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1.
Dis Model Mech ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158935

RESUMO

Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a very rare pediatric lung disease. It can progress from abnormal epithelial cysts to an aggressive sarcoma with poor survival. PPB diagnosis is difficult as it can be confounded with other cystic lung disorders like congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM). PPB is associated with mutations in DICER1 that perturb the microRNA (miRNA) profile in lung. How DICER1 and miRNAs act during PPB pathogenesis remains unsolved. Lung epithelial deletion of the Yin Yang1 (Yy1) gene in mice causes a phenotype mimicking the cystic form of PPB and it affects the expression of key regulators of lung development. Similar changes in expression were observed in PPB but not in CPAM lung biopsies, revealing a distinctive PPB molecular signature. Deregulation of molecules promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was detected in PPB specimens suggesting that EMT might participate in tumor progression. Changes in miRNA expression also occurred in PPB lung biopsies. miR-125a-3p, a candidate to regulate YY1 expression and lung branching, was abnormally highly expressed in PPB samples. Together, these findings support the concept that reduced expression of YY1, due to the abnormal miRNA profile ensuing DICER1 mutations, contributes to PPB development via its impact on the expression of key lung developmental genes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135284

RESUMO

Gynecologic sarcomas are uncommon neoplasms, the majority occurring in the uterus. Due to the diverse nature of these, the description of "new" morphological types and the rarity of some of them, pathological diagnosis and treatment is often challenging. Finding genetic alterations specific to, and frequently occurring, in a certain type can aid in the diagnosis. DICER1 is a highly conserved ribonuclease crucial in the biogenesis of microRNAs and mutations in DICER1 (either somatic or germline) have been detected in a wide range of sarcomas including genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (ERMS) and adenosarcomas. Importantly, DICER1-associated sarcomas share morphological features irrespective of the site of origin such that the pathologist can strongly suspect a DICER1 association. A review of the literature shows that almost all gynecologic ERMS reported (outside of the vagina) harbor DICER1 alterations, while approximately 20% of adenosarcomas also do so. These two tumor types exhibit significant morphological overlap and DICER1 tumor testing may be helpful in distinguishing between them, because a negative result makes ERMS unlikely. Given that germline pathogenic DICER1 variants are frequent in uterine (corpus and cervix) ERMS and pathogenic germline variants in this gene cause a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome (DICER1 syndrome), patients diagnosed with these neoplasms should be referred to medical genetic services. Cooperation between pathologists and geneticists is crucial and will help in improving the diagnosis and management of these uncommon sarcomas.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline pathogenic variants in DICER1 cause DICER1 syndrome, an autosomal dominant, pleiotropic tumour predisposition syndrome with variable expressivity and reduced penetrance for specific dysplastic and neoplastic lesions. Recently, a syndrome with the acronym GLOW (Global developmental delay, Lung cysts, Overgrowth, Wilms tumour) was described in two children with mosaic missense mutations in hotspot residues of the DICER1 RNase IIIb domain. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing, exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, digital PCR and a review of Wilms tumours with DICER1 RNase III domain mutations were performed. RESULTS: A de novo heterozygous c.4031C>T (p.S1344L) variant in the sequence encoding the RNase IIIa domain of DICER1 was detected. Clinical investigations revealed a phenotype that resembles the GLOW subphenotype of DICER1 syndrome. CONCLUSION: The phenotypic overlap between patients with p.S1344L mutation and GLOW syndrome provide clinical support for recent discoveries that RNase IIIa-Ser1344 site mutations impede miRNA-5p biogenesis analogous to DICER1 hotspot mutations in the RNase IIIb domain. We show that an individual with a heterozygous germline p.S1344L mutation has a severe form of DICER1 syndrome ('DICER1 syndrome plus'), with notable features of intellectual disability, macrocephaly, physical abnormalities, Wilms tumour and a well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung.

4.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087508

RESUMO

Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary, Hypercalcemic Type is a rare but often lethal cancer which is diagnosed at a median age of 24 years. Optimal management of patients is not well defined and current treatment remains challenging, necessitating the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches. The identification of SMARCA4-inactivating mutations invariably characterizing this type of cancer provided insights facilitating diagnostic and therapeutic measures against this disease. We show here that the BET inhibitor OTX015 acts in synergy with the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib to repress the proliferation of SCCOHT in vivo. Notably, this synergy is also observed in some SMARCA4-expressing ovarian adenocarcinoma models intrinsically resistant to BETi. Mass Spectrometry, coupled with knockdown of newly-found targets including thymidylate synthetase, revealed that the repression of a panel of proteins involved in nucleotide synthesis, underlies this synergy both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in reduced pools of nucleotide metabolites and subsequent cell cycle arrest. Overall, our data indicate that dual treatment with BETi and MEKi represents a rational combination therapy against SCCOHT and potentially additional ovarian cancer subtypes.

5.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers face a high lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. The strong inverse association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer is established in the general population but is less well studied among women with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. METHOD: Thus, we conducted a matched case-control analysis to evaluate the association between breastfeeding history and the risk of developing ovarian cancer. After matching for year of birth, country of residence, BRCA gene and personal history of breast cancer, a total of 1650 cases and 2702 controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with various breastfeeding exposures. RESULTS: A history of ever-breastfeeding was associated with a 23% reduction in risk (OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.66-0.90; P = 0.001). The protective effect increased with breastfeeding from one month to seven months after which the association was relatively stable. Compared to women who never breastfed, breastfeeding for seven or more months was associated with a 32% reduction in risk (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.57-0.81; P < 0.0001) and did not vary by BRCA gene or age at diagnosis. The combination of breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use was strongly protective (0.47; 95%CI 0.37-0.58; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a protective effect of breastfeeding for at least seven months among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, that is independent of oral contraceptive use.

6.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021556

RESUMO

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix is a rare neoplasm which is almost invariably associated with pathogenic somatic or germline DICER1 mutations; patients with germline mutations have DICER1 syndrome. We report 2 subtle cervical embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, one occurring in a 21-yr-old woman with a known history of DICER1 syndrome and the other in a 19-yr-old woman with no history of DICER1 syndrome or DICER1-associated neoplasms. Both neoplasms focally involved otherwise benign endocervical polyps and were characterized histologically by subtle areas of increased stromal cellularity, nuclear atypia and mitotic activity; there was focal nuclear staining of these areas with the skeletal muscle markers myogenin and myoD1. In both cases, demonstration of a somatic DICER1 RNase IIIb mutation in the tumor was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis. We believe these neoplasms represent the earliest discernible phase of cervical embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Pathologists should have a high index of suspicion when atypical stromal elements are present in endocervical polyps and immunohistochemistry together with DICER1 sequencing will assist in diagnosis.

8.
Pathology ; 52(6): 686-693, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782216

RESUMO

Molecular profiling was performed in 50 problematic ovarian sex cord-stromal tumours (SCSTs) most of which were seen in consultation. Following analysis, 17 were classified as adult granulosa cell tumour (AGCT), 16 of which showed a FOXL2 sequence variant (mutation); the initial favoured diagnosis in five of the cases was benign thecoma/fibrothecoma. Thirteen tumours ultimately classified as cellular fibroma or thecoma were FOXL2 sequence variant negative which was helpful in excluding AGCT. All six Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCTs) demonstrated DICER1 'hot spot' sequence variants, and one case each of AGCT and SLCT showed high grade histological transformation associated with a concurrent TP53 sequence variant. All eight unclassified SCSTs were negative for FOXL2 mutations and the six tested cases were DICER1 wild type; however, three tumours demonstrated MET, CTNNB1 or TP53 sequence variants. Four cases were classified as juvenile granulosa cell tumour, and one of these harboured a GNAS sequence variant. The single gynandroblastoma and microcystic stromal tumours in the series demonstrated FOXL2 and CTNNB1 alterations, respectively. In summary, molecular analysis aids in accurate classification of challenging ovarian SCSTs and sometimes leads to revision of the favoured provisional diagnosis. TP53 sequence variants may be associated with dedifferentiation in both SLCTs and AGCTs.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(20): 5462-5476, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816949

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) arising in patients with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (gBRCA) mutation may be sensitive to platinum and PARP inhibitors (PARPi). However, treatment stratification based on gBRCA mutational status alone is associated with heterogeneous responses. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a seven-arm preclinical trial consisting of 471 mice, representing 12 unique PDAC patient-derived xenografts, of which nine were gBRCA mutated. From 179 patients whose PDAC was whole-genome and transcriptome sequenced, we identified 21 cases with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), and investigated prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: We found that biallelic inactivation of BRCA1/BRCA2 is associated with genomic hallmarks of HRD and required for cisplatin and talazoparib (PARPi) sensitivity. However, HRD genomic hallmarks persisted in xenografts despite the emergence of therapy resistance, indicating the presence of a genomic scar. We identified tumor polyploidy and a low Ki67 index as predictors of poor cisplatin and talazoparib response. In patients with HRD PDAC, tumor polyploidy and a basal-like transcriptomic subtype were independent predictors of shorter survival. To facilitate clinical assignment of transcriptomic subtype, we developed a novel pragmatic two-marker assay (GATA6:KRT17). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we propose a predictive and prognostic model of gBRCA-mutated PDAC on the basis of HRD genomic hallmarks, Ki67 index, tumor ploidy, and transcriptomic subtype.

10.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(11): 1757-1761, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Up to 15% of patients with high-grade serous ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma harbor a mutation in BRCA genes. Early notion of mutation status may facilitate counseling, predict prognosis, and increase access to Parp-inhibitors. The aim of this study was to examine the rate of germline genetic testing in a retrospective cohort of women with high-grade serous ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma to determine if a new pilot project of gynecologic oncologist-initiated genetic testing improved the rate of testing, after 1 year of implementation. METHODS: Gynecologic oncology-initiated genetic testing was implemented at a single university hospital center with input and collaboration from gynecological oncologists, nurses, and genetic counselors. All patients diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma after August 2017 were offered gynecologic oncologist- initiated genetic testing for a panel of 13 hereditary breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. Data from this group was then compared with a historic cohort of patients who received traditional genetic counseling between January 2014 and August 2017 (control group). Patients that had genetic testing through a clinical trial were excluded. The primary outcome was the uptake of genetic testing in both groups. Secondary outcomes included difference in time from diagnosis to genetic result between both cohorts. Data was analyzed using SPSS 25.0 and medians (ranges) were reported. RESULTS: A total of 152 women with high-grade serous ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma were included in this study. Between January 2014 to July 2017 there were 108 patients with high-grade serous ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma, among which 50.9% (n=54) underwent genetic testing following referral to genetics. The prevalence of BRCA pathogenic variants was 25.9% (14/54): 9.2% (5/54) in BRCA1 and 16.7% (9/54) in BRCA2. The median time from diagnosis to genetics referral was 53 days (range; 3-751), and median time from diagnosis to test result disclosure was 186 days (range; 15-938). After 1 year of implementation of the gynecologic oncologist-initiated genetic testing model, among 44 women diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma, 86.2% underwent genetic testing. The median time from diagnosis to result disclosure decreased to 58 days, representing a reduction of 128 days, or 4.27 months (P<0.001). Reasons for non-testing included refusal, death, and follow-up at another hospital. The prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants was 21% (8/38). CONCLUSION: Gynecologic oncologist-initiated genetic testing at the time of high-grade serous ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma diagnosis leads to increased uptake and decreased delays in testing compared with referral for traditional genetic counseling.

14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 94: 1-6, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497876

RESUMO

Oophorectomy prior to menopause is associated with late-life dementia. Memory decline may start within 6 months after oophorectomy in middle-aged women, suggested by lower verbal and working memory performance. Unknown is whether such changes persist beyond 6 months, and whether they are reversed by estradiol. Short-term benefits of estradiol on verbal memory following oophorectomy were observed in one study, but longer term effects remain unknown. In the present study, middle-aged BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with early oophorectomy at least 1 year prior to study onset were tested on verbal and working memory with results stratified by (1) current estradiol use (n = 22) or (2) no history of estradiol use (n = 24), and compared to age-matched premenopausal controls (n = 25). Both memory abilities were adversely affected by oophorectomy, but only working memory was maintained by estradiol. Estrogen metabolite levels correlated with working memory, suggesting a role for estradiol in preserving this ability. Memory decline appears to persist after early oophorectomy, particularly for women who do not take estradiol.

15.
J Pathol ; : e5493, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558936

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a fatal pediatric malignancy of the central neural system lacking effective treatment options. It belongs to the rhabdoid tumor family and is usually caused by biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1, encoding a key subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. Previous studies proposed that SMARCB1 loss drives rhabdoid tumor by promoting cell cycle through activating transcription of cyclin D1 while suppressing p16. However, low cyclin D1 protein expression is observed in most ATRT patient tumors. The underlying mechanism and therapeutic implication of this molecular trait remain unknown. Here, we show that SMARCB1 loss in ATRT leads to the reduction of cyclin D1 expression by upregulating MIR17HG, a microRNA (miRNA) cluster known to generate multiple miRNAs targeting CCND1. Furthermore, we find that this cyclin D1 deficiency in ATRT results in marked in vitro and in vivo sensitivity to the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib as a single agent. Our study identifies a novel genetic interaction between SMARCB1 and MIR17HG in regulating cyclin D1 in ATRT and suggests a rationale to treat ATRT patients with FDA-approved CDK4/6 inhibitors. © 2020 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

17.
Virchows Arch ; 477(6): 787-798, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507920

RESUMO

Primary thyroid teratomas are exceedingly rare. Mature and immature variants recapitulate their gonadal counterparts (predilection for infants/children, triphasic germ layer differentiation, and favorable outcome). On the other hand, the so-called malignant teratomas affect predominantly adults and elderly, are highly aggressive, and, according to a few published cases, harbor DICER1 mutations. We describe three highly aggressive sporadic malignant teratoid thyroid tumors in 2 females (17 and 45 years) and one male (17 years). Histology showed triphasic neoplasms composed of solid nests of small primitive monomorphic cells embedded in a cellular stroma with primitive immature rhabdomyosarcoma-like (2) or pleomorphic sarcoma-like (1) phenotype. The third component was represented by TTF1+/PAX8+ primitive teratoid epithelial tubules reminiscent of primitive thyroid follicles and/or Wilms tumor, admixed with scattered respiratory- or enteric-type tubules, neuroepithelial rosettes, and fetal-type squamoid nests. Foci of cartilage were seen in two cases, but none contained mature organoid adult-type tissue or skin adnexa. SALL4 was expressed in the small cell (2) and stromal (1) component. Other germ cell markers were negative. Molecular testing revealed a known "hotspot" pathogenic DICER1 mutation in two cases. In addition, case 1 had a missense TP53 variant. This type of thyroid malignancy is distinct from genuine teratomas. The immunoprofile suggests primitive thyroid- or branchial cleft-like differentiation. Given that "blastoma" is a well-accepted terminology in the spectrum of DICER1-associated malignancies, the term "thyroblastoma" might be more convenient for these malignant teratoid tumors of the thyroid gland. Relationship of thyroblastoma to the DICER1 syndrome remains to be addressed.

18.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 391, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants that occur in the familial breast cancer genes (BRCA1/2) lead to truncated ineffective proteins in the majority of cases. These variants are mostly represented by small deletions/insertions, nonsense- and splice-site variants, although some larger pathogenic rearrangements occur. Currently, their contribution to familial breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OVC) in South Africa (SA) is unknown. METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-four patients affected with BC or OVC were screened for larger genomic rearrangements (LGRs) by means of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or Next Generation Sequencing using the Oncomine™ BRCA research assay. RESULTS: The patients represented mostly medium to high-risk families, but also included lower risk patients without a family history of the disease, diagnosed at an early age of onset (< 40 years). Eight LGRs were detected (1.1%); seven in BRCA1 with a single whole gene deletion (WGD) detected for BRCA2. These eight LGRs accounted for 8.7% of the 92 BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants identified in the 744 cases. The pathogenic LGRs ranged from WGDs to the duplication of a single exon. CONCLUSIONS: Larger rearrangements in BRCA1/2 contributed to the overall mutational burden of familial BC and OVC in SA. Almost a quarter of all pathogenic variants in BRCA1 were LGRs (7/30, 23%). The spectrum observed included two WGDs, one each for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

19.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 20(9): 533-549, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472073

RESUMO

Cell division and organismal development are exquisitely orchestrated and regulated processes. The dysregulation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes may cause cancer, a consequence of cell-intrinsic and/or cell-extrinsic events. Cellular DNA can be damaged by spontaneous hydrolysis, reactive oxygen species, aberrant cellular metabolism or other perturbations that cause DNA damage. Moreover, several environmental factors may damage the DNA, alter cellular metabolism or affect the ability of cells to interact with their microenvironment. While some environmental factors are well established as carcinogens, there remains a large knowledge gap of others owing to the difficulty in identifying them because of the typically long interval between carcinogen exposure and cancer diagnosis. DNA damage increases in cells harbouring mutations that impair their ability to correctly repair the DNA. Tumour predisposition syndromes in which cancers arise at an accelerated rate and in different organs - the equivalent of a sensitized background - provide a unique opportunity to examine how gene-environment interactions influence cancer risk when the initiating genetic defect responsible for malignancy is known. Understanding the molecular processes that are altered by specific germline mutations, environmental exposures and related mechanisms that promote cancer will allow the design of novel and effective preventive and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/genética , Animais , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos
20.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(6): 825-830, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preventive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the most effective means of reducing the risk of ovarian cancer among women with an inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Some women are diagnosed with an invasive cancer (ovarian or fallopian tube) at the time of preventive surgery, referred to as an 'occult' cancer. The survival experience of these women is not known. METHODS: We estimated the 10-year survival for 52 BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed with an occult ovarian or fallopian tube cancer at the time of preventive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 51.6 (range 33-69) years. All were serous cancers (although 14 were missing information on histologic subtype). Of the 20 cases with information available on stage at diagnosis, 10 were stage I, 1 was stage II, and 9 were stage III (n=32 missing). After a mean of 6.8 years, 12 women died (23%). The 10-year all-cause survival was 74%. CONCLUSION: Although based on only 52 cases, these findings suggest a more favorable prognosis for BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed with an occult rather than incident disease.

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