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1.
Pediatr Radiol ; 49(11): 1488-1505, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620849

RESUMO

DICER1 syndrome is a highly pleiotropic tumor predisposition syndrome that has been increasingly recognized in the last 10 years. Diseases in the syndrome result from mutations in both copies of the gene DICER1, a highly conserved gene that is critically implicated in micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) biogenesis and hence modulation of messenger RNAs. In general, susceptible individuals carry an inherited germline mutation that disables one copy of DICER1; within tumors, a very characteristic second mutation alters function of the other gene copy. About 20 hamartomatous, hyperplastic or neoplastic conditions comprise DICER1 syndrome. Most are not life-threatening, but some are aggressive malignancies. There are many unaffected carriers because penetrance is generally low; however, clinically occult thyroid nodules and lung cysts are frequent. Rare diseases of early childhood were the first recognized conditions in DICER1 syndrome, while other conditions affect adolescents and adults. The hallmarks of DICER1 syndrome are certain rare tumors including pleuropulmonary blastoma; cystic nephroma; ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor; sarcomas of the cervix, kidneys and cerebrum; pituitary blastoma; ciliary body medulloepithelioma; and nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma. Radiologists are often the first practitioners to observe these diverse manifestations and play a primary role in recognizing DICER1 syndrome.

2.
Menopause ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers are advised to undergo bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy to prevent ovarian cancer. The abrupt hormonal withdrawal associated with early surgical menopause has been shown to increase the risk of depression and anxiety among women in the general population. The impact in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is not known. METHODS: We undertook a matched prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to evaluate the impact of oophorectomy on self-reported initiation of antidepressant use. We identified women with no personal history of cancer or depression and prospectively evaluated the frequency of self-reported medication use after surgery. Each exposed participant (oophorectomy) was randomly matched to a control participant (no oophorectomy) according to year of birth (within 3 years), BRCA mutation type (BRCA1 or BRCA2), and country of residence (Canada, United States, Poland). A total of 506 matched sets were included. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of antidepressant use (ever/never) following preventive oophorectomy in the entire study population and stratified by age at oophorectomy and by use of hormone therapy. RESULTS: Oophorectomy was not associated with more frequent antidepressant use among BRCA mutation carriers (OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.96). We observed reductions in the odds of antidepressant medication use among women who underwent oophorectomy before the age of 50 years (OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.78) and among those who initiated hormone therapy use after oophorectomy (OR = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.90). Findings were similar when the analysis was based on self-reported depression (rather than antidepressant use). CONCLUSIONS: Although based on a small number of women, these findings suggest that oophorectomy does not increase psychological distress among women at an elevated risk of ovarian cancer.

5.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(11): 2158-2170, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395685

RESUMO

CDK4/6 inhibitors are FDA-approved drugs for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer and are being evaluated to treat other tumor types, including KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, their clinical utility is often limited by drug resistance. Here, we sought to better understand the resistant mechanisms and help devise potential strategies to overcome this challenge. We show that treatment with CDK4/6 inhibitors in both ER+ breast cancer and KRAS-mutant NSCLC cells induces feedback upregulation of cyclin D1, CDK4, and cyclin E1, mediating drug resistance. We demonstrate that rocaglates, which preferentially target translation of key cell-cycle regulators, effectively suppress this feedback upregulation induced by CDK4/6 inhibition. Consequently, combination treatment of CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib with the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4A inhibitor, CR-1-31-B, is synergistic in suppressing the growth of these cancer cells in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, ER+ breast cancer and KRAS-mutant NSCLC cells that acquired resistance to palbociclib after chronic drug exposure are also highly sensitive to this combination treatment strategy. Our findings reveal a novel strategy using eIF4A inhibitors to suppress cell-cycle feedback response and to overcome resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition in cancer.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286500

RESUMO

Over 10% of children with Wilms tumor (WT) have an underlying cancer predisposition syndrome (CPS). Cognizant of increasing demand for genetic evaluation and limited resources across health care settings, there is an urgent need to rationalize genetic referrals for this population. The McGill Interactive Pediatric OncoGenetic Guidelines study, a Canadian multi-institutional initiative, aims to develop an eHealth tool to assist physicians in identifying children at elevated risk of having a CPS. As part of this project, a decisional algorithm specific to WT consisting of five tumor-specific criteria (age <2 years, bilaterality/multifocality, stromal-predominant histology, nephrogenic rests, and overgrowth features) and universal criteria including features of family history suspicious for CPS and congenital anomalies, was developed. Application of the algorithm generates a binary recommendation-for or against genetic referral for CPS evaluation. To evaluate the algorithm's sensitivity for CPS identification, we retrospectively applied the tool in consecutive pediatric patients (n = 180) with WT, diagnosed and/or treated at The Hospital for Sick Children (1997-2016). Odds ratios were calculated to evaluate the strengths of associations between each criterion and specific CPS subtypes. Application of the algorithm identified 100% of children with WT and a confirmed CPS (n = 27). Age <2 years, bilaterality/multifocality, and congenital anomalies were strongly associated with pathogenic variants in WT1. Presence of >1 overgrowth feature was strongly associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Stromal-predominant histology did not contribute to CPS identification. We recommend the incorporation of the WT algorithm in the routine assessment of children with WT to facilitate prioritization of genetic referrals in a sustainable manner.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): 1939-1953, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342592

RESUMO

DICER1 syndrome is a pleiotropic tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by a distinctive constellation of neoplastic and dysplastic lesions, which are generally rare and affect children and young adults. Germline pathogenic variants in the DICER1 gene are the underlying cause of the syndrome; variants are typically inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern but may arise de novo in the germline or in a somatic mosaic distribution. The encoded DICER1 protein is a key component of the microRNA processing pathway. In this Mutation Update, we present a comprehensive review of all DICER1 genetic alterations reported in articles published before January 31st, 2019. A total of 1,136 DICER1 alterations were catalogued from 808 individuals and the tumors that occurred in these persons. We provide an inventory of these DICER1 alterations and discuss them with respect to their provenance, distribution across the gene, associated phenotypes and ages of onset, and penetrance. We also address approaches to classification of DICER1 variants of uncertain significance and discuss the clinical significance of DICER1 variant identification.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 380(19): 1834-1842, 2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067372

RESUMO

Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver (MHL) is a benign tumor affecting children that is characterized by a primitive myxoid stroma with cystically dilated bile ducts. Alterations involving chromosome 19q13 are a recurrent underlying cause of MHL; these alterations activate the chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC). Other cases remain unexplained. We describe two children with MHLs that harbored germline DICER1 pathogenic variants. Analysis of tumor tissue from one of the children revealed two DICER1 "hits." Mutations in DICER1 dysregulate microRNAs, mimicking the effect of the activation of C19MC. Our data suggest that MHL is a new phenotype of DICER1 syndrome. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others.).


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 19 , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Hamartoma/genética , Hepatopatias/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Ribonuclease III/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hamartoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hamartoma/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Mesoderma , Linhagem , Fenótipo
9.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

10.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953130

RESUMO

DICER1 syndrome is a rare tumor predisposition syndrome with manifestations that predominantly affect children and young adults. The syndrome is typically caused by heterozygous germline loss-of-function DICER1 alterations accompanied on the other allele by somatic missense mutations occurring at one of a few mutation hotspots within the sequence encoding the RNase IIIb domain. DICER1 encodes a member of the microRNA biogenesis machinery. The syndrome spectrum is highly pleiotropic and features a unique constellation of benign and malignant neoplastic and dysplastic lesions. Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), the most common primary lung cancer in children, is the hallmark tumor of the syndrome. Other manifestations include ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, cystic nephroma arising in childhood, multinodular goiter, thyroid carcinoma, anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma, in addition to other rare entities. Several central nervous system (CNS) manifestations have also been defined, including metastases of PPB to the cerebrum, pituitary blastoma, pineoblastoma, ciliary body medulloepithelioma, and most recently primary DICER1-associated CNS sarcomas and ETMR-like infantile cerebellar embryonal tumor. Macrocephaly is a recently reported non-neoplastic, haploinsufficient phenotype. In this manuscript, we review the CNS manifestations of DICER1 syndrome.

12.
Cancer Res ; 79(10): 2761-2774, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877105

RESUMO

The antitumor activity of bromodomain and extraterminal motif protein inhibitors (BETi) has been demonstrated across numerous types of cancer. As such, these inhibitors are currently undergoing widespread clinical evaluation. However, predictive biomarkers allowing the stratification of tumors into responders and nonresponders to BETi are lacking. Here, we showed significant antiproliferative effects of low dosage BETi in vitro and in vivo against aggressive ovarian and lung cancer models lacking SMARCA4 and SMARCA2, key components of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. Restoration of SMARCA4 or SMARCA2 promoted resistance to BETi in these models and, conversely, knockdown of SMARCA4 sensitized resistant cells to BETi. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that exposure to BETi potently downregulated a network of genes involved in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling in SMARCA4/A2-deficient cells, including the oncogenic RTK HER3. Repression of signaling downstream of HER3 was found to be an important determinant of response to BETi in SMARCA4/A2-deficient cells. Overall, we propose that BETi represent a rational therapeutic strategy in poor-prognosis, SMARCA4/A2-deficient cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings address an unmet clinical need by identifying loss of SMARCA4/A2 as biomarkers of hypersensitivity to BETi.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 120(4): 398-403, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the predictors of mortality, including ER status, in women with a BRCA2 mutation and breast cancer. METHODS: Eligible participants were identified from within two longitudinal cohorts. These patients were selected because they were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1975 and 2015 and carried a BRCA2 mutation. Data were abstracted from the medical record and pathology report. We analysed the effects of ER status and other variables on breast cancer specific survival using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Three hundred ninety women with breast cancer and a BRCA2 mutation were included in the analysis. The mean follow-up time was 12.3 years (range 1-39 years) and 89 subjects died (22.8%). In the multivariate analysis, women with ER-positive tumours were more likely to die than women with ER-negative tumours (HR 2.08, 95% CI 0.99-4.36, p = 0.05), and this was of borderline significance. For the 233 women with ER-positive tumours the 20-year survival rate was 62.2%, compared to 83.7% for 58 women with ER-negative tumours (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of women with a BRCA2 mutation present with ER-positive breast cancer, and for these women, prognosis may be worse than for BRCA2 carriers with ER-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 256-266.e5, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753826

RESUMO

Biallelic germline mutations affecting NTHL1 predispose carriers to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer, but the complete phenotype is unknown. We describe 29 individuals carrying biallelic germline NTHL1 mutations from 17 families, of which 26 developed one (n = 10) or multiple (n = 16) malignancies in 14 different tissues. An unexpected high breast cancer incidence was observed in female carriers (60%). Mutational signature analysis of 14 tumors from 7 organs revealed that NTHL1 deficiency underlies the main mutational process in all but one of the tumors (93%). These results reveal NTHL1 as a multi-tumor predisposition gene with a high lifetime risk for extracolonic cancers and a typical mutational signature observed across tumor types, which can assist in the recognition of this syndrome.

15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(2): 443-449, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756284

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Following a diagnosis of breast cancer, BRCA mutation carriers face an increased risk of developing a second (contralateral) cancer in the unaffected breast. It is important to identify predictors of contralateral cancer in order to make informed decisions about bilateral mastectomy. The impact of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (i.e., oophorectomy) on the risk of developing contralateral breast cancer is unclear. Thus, we conducted a prospective study of the relationship between oophorectomy and the risk of contralateral breast cancer in 1781 BRCA1 and 503 BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer. METHODS: Women were followed from the date of diagnosis of their first breast cancer until the date of diagnosis of a contralateral breast cancer, bilateral mastectomy, date of death, or date of last follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contralateral breast cancer associated with oophorectomy. Oophorectomy was included as a time-dependent covariate. We performed a left-censored analysis for those women who reported a primary breast cancer prior to study entry (i.e., from completion of baseline questionnaire). RESULTS: After an average of 9.8 years of follow-up, there were 179 (7.8%) contralateral breast cancers diagnosed. Oophorectomy was not associated with the risk of developing a second breast cancer (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.68-1.25). The relationship did not vary by BRCA mutation type or by age at diagnosis of the first breast cancer. There was some evidence for a decreased risk of contralateral breast cancer among women with an ER-positive primary breast cancer, but this was based on a small number of events (n = 240). CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings suggest that oophorectomy has little impact on the risk of contralateral breast cancer.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 557, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718506

RESUMO

Tumor suppressor SMARCA4 (BRG1), a key SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling gene, is frequently inactivated in cancers and is not directly druggable. We recently uncovered that SMARCA4 loss in an ovarian cancer subtype causes cyclin D1 deficiency leading to susceptibility to CDK4/6 inhibition. Here, we show that this vulnerability is conserved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), where SMARCA4 loss also results in reduced cyclin D1 expression and selective sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. In addition, SMARCA2, another SWI/SNF subunit lost in a subset of NSCLCs, also regulates cyclin D1 and drug response when SMARCA4 is absent. Mechanistically, SMARCA4/2 loss reduces cyclin D1 expression by a combination of restricting CCND1 chromatin accessibility and suppressing c-Jun, a transcription activator of CCND1. Furthermore, SMARCA4 loss is synthetic lethal with CDK4/6 inhibition both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that FDA-approved CDK4/6 inhibitors could be effective to treat this significant subgroup of NSCLCs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 558, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718512

RESUMO

Inactivating mutations in SMARCA4 (BRG1), a key SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling gene, underlie small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT). To reveal its druggable vulnerabilities, we perform kinase-focused RNAi screens and uncover that SMARCA4-deficient SCCOHT cells are highly sensitive to the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6). SMARCA4 loss causes profound downregulation of cyclin D1, which limits CDK4/6 kinase activity in SCCOHT cells and leads to in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to CDK4/6 inhibitors. SCCOHT patient tumors are deficient in cyclin D1 yet retain the retinoblastoma-proficient/p16INK4a-deficient profile associated with positive responses to CDK4/6 inhibitors. Thus, our findings indicate that CDK4/6 inhibitors, approved for a breast cancer subtype addicted to CDK4/6 activation, could be repurposed to treat SCCOHT. Moreover, our study suggests a novel paradigm whereby critically low oncogene levels, caused by loss of a driver tumor suppressor, may also be exploited therapeutically.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/deficiência , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercalcemia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
J Exp Med ; 215(12): 3151-3164, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498080

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies represent naturally occurring experimental models to decipher human immunobiology. We report a patient with combined immunodeficiency, marked by recurrent respiratory tract and DNA-based viral infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and panlymphopenia. He also developed moderate neutropenia but without prototypical pyogenic infections. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous mutation in the inducible T cell costimulator ligand gene (ICOSLG; c.657C>G; p.N219K). Whereas WT ICOSL is expressed at the cell surface, the ICOSLN219K mutation abrogates surface localization: mutant protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus, which is predicted to result from deleterious conformational and biochemical changes. ICOSLN219K diminished B cell costimulation of T cells, providing a compelling basis for the observed defect in antibody and memory B cell generation. Interestingly, ICOSLN219K also impaired migration of lymphocytes and neutrophils across endothelial cells, which normally express ICOSL. These defects likely contributed to the altered adaptive immunity and neutropenia observed in the patient, respectively. Our study identifies human ICOSLG deficiency as a novel cause of a combined immunodeficiency.

20.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007752, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586411

RESUMO

The BRCA Challenge is a long-term data-sharing project initiated within the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to aggregate BRCA1 and BRCA2 data to support highly collaborative research activities. Its goal is to generate an informed and current understanding of the impact of genetic variation on cancer risk across the iconic cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Initially, reported variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 available from public databases were integrated into a single, newly created site, www.brcaexchange.org. The purpose of the BRCA Exchange is to provide the community with a reliable and easily accessible record of variants interpreted for a high-penetrance phenotype. More than 20,000 variants have been aggregated, three times the number found in the next-largest public database at the project's outset, of which approximately 7,250 have expert classifications. The data set is based on shared information from existing clinical databases-Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC), ClinVar, and the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)-as well as population databases, all linked to a single point of access. The BRCA Challenge has brought together the existing international Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium expert panel, along with expert clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers, and database providers, all with a common goal of advancing our understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variation. Ongoing work includes direct contact with national centers with access to BRCA1 and BRCA2 diagnostic data to encourage data sharing, development of methods suitable for extraction of genetic variation at the level of individual laboratory reports, and engagement with participant communities to enable a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical significance of genetic variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
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