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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers. METHODS: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e. inverse-variance meta-analysis, co-localization, and M-values), and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data. RESULTS: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers (rG = 0.43, P = 2.66 × 10-5). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers (PBonferroni < 2.4 × 10-9). In addition, four novel sub-genome wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12 and 11q13.3 were identified (P < 5 × 10-7). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation. CONCLUSION: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis. IMPACT: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.

2.
Genomics ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053411

RESUMO

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), and specifically targeted panel sequencing is the state-of-the-art in clinical genetic diagnosis of Mendelian diseases. However, the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of the generated data can be challenging. A spotlight on the default transcript selection of a user-friendly, commercially available software that is widely used by genetics professionals, i.e. Illumina® VariantStudio®, is presented. For the sake of comparison, we employed Ensembl VEP, an open-source command-line tool, as it provides flexibility regarding transcript selection. The analysis of NGS data deriving from sequencing of 857 germline DNA samples of cancer patients indicated a concordance of 82.82% between the two software programs. Significantly, using the default transcript configuration of VariantStudio®, we failed to annotate correctly 11.45% of the identified loss-of-function variants. Our results underline the importance of cautious software and transcript selection and the need for reliable, white-box data analysis, along with bioinformatics expertise in clinical diagnostics.

3.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1334-1342, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022259

RESUMO

Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 loss-of-function variants have been linked to increased breast and ovarian cancer risk, with more than 5,000 distinct pathogenic variants being reported worldwide. Among individuals of Greek descent, the BRCA1/2 variant spectrum is heterogeneous, but characterized by strong founder effects. As patients from certain geographical regions of Greece (like Crete) were underrepresented in previous studies, we hypothesized that isolated Cretans, a southern Greece islanders' population with distinct demographic, cultural and genetic features, could harbor founder BRCA1/2 mutations. A total of 304 breast or/and ovarian cancer patients of Cretan descent, fulfilling NCCN criteria for genetic testing, were tested by NGS or Sanger sequencing, followed by MLPA. Haplotype analysis was subsequently performed to investigate potential founder effects of recurrent alleles. Overall, 16.5% (50/304) of the tested patients carried 22 different pathogenic variants; 48% in BRCA1, 52% in BRCA2. Three variants, namely two in BRCA2 (Δexons 12 and 13 and c.7806-2A>T) and one in BRCA1 (c.5492del), constituting approximately half (48%) of all detected pathogenic variants, were shown to have a founder effect, with all carriers sharing common haplotypes. Remarkably, these variants were confined to Cretans and have not been identified in other regions of Greece. The high prevalence of specific BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants among Cretans, provides the possibility of cost- and time-efficient screening of the Cretan population. Integrating this knowledge in local public health services may have a significant impact on cancer prevention, and may serve as a starting point for the implementation of testing on a population level.

6.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(4): 581-582, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999302
7.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 20(2): 152-159, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers indefinitely comprise a distinct group of patients with breast cancer (BC), with their tumors displaying specific pathologic characteristics. Although these connections are known, they are not fully elucidated. We therefore sought to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and overall survival of Greek patients with BC carrying BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Greek patients with BC diagnosed between 1999 and 2016, fulfilling the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for genetic testing, were analyzed for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations by Sanger sequencing or by a 94-gene panel. Medical records and pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed to retrieve patient and tumor baseline characteristics. Potential associations with mutation status were assessed using the Fisher exact, Pearson χ2, and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: Of 2096 selected patients with BC, we identified 297 (14.2%) BRCA1 and 88 (4.2%) BRCA2 carriers. The mean age at BC diagnosis was 40 and 42.6 years, respectively (P = .02). Tumor histologic subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers were predominantly ductal (79%) followed by medullary (10%), and ductal (72%) followed by lobular (15%), respectively. A significantly higher percentage of BRCA2 tumors were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, compared with BRCA1 tumors (21.7% vs. 5.8%; P < .001). Second primary cancer diagnosis was more frequent in BRCA1 compared with BRCA2 mutation carriers (36.2% vs. 10.7%; P < .001), whereas there was no difference in 15-year overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-1.83; P = .804) between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm established observations in the pathology of BRCA-related tumors and provide further insight on the association of rare histologic entities with mutations in these genes, which can be clinically beneficial.

8.
J Med Genet ; 57(1): 53-61, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene panel testing has become the norm for assessing breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, but actual cancer risks conferred by genes included in panels are not established. Contrarily, deciphering the missing hereditability on BC, through identification of novel candidates, remains a challenge. We aimed to investigate the mutation prevalence and spectra in a highly selected cohort of Greek patients with BC, questioning an extensive number of genes, implicated in cancer predisposition and DNA repair, while calculating gene-specific BC risks that can ultimately lead to important associations. METHODS: To further discern BC susceptibility, a comprehensive 94-cancer gene panel was implemented in a cohort of 1382 Greek patients with BC, highly selected for strong family history and/or very young age (<35 years) at diagnosis, followed by BC risk calculation, based on a case-control analysis. RESULTS: Herein, 31.5% of patients tested carried pathogenic variants (PVs) in 28 known, suspected or candidate BC predisposition genes. In total, 24.8% of the patients carried BRCA1/2 loss-of-function variants. An additional 6.7% carried PVs in additional genes, the vast majority of which can be offered meaningful clinical changes. Significant association to BC predisposition was observed for ATM, PALB2, TP53, RAD51C and CHEK2 PVs. Primarily, compared with controls, RAD51C PVs and CHEK2 damaging missense variants were associated with high (ORs 6.19 (Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC)) and 12.6 (Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy (FLOSSIES)), p<0.01) and moderate BC risk (ORs 3.79 (ExAC) and 5.9 (FLOSSIES), p<0.01), respectively. CONCLUSION: Studying a large and unique cohort of highly selected patients with BC, deriving from a population with founder effects, provides important insight on distinct associations, pivotal for patient management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Reparo do DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 674-685, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

10.
Cancer Genet ; 237: 90-96, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447071

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multiple lines of evidence have suggested a likely causative role in breast/ovarian cancer (BrCa/OvCa) predisposition for the BRCA1 p.(Val1833Met) variant, predominantly found among Greek patients. Our aim was to study the variant's prevalence and founder effect on the Greek population, while providing additional data for its pathogenicity. METHODS: We genotyped 3531 BrCa/OvCa patients using Sanger and next generation sequencing, as well as 1558 healthy, age-matched females with real-time PCR. Carriers underwent haplotype analysis to determine a founder effect. A co-segregation analysis was applied to estimate the likelihood ratio for pathogenicity. RESULTS: In total, 27 BrCa/OvCa patients (0.77%; 27/3531) were found to carry the p.(Val1833Met) variant. No carriers were identified in the control group diagnosis. A common shared haplotype, spanning 2.76 Mb on chromosome 17 was demonstrated among carriers, establishing the founder effect. BRCA1, p.(Val1833Met) is possibly a disease-associated variant, supported by a likelihood ratio of 1.88, while a correlation to ovarian cancer is suspected. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, BRCA1, p.(Val1833Met) variant is a Greek founder and is very likely to predispose for BrCa/OvCa. Therefore, such carriers should be counselled accordingly, with clinical recommendations supporting surveillance and risk-reduction strategies, while providing the option for targeted therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Genes BRCA1 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prevalência
11.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): e1-e23, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209999

RESUMO

BRCA1 BRCA2 mutational spectrum in the Middle East, North Africa, and Southern Europe is not well characterized. The unique history and cultural practices characterizing these regions, often involving consanguinity and inbreeding, plausibly led to the accumulation of population-specific founder pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs). To determine recurring BRCA PSVs in these locales, a search in PUBMED, EMBASE, BIC, and CIMBA was carried out combined with outreach to researchers from the relevant countries for unpublished data. We identified 232 PSVs in BRCA1 and 239 in BRCA2 in 25 of 33 countries surveyed. Common PSVs that were detected in four or more countries were c.5266dup (p.Gln1756Profs), c.181T>G (p.Cys61Gly), c.68_69del (p.Glu23Valfs), c.5030_5033del (p.Thr1677Ilefs), c.4327C>T (p.Arg1443Ter), c.5251C>T (p.Arg1751Ter), c.1016dup (p.Val340Glyfs), c.3700_3704del (p.Val1234Glnfs), c.4065_4068del (p.Asn1355Lysfs), c.1504_1508del (p.Leu502Alafs), c.843_846del (p.Ser282Tyrfs), c.798_799del (p.Ser267Lysfs), and c.3607C>T (p.Arg1203Ter) in BRCA1 and c.2808_2811del (p.Ala938Profs), c.5722_5723del (p.Leu1908Argfs), c.9097dup (p.Thr3033Asnfs), c.1310_1313del (p. p.Lys437Ilefs), and c.5946del (p.Ser1982Argfs) for BRCA2. Notably, some mutations (e.g., p.Asn257Lysfs (c.771_775del)) were observed in unrelated populations. Thus, seemingly genotyping recurring BRCA PSVs in specific populations may provide first pass BRCA genotyping platform.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Grupos Populacionais/genética , África do Norte , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Alelos , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Genótipo , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
Case Rep Oncol Med ; 2019: 9357924, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223512

RESUMO

We report a case of a 58-year-old female with ovarian cancer. The patient presented with ascites, and the biopsies revealed a low-grade adenocarcinoma, either a serous papillary ovarian cancer with peritoneal implants or a primary peritoneal carcinoma. She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after 5 cycles achieved partial response, and then, she underwent a total hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The patient underwent germline gene-panel testing for the detection of mutations in cancer predisposing genes. A truncating mutation in the Fanconi anemia complementation group M (FANCM) gene was detected in heterozygosity, namely, p.Arg658Ter (c.1972C>T, rs368728266). The patient's family history is unremarkable, with no reported cases of breast or ovarian cancer, a fact that can be attributed to the significant lower penetrance of FANCM mutations.

13.
J Hum Genet ; 64(8): 767-773, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089269

RESUMO

PALB2 loss-of-function variants play an important role in breast, pancreatic and possibly, ovarian and gastric cancer susceptibility. Their frequency can be influenced by founder effects, already described in some populations. Herein, we have assessed the possible founder effect of PALB2 c.2257C>T (p.Arg753*) truncating variant among Greek breast cancer patients, while investigating possible correlations with cancer diagnoses. Following a lead deriving from a background study of highly selected Greek breast cancer patients, a total of 2496 breast and 697 ovarian cancer patients were directly genotyped for the PALB2 c.2257C>T truncating variant. Consequently, haplotype analysis was conducted on identified carriers, using seven microsatellite markers. The prevalence of the PALB2 variant was 0.24% (6/2496) and 0.14% (1/697) among breast and ovarian cases, respectively. Family history seems to be an important factor for the variant identification, although not reaching statistical significance. Microsatellite analysis on 12 carriers revealed a common shared haplotype, spanning a chromosomal region of ~1.2 Mb; the variant was possibly introduced in the Greek population ~1600 years ago. The variant confers high breast cancer risk, as illustrated by comparison with publicly available control groups. Genetic testing for PALB2, especially for the Greek founder c.2257C>T truncating variant, should be seriously considered in Greek breast cancer cases, since such findings could assist appropriate clinical management for the patients and their families.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Efeito Fundador , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Grécia/epidemiologia , Haplótipos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Linhagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 631-648, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851065

RESUMO

Genetic testing for cancer predisposition leads to the identification of a number of variants with uncertain significance. To some extent, variants of BRCA1/2 have been classified, in contrast to variants of other genes. CHEK2 is a typical example, in which a large number of variants of unknown clinical significance were identified and still remained unclassified. Herein, the CHEK2 variant assessment was performed through an in vivo, yeast-based, functional assay. In total, 120 germline CHEK2 missense variants, distributed along the protein sequence, and two large in-frame deletions were tested, originating from genetic test results in breast cancer families, or selected from the ClinVar database. Of these, 32 missense and two in-frame deletions behaved as non-functional, 73 as functional, and 15 as semi-functional, after comparing growth rates of each strain with positive and negative controls. The majority of non-functional variants were localized in the CHK2 kinase and forkhead-associated domains. In vivo results from the non-functional variants were in agreement with in silico predictions, and, where available, with strong breast cancer family history, to a great extent. The results of the largest, to date, yeast-based assay, evaluating CHEK2 variants, can complement and assist in the classification of rare CHEK2 variants with unclear clinical significance.


Assuntos
Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Mutação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 152(2): 375-386, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tissue genomic heterogeneity (t-HET) in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (OVCA) is related to tissue plasticity, i.e., flexibility to adapt to adverse molecular environments. Here, we interrogated the presence and clinical relevance of OVCA t-HET. METHODS: We applied high-depth (>2000×) sequencing on 297 paraffin tissue samples (fallopian tubes, ovaries, intra-abdominal metastases) from 71 treatment-naïve patients who subsequently received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Based on tissue mutation patterns, we distinguished tissue genotypes into: no mutation (33/297 samples; 11.1%), stable (173; 58.2%) and unstable (91; 30.7%). We profiled genotypes per patient and assessed t-HET in 69 patients. Predicted pathogenic mutations refer to germline and/or tissues. RESULTS: Among all 71 patients, 46 (64.8%) had pathogenic BRCA1 mutations and 15 (21.7%) had BRCA1/2 disruption (i.e., pathogenic mutations with position-LOH). We classified 29 patients with t-HET (42%), all with pathogenic BRCA1; t-HET was observed in 64% with such mutations (p < 0.001). As opposed to non-t-HET, matched tissues in t-HET shared pathogenic BRCA1 (p < 0.001) but not BRCA2 and TP53. Germline BRCA1 mutations in tissues exhibited position-LOH; heterozygous status; or, partial loss of the inherited allele accompanied by additional clonal mutations. Patients with t-HET had worse outcome (log-rank p = 0.048 [progression-free]; p = 0.037 [overall survival]), including 12/15 patients with disrupted BRCA1/2 and 3 BRCA1 carriers with partial germline loss in tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenic BRCA1 mutations appear necessary but may not be sufficient for the establishment of t-HET. t-HET may be associated with worse outcome, including in patients with disrupted BRCA1/2, which is usually considered as a favourable marker. OVCA t-HET may need to be addressed for treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Case Rep Surg ; 2018: 6895974, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327742

RESUMO

We describe an asymptomatic case of PJS in a six-year-old boy with café au lait spots in several parts of his body, a large gastroduodenal polyp, two polyps near the ampulla of Vater, and another in the jejunum. This patient shows some unique aspects of PJS. No other such large gastric polyp in a Peutz-Jeghers child is reported in the literature. The large size of the gastric polyp with lack of symptoms is unusual and poses a unique challenge in terms of management and surgical resection.

19.
J Hum Genet ; 63(11): 1149-1158, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111881

RESUMO

RAD51D gene's protein product is known to be involved in the DNA repair mechanism by homologous recombination. RAD51D germline mutations have been recently associated with ovarian and breast cancer (OC and BC, respectively) predisposition. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency of hereditary RAD51D mutations in Greek patients. To address this, we have screened for RAD51D germline mutations 609 BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative patients diagnosed with OC, unselected for age or family history, and 569 BC patients diagnosed under 55 years and with an additional relative with BC or OC. We identified four pathogenic mutations in four unrelated individuals with family history of BC and/or OC. Three of the RAD51D carriers had developed BC, while the other one was an OC patient, thus accounting for a mutation frequency of 0.16% in the OC cohort and 0.53% in the BC cohort. One of the detected mutations is novel (c.738 + 1G > A), whereas the rest had been detected previously (p.Gln151Ter, p.Arg186Ter, and p.Arg300Ter). It is noteworthy that the 4 carrier families had 13 BC cases and only 4 OC cases. Our data support that RAD51D should be implemented into the comprehensive multigene panel, as mutation carriers may benefit from the administration of PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(8): 855-862, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline genetic testing with hereditary cancer gene panels can identify women at increased risk of breast cancer. However, those at increased risk of triple-negative (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative) breast cancer (TNBC) cannot be identified because predisposition genes for TNBC, other than BRCA1, have not been established. The aim of this study was to define the cancer panel genes associated with increased risk of TNBC. METHODS: Multigene panel testing for 21 genes in 8753 TNBC patients was performed by a clinical testing laboratory, and testing for 17 genes in 2148 patients was conducted by a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) of research studies. Associations between deleterious mutations in cancer predisposition genes and TNBC were evaluated using results from TNBC patients and reference controls. RESULTS: Germline pathogenic variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D were associated with high risk (odds ratio > 5.0) of TNBC and greater than 20% lifetime risk for overall breast cancer among Caucasians. Pathogenic variants in BRIP1, RAD51C, and TP53 were associated with moderate risk (odds ratio > 2) of TNBC. Similar trends were observed for the African American population. Pathogenic variants in these TNBC genes were detected in 12.0% (3.7% non-BRCA1/2) of all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Multigene hereditary cancer panel testing can identify women with elevated risk of TNBC due to mutations in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D. These women can potentially benefit from improved screening, risk management, and cancer prevention strategies. Patients with mutations may also benefit from specific targeted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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