that impediment of star-like structures in infected P. globosa cells may inactivate viral infectivity by forming flocculants after cell lysis. Moreover, we show that substantial amounts of newly produced viruses (≈ 68%) were attached to P. globosa cells prior to cell lysis. Further, we speculate that infected cells become more susceptible for grazing which provides potential reasons for the sudden disappearance of PgVs in the environment. The scenarios of enhanced grazing is at odds to the current perspective that viral infections facilitates microbial mediated processes by diverting host material away from the higher trophic levels.


Assuntos
Quitina/metabolismo , Haptófitas/virologia , Vírus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Haptófitas/citologia , Fitoplâncton/citologia , Fitoplâncton/virologia , Análise de Célula Única , Microbiologia da Água
11.
Carbohydr Res ; 346(6): 872-6, 2011 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21392735

RESUMO

The structure of the repeating unit of the O-antigen polysaccharide from Shigella flexneri provisional serotype 88-893 has been determined. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy as well as 2D NMR experiments were employed to elucidate the structure. The carbohydrate part of the hexasaccharide repeating unit is identical to the previously elucidated structure of the O-polysaccharide from S. flexneri prov. serotype Y394. The O-antigen of S. flexneri prov. serotype 88-893 carries 0.7 mol O-acetyl group per repeating unit located at O-2 of the 3-substituted rhamnosyl residue, as identified by H2BC and BS-CT-HMBC NMR experiments. The O-antigen polysaccharide is composed of hexasaccharide repeating units with the following structure: →2)-α-L-Rhap-(1→2)-α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-α-L-Rhap2Ac-(1→3)[α-D-Glcp-(1→2)-α-D-Glcp-(1→4)]-ß-D-GlcpNAc-(1→. Serological studies showed that type antigens for the two provisional serotypes are identical; in addition 88-893 expresses S. flexneri group factor 6 antigen. We propose that provisional serotypes Y394 and 88-893 be designated as two new serotypes 7a and 7b, respectively, in the S. flexneri typing scheme.


Assuntos
Antígenos O/química , Shigella flexneri/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Sorotipagem
12.
Sex Dev ; 5(1): 16-25, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21196712

RESUMO

We described the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular findings of 17 clinical equine cases presented for abnormal sexual development and infertility. Six horses with an enlarged clitoris had an XX, SRY-negative genotype, which displayed male-like behavior (adult individuals). Bilateral ovotestes were noted in 2 of those cases, while another case showed increased levels of circulating testosterone. Six horses with a female phenotype, including normal external genitalia, had an XY, SRY-negative genotype. These individuals had small gonads and an underdeveloped internal reproductive tract. Four horses with normal appearing external genitalia had an XY, SRY-positive genotype, 3 of them had hypoplastic testes and male-like behavior. In addition, one young filly with enlarged clitoris and hypoplastic testes had the same genotype but did not show male-like behavior due to her age. Three of these horses were related with 2 being siblings. These findings demonstrate the diversity of disorders of sexual development seen in the horse. Furthermore, they emphasize the need for further research to identify genes involved in abnormal sex determination and differentiation in the horse.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/veterinária , Genes sry , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Genitália/anormalidades , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/genética
13.
Vet Pathol ; 48(1): 73-84, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21139143

RESUMO

Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) develop from mesenchymal cells of soft tissues, and they commonly occur in the skin and subcutis of the dog. Although phenotypically diverse with frequently controversial histogenesis, STSs are considered as a group because they have similar features microscopically and clinically. Following resection, local recurrence rates are low in general but vary according to histologic grade and completeness of surgical margins. Complete margins predict nonrecurrence. Even most grade I STSs with "close" margins will not recur, but propensity for recurrence increases with grade. The frequency of metastasis has not been accurately estimated, but it is believed to be rare for grade I STSs and most likely to occur with grade III STSs. However, metastasis does not necessarily equate with poor survival. High mitotic index is prognostic for reduced survival time. Further research is needed to determine more precise estimates for recurrence rates and survival as related to completeness of surgical margins and to delineate potential differences in metastatic rate and median survival time between grades. Other potential indicators of prognosis that presently require further investigation include histologic type, tumor dimension, location, invasiveness, stage, markers of cellular proliferation, and cytogenetic profiles. Common issues limiting prognostic factor evaluation include biases from retrospective studies, small sample sizes, poor verification of metastasis, inconsistent STS classification and use of nomenclature, difficulties in differentiating STS phenotype, and diversity of the study population (stage of disease and treatment status).


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Sarcoma/veterinária , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia
14.
Vet Pathol ; 48(1): 156-68, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21078881

RESUMO

Histologic grading schemes for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) were not developed for subcutaneous MCTs. Despite this, subcutaneous MCTs are currently categorized by many as grade II or higher. The aim of this investigation was to assess the pathology and clinical outcome for subcutaneous MCTs to provide a more accurate prognosis. Information on clinical outcome for 306 dogs was obtained from veterinarians and correlated with histologic features. Mean and median follow-up was 842 and 891 days, respectively (range, 3-2,305 days). Only 27 (9%) were confirmed as mast cell-related deaths. Metastasis occurred in 13 (4%), and 24 (8%) had local reoccurrence, even though 171 (56%) cases had incomplete surgical margins. Median survival time was not reached, and the estimated 6-month, 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival probabilities were 95%, 93%, 92%, and 86%, respectively. Dogs were euthanized or died as a result of local tumor reoccurrence, additional MCT development distant to the surgical site, or metastasis. Decreased survival time was linked to mitotic index (number of mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields), infiltrative growth pattern, and presence of multinucleation. Both univariable and multivariable analysis showed mitotic index to be strongly predictive of survival, local reoccurrence, and metastasis. The results of the study indicate that the majority of subcutaneous MCTs have a favorable prognosis, with extended survival times and low rates of reoccurrence and metastasis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Mastocitoma/veterinária , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Mastocitoma/patologia , Mastocitoma/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Vet Pathol ; 48(1): 19-31, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21123864

RESUMO

Neoplastic diseases are typically diagnosed by biopsy and histopathological evaluation. The pathology report is key in determining prognosis, therapeutic decisions, and overall case management and therefore requires diagnostic accuracy, completeness, and clarity. Successful management relies on collaboration between clinical veterinarians, oncologists, and pathologists. To date there has been no standardized approach or guideline for the submission, trimming, margin evaluation, or reporting of neoplastic biopsy specimens in veterinary medicine. To address this issue, a committee consisting of veterinary pathologists and oncologists was established under the auspices of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists Oncology Committee. These consensus guidelines were subsequently reviewed and endorsed by a large international group of veterinary pathologists. These recommended guidelines are not mandated but rather exist to help clinicians and veterinary pathologists optimally handle neoplastic biopsy samples. Many of these guidelines represent the collective experience of the committee members and consensus group when assessing neoplastic lesions from veterinary patients but have not met the rigors of definitive scientific study and investigation. These questions of technique, analysis, and evaluation should be put through formal scrutiny in rigorous clinical studies in the near future so that more definitive guidelines can be derived.


Assuntos
Biópsia , Neoplasias/veterinária , Patologia Cirúrgica/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Manejo de Espécimes , Medicina Veterinária/normas , Animais , Biópsia/métodos , Biópsia/normas , Biópsia/veterinária , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
16.
Vet Pathol ; 48(1): 169-81, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21160022

RESUMO

Molecular assays are widely used to prognosticate canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT). There is limited information about these prognostic assays used on MCT that arise in the subcutis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the utility of KIT immunohistochemical labeling pattern, c-KIT mutational status (presence of internal tandem duplications in exon 11), and proliferation markers--including mitotic index, Ki67, and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNOR)--as independent prognostic markers for local recurrence and/or metastasis in canine subcutaneous MCT. A case-control design was used to analyze 60 subcutaneous MCT from 60 dogs, consisting of 24 dogs with subsequent local recurrence and 12 dogs with metastasis, as compared to dogs matched by breed, age, and sex with subcutaneous MCT that did not experience these events. Mitotic index, Ki67, the combination of Ki67 and AgNOR, and KIT cellular localization pattern were significantly associated with local recurrence and metastasis, thereby demonstrating their prognostic value for subcutaneous MCT. No internal tandem duplication mutations were detected in exon 11 of c-KIT in any tumors. Because c-KIT mutations have been demonstrated in only 20 to 30% of cutaneous MCT and primarily in tumors of higher grade, the number of subcutaneous MCT analyzed in this study may be insufficient to draw conclusions on the role c-KIT mutations in these tumors.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Mastocitoma/veterinária , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Doenças do Cão/genética , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Mastocitoma/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/metabolismo
17.
Vet Pathol ; 47(6): 1082-5, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20807820

RESUMO

A 4.5-year-old spayed female Great Pyrenees with hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism had a slightly enlarged pituitary gland and bilaterally atrophic adrenal and thyroid glands. Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis and adrenalitis were found in which B lymphocytes and plasma cells dominated the adenohypophysitis but T cells dominated the adrenalitis. The thyroid gland had extensive follicular atrophy and collapse. The combination of primary hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism resembles type II autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome or Schmidt syndrome in humans. Adenohypophysitis is rare in dogs and not reported in polyendocrine disease in animals.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Animais , Atrofia/veterinária , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Hipotireoidismo/patologia , Hipotireoidismo/veterinária , Linfócitos/patologia , Doenças da Hipófise/patologia , Hipófise/patologia , Plasmócitos/patologia
18.
West Indian Med J ; 58(6): 593-5, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20583690

RESUMO

Premature ovarian failure may be a consequence of gonadotoxic cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiation therapy for malignant or systemic disease often resulting in major quality of life concerns. This is the first reported case in the English-speaking Caribbean using in-vitro fertilization (IVF) donor egg sharing in a patient who experienced premature ovarian failure following chemotherapy and radiation for Hodgkin's disease. The donor's indication was tubal factor infertility. Both patients delivered healthy infants.


Assuntos
Doenças das Tubas Uterinas/terapia , Fertilização In Vitro , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Doação de Oócitos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/terapia , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo , Gravidez
19.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 44(4): 612-20, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18694428

RESUMO

Spermatogonial transplantation will provide a new way to study spermatogenesis in domestic animals, disseminate male genetics and produce transgenic animals, if efficiency can be improved. We evaluated a 'surgical' method for transplanting donor cells into testes of ram lambs, where the head of the epididymis is reflected, and a catheter introduced into the extra-testicular rete testis. We also tested transduction of ram spermatogonia with a lentiviral (LV) vector as a means to identify permanent colonization, and introduce genes into donor cells. Eight ram lambs, 11- to 13-week olds, were the recipients: in five, spermatogonia were injected into one testis, and the contralateral testis was an un-manipulated control: in two, spermatogonia were injected into one testis and the contralateral was sham-injected: in one, both testes were injected. Six lambs received spermatogonia labelled with a cell-tracking dye and these were collected 1 or 2 weeks after transplantation; three lambs received spermatogonia transduced with a LV vector driving the expression of enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein and these were collected after 2 months. Donor cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in tubules of seven of nine recipient testes. Approximately 22% of tubule cross-sections contained donor cells immediately after transplantation, and 0.2% contained virally transduced cells 2 months after transplantation. The onset of spermatogenesis was delayed, and there were lesions in both injected and sham-injected testes. Despite the effects of the surgery, elongated spermatids were present in one recipient testis 2 months after surgery. The results suggest that, after modifying the surgical and transduction techniques, this approach will be a means to produce good colonization by donor spermatogonia in sheep testes.


Assuntos
Rede do Testículo , Ovinos , Espermatogônias/metabolismo , Espermatogônias/transplante , Transdução Genética/veterinária , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Lentivirus/genética , Lentivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Túbulos Seminíferos/citologia , Espermatogênese
20.
Theriogenology ; 63(3): 818-30, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15629800

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of a single administration of cephapirin iu or cloprostenol im on the reproductive performance of dairy cows with subclinical endometritis. Cows (n = 228) at 20-33 days in milk (DIM) from two commercial dairy farms, determined to be normal for clinical endometritis (based on absence of abnormal uterine discharge on vaginoscopic examination) were enrolled. At enrollment, a thorough reproductive examination was performed, including rectal palpation, ultrasonography (US) and endometrial cytology (EC). The case definition for subclinical endometritis was the presence of >18% neutrophils on EC examination or fluid in uterus (FIU) on US examination. All cows were randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: 500 mg benzathine cephapirin iu, 500 microg cloprostenol im, or control (no treatment). Reproductive performance was monitored for a minimum of 8 months after treatment. Cows with subclinical endometritis treated with cephapirin or cloprostenol had a significantly increased relative pregnancy rate compared to control [hazard ratios 1.89 (P = 0.01) and 1.70 (P = 0.05), respectively]. In conclusion, a single treatment with cephapirin or cloprostenol at 20-33 DIM significantly improved the reproductive performance of cows with subclinical endometritis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Cefapirina/administração & dosagem , Cloprostenol/administração & dosagem , Endometrite/veterinária , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Endometrite/tratamento farmacológico , Endometrite/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Gravidez
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