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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28022, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case reports have portrayed spinal cord atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (spATRT) as an aggressive form of ATRT. We conducted a retrospective European survey to collect data on clinical characteristics, molecular biology, treatment, and outcome of children with intramedullary spATRT. METHODS: Scrutinizing a French national series and the European Rhabdoid Registry database, we identified 13 patients (median age 32 months; metastatic disease at diagnosis, n = 6). Systemic postoperative chemotherapy was administered to all patients; three received intrathecal therapy and six were irradiated (craniospinal, n = 3; local, n = 3). RESULTS: Median observation time was 8 (range, 1-93) months. Progression-free and overall survival rates at 1 and (2 years) were 35.2% ± 13.9% (26.4% ± 12.9%) and 38.5% ± 13.5% (23.1% ± 11.7%). Four patients (ATRT-SHH, n = 2; ATRT-MYC, n = 1; DNA methylation subgroup not available, n = 1) achieved complete remission (CR); two of them are alive in CR 69 and 72 months from diagnosis. One patient relapsed after CR and is alive with progressive disease (PD) and one died of the disease. Three patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 1) died after 7 to 22 months due to PD after having achieved a partial remission (n = 1) or stabilization (n = 2). Five patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 3) developed early PD and died. One patient (ATRT-MYC) died of intracerebral hemorrhage prior to response evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is achievable in selected patients with spATRT using aggressive multimodality treatment. Larger case series and detailed molecular analyses are needed to understand differences between spATRT and their inracranial counterparts and the group of extradural malignant rhabdoid tumors.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1871, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474980

RESUMO

Background: We report here two new familial cases of associated del15q11 and del7p22, with the latter underlining the clinical variability of this deletion. Two siblings patients presented a similar familial imbalanced translocation, originating from a balanced maternal translocation, with deletions of 7p22 and of 15q11 [arr[GRCh37] 7p22.3-p22.2(42976-3736851)x1, 15q11.1-q11.2(20172544-24979427)x1]. Methods: We used aCGH array, FISH, and karyotype for studying the phenotype of the two patients. Results: The 7p22 deletion (3.5 Mb) contained 58 genes, including several OMIM genes. Patients 1 and 2 exhibited acquisition delays, morphological particularities, and hypogammaglobulinemia, which was more severe in patient 1. Patient 1 presented also with cerebral vasculitis. Conclusion: We discuss here how the PDGFa, CARD11, LFNG, GPER1, and MAFK genes, included in the deletion 7p22, could be involved in the clinical and biological features of the two patients.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 187(4): 530-542, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338833

RESUMO

Congenital sideroblastic anaemia (CSA) is a rare disease caused by germline mutations of genes involved in haem and iron-sulphur cluster formation, and mitochondrial protein biosynthesis. We performed a retrospective multicentre European study of a cohort of childhood-onset CSA patients to explore genotype/phenotype correlations. We studied 23 females and 20 males with symptoms of CSA. Among the patients, the most frequently mutated genes were ALAS2 (n = 10; 23·3%) and SLC25A38 (n = 8; 18·6%), causing isolated forms of microcytic anaemia of varying severity. Five patients with SLC19A2 mutations suffered from thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia and three exhibited the 'anaemia, deafness and diabetes' triad. Three patients with TRNT1 mutations exhibited severe early onset microcytic anaemia associated with thrombocytosis, and two exhibited B-cell immunodeficiency, inflammatory syndrome and psychomotor delay. The prognoses of patients with TRNT1 and SLC2A38 mutations were generally dismal because of comorbidities or severe iron overload. No molecular diagnosis could be established in 14/43 cases. This study emphasizes the frequency of ALAS2 and SLC25A38 mutations and provides the largest comprehensive analysis to date of genotype/phenotype correlations in CSA. Further studies of CSA patients with data recorded in an international registry would be helpful to improve patient management and establish standardized guidelines.

4.
Blood ; 134(1): 9-21, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940614

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare severe autoimmune disorder characterized by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. In most cases, the underlying cause is unknown. We sought to identify genetic defects in pediatric ES (pES), based on a hypothesis of strong genetic determinism. In a national, prospective cohort of 203 patients with early-onset ES (median [range] age at last follow-up: 16.3 years ([1.2-41.0 years]) initiated in 2004, 80 nonselected consecutive individuals underwent genetic testing. The clinical data were analyzed as a function of the genetic findings. Fifty-two patients (65%) received a genetic diagnosis (the M+ group): 49 carried germline mutations and 3 carried somatic variants. Thirty-two (40%) had pathogenic mutations in 1 of 9 genes known to be involved in primary immunodeficiencies (TNFRSF6, CTLA4, STAT3, PIK3CD, CBL, ADAR1, LRBA, RAG1, and KRAS), whereas 20 patients (25%) carried probable pathogenic variants in 16 genes that had not previously been reported in the context of autoimmune disease. Lastly, no genetic abnormalities were found in the remaining 28 patients (35%, the M- group). The M+ group displayed more severe disease than the M- group, with a greater frequency of additional immunopathologic manifestations and a greater median number of lines of treatment. Six patients (all from the M+ group) died during the study. In conclusion, pES was potentially genetically determined in at least 65% of cases. Systematic, wide-ranging genetic screening should be offered in pES; the genetic findings have prognostic significance and may guide the choice of a targeted treatment.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

6.
J Pediatr ; 194: 211-217.e5, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into how primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) affect children's health status and quality of life. STUDY DESIGN: The French Reference Center for PIDs conducted a prospective multicenter cohort that enrolled participants who met all criteria: patients included in the French Reference Center for PIDs registry, children younger than18 years, and living in France. Participants were asked to complete both a health questionnaire and a health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) questionnaire. A severity score was assigned to each health condition: grade 1 (mild) to grade 4 (life-threatening). HR-QoL in children was compared with age- and sex-matched French norms. RESULTS: Among 1047 eligible children, 656 were included in the study, and 117 had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; 40% experienced at least one grade 4 condition, and 83% experienced at least one grade 3 or 4 condition. Compared with the French norms, children with PID scored significantly lower for most HR-QoL domains. Low HR-QoL scores were associated strongly with burden of poor conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results quantify the magnitude of conditions in children with PID and demonstrate that the deleterious health effects borne by patients already are evident in childhood. These results emphasize the need to closely monitor this vulnerable population and establish multidisciplinary healthcare teams from childhood. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02868333 and EudraCT 2012-A0033-35.

7.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(8): 1122-1132, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186568

RESUMO

Background: Germline mutations of suppressor of fused homolog (SUFU) predispose to sonic hedgehog (SHH) medulloblastoma. Germline SUFU mutations have been reported in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), but little is known about the cancer risk and clinical spectrum. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with medulloblastoma and a germline SUFU mutation in France. Results: Twenty-two patients from 17 families were identified with medulloblastoma and a germline SUFU mutation (median age at diagnosis: 16.5 mo). Macrocrania was present in 20 patients, but only 5 met the diagnostic criteria for NBCCS. Despite treatment with surgery and chemotherapy, to avoid radiotherapy in all patients except one, the outcome was worse than expected for SHH medulloblastoma, due to the high incidence of local relapses (8/22 patients) and second malignancies (n = 6 in 4/22 patients). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 42% and 66%. Mutations were inherited in 79% of patients, and 34 additional SUFU mutation carriers were identified within 14 families. Medulloblastoma penetrance was incomplete, but higher than in Patched 1 (PTCH1) mutation carriers. Besides medulloblastoma, 19 other tumors were recorded among the 56 SUFU mutation carriers, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in 2 patients and meningioma in 3 patients. Conclusion: Germline SUFU mutations strongly predispose to medulloblastoma in the first years of life, with worse prognosis than usually observed for SHH medulloblastoma. The clinical spectrum differs between SUFU and PTCH1 mutation carriers, and BCC incidence is much lower in SUFU mutation carriers. The optimal treatment of SUFU mutation-associated medulloblastoma has not been defined.

8.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 66: 11-18, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28772256

RESUMO

The most frequent germline mutations responsible for non syndromic congenital sideroblastic anemia are identified in ALAS2 and SLC25A38 genes. Iron overload is a key issue and optimal chelation therapy should be used to limit its adverse effects on the development of children. Our multicentre retrospective descriptive study compared the strategies for diagnosis and management of congenital sideroblastic anemia during the follow-up of six patients with an ALAS2 mutation and seven patients with an SLC25A38 mutation. We described in depth the clinical, biological and radiological phenotype of these patients at diagnosis and during follow-up and highlighted our results with a review of available evidence and data on the management strategies for congenital sideroblastic anemia. This report confirms the considerable variability in manifestations among patients with ALAS2 or SLC25A38 mutations and draws attention to differences in the assessment and the monitoring of iron overload and its complications. The use of an international registry would certainly help defining recommendations for the management of these rare disorders to improve patient outcome.


Assuntos
5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/genética , Anemia Sideroblástica/congênito , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Anemia Sideroblástica/genética , Criança , Humanos , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 64(6): 767-775, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362954

RESUMO

Background: Although prognosis of Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) has greatly improved, few studies have focused on its long-term outcome. We studied the clinical course and sequelae of CGD patients diagnosed before age 16, at various adult time points. Method: Cross-sectional French nationwide retrospective study of patients screened through the National Reference Center for Primary Immunodeficiencies (CEREDIH) registry. Results: Eighty CGD patients (71 males [88.7%], 59 X-linked [73.7%], median age 23.9 years [minimum, 16.6; maximum, 59.9]) were included, Median ages at diagnosis and last follow-up were 2.52 and 23.9 years, respectively. Seven patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 553 infections requiring hospitalization occurred in 2017 patient-years. The most common site of infection was pulmonary (31%). Aspergillus spp. (17%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10.7%) were the commonest pathogens. A total of 224 inflammatory episodes occurred in 71 patients, mainly digestive (50%). Their characteristics as well as their annual frequency did not vary before and after age 16. Main sequelae were a small adult height and weight and mild chronic restrictive respiratory failure. At age 16, only 53% of patients were in high school. After age 30 years, 9/13 patients were working. Ten patients died during adulthood. Conclusions: Adult CGD patients displayed similar characteristics and rates of severe infections and inflammatory episodes that those of childhood. The high rate of handicap has become a matter of medical and social consideration. Careful follow-up in centers of expertise is strongly recommended and an extended indication of curative treatment by HSCT should be considered.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Autoimunidade , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/etiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Fenótipo , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Avaliação de Sintomas
10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(7)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27905681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nationwide prospective cohort study exploring (i) the factors associated with treatment initiation (vs. watchful waiting) in children with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) followed in routine clinical practice and (ii) the predictors of chronicity at 12 months. PROCEDURE: Between 2008 and 2013, 23 centers throughout France consecutively included 257 children aged 6 months-18 years and diagnosed with primary ITP over a 5-year period. Data on ITP clinical features along with medical management were collected at baseline and 12 months. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine (i) and (ii) as defined above, providing odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: One hundred thirty-seven (53%) children were males, median age was 4.6 years, median platelet count was 7 × 109/l, and 214 (81%) patients initiated medication. Factors independently associated with treatment initiation included platelet counts <10 × 109/l (P < 0.0001) and mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms at baseline (P < 0.001). At 12 months, data were available for 211 (82%) children, of whom 160 (74%) had recovered. Predictors of chronicity included female gender (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.0-4.8), age ≥10 years (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-6.0), and platelet counts ≥10 × 109 /l (OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.5-6.9). CONCLUSIONS: In routine clinical practice, the decision to apply a watchful waiting strategy seems to be driven by platelet counts even in the absence of bleeding symptoms, resulting in treatment being initiated in more than 80% of the children surveyed. Overall, younger children with ITP showed good prognosis, with lower platelet counts and, to a lesser extent, male gender predicting more favorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/patologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Contagem de Plaquetas , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1275-1281.e7, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most children with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) now reach adulthood. However, few studies have evaluated their health status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term morbidity, the French Reference Center for PIDs initiated a prospective multicenter cohort: the French Childhood Immune Deficiency Long-term Cohort. The data collected were used to assess the physical health condition of patients who reached adulthood and the effect on their quality of life. METHODS: Patients were asked to complete health status questionnaires. A severity score (grade 1 [mild] to grade 4 [life-threatening]) was assigned to each health condition. The HRQoL of patients was compared with age- and sex-matched French normal values by using the 36-item Short-Form Survey (SF-36) HRQoL questionnaire. RESULTS: Among 329 participants, the mean age at evaluation was 27.6 years, with a 21-year mean follow-up after diagnosis; 43% reported at least 1 grade 4 health condition, and 86% reported at least 1 grade 3 (severe) or 4 health condition. Twenty-five (7.6%) patients had been treated for cancer. Compared with the French normal values, adults with PIDs scored significantly lower for all HRQoL domains. HRQoL was strongly associated with the burden of health conditions. The association with grade 4 or grade 3-4 health conditions was highly significant for all physical and mental domains. CONCLUSION: Adults with PIDs diagnosed during childhood experienced a heavy burden of health conditions, which affected their HRQoL. Our results emphasize the need to closely monitor this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tempo
12.
Lancet Haematol ; 3(11): e537-e546, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27720178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy, related to a severe ADAMTS13 deficiency (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thromboSpondin type 1 repeats, member 13; activity <10% of normal). Childhood-onset thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is very rare and initially often misdiagnosed, especially when ADAMTS13 deficiency is acquired (ie, not linked to inherited mutations of the ADAMTS13 gene). We aimed to investigate initial presentation, management, and outcome of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in children. METHODS: Between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2015, we studied a cohort of patients with child-onset and adolescent-onset acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura included in the French national registry for thrombotic microangiopathies at presentation and during follow up. The inclusion criteria were: first episode before age 18 years; ADAMTS13 activity less than 10% of normal at presentation; positive anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies during an episode, or a recovery of ADAMTS13 activity in remission, or both. ADAMTS13 activity and anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies were investigated by a central laboratory, and medical records were extensively reviewed to collect clinical and biological features with a standardised form. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00426686. FINDINGS: We enrolled 973 patients with childhood-onset thrombotic microangiopathy, of whom 74 had a severe ADAMTS13 deficiency (activity <10%) at presentation. 24 patients had an inherited thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura also known as Upshaw-Schulman syndrome and five did not have follow-up data available, thus 45 children had acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and were included in our database at presentation. 25 (56%) patients had idiopathic disease and 20 (44%) had miscellaneous associated clinical conditions. At diagnosis, median age was 13 years (IQR 7-16, range 4 months-17 years), with a sex ratio of 2·5 girls to 1 boy. Anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies were positive in 37 (82%) of 45 patients (24 [96%] of 25 idiopathic cases and 13 [65%] of 20 non-idiopathic cases). 39 (87%) of 45 patients were given plasma therapy and 21 (47%) received additional rituximab. Four (9%) children died after the first thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura episode. Long-term follow up of the 41 survivors showed that ten (24%) patients relapsed and systemic lupus erythematosus occurred in two (5%) patients. Preemptive rituximab was used in seven (17%) of 41 patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. INTERPRETATION: Our study shows that child-onset and adolescent-onset acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura have specific clinical, biological and therapeutic features. Long-term follow-up is crucial to prevent relapses of the disease, to identify the occurrence of autoimmune disorders, and to evaluate consequences on social life. Child-onset and adolescent-onset acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a crucial diagnosis in the field of paediatric haematologic cytopenias because it is a life-threatening disease requiring a specific management. FUNDING: Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, France.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS13/deficiência , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/complicações , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/epidemiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/terapia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/complicações , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/epidemiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Proteína ADAMTS13/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína ADAMTS13/sangue , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico/efeitos adversos , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , França , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática/complicações , Insuficiência Hepática/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Nefropatias/complicações , Nefropatias/congênito , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Troca Plasmática/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/complicações , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Psicomotores/epidemiologia , Psicoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico
13.
Blood ; 127(25): 3154-64, 2016 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27114460

RESUMO

Since their discovery in patients with autosomal dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in 2011, heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have increasingly been identified worldwide. The clinical spectrum associated with them needed to be delineated. We enrolled 274 patients from 167 kindreds originating from 40 countries from 5 continents. Demographic data, clinical features, immunological parameters, treatment, and outcome were recorded. The median age of the 274 patients was 22 years (range, 1-71 years); 98% of them had CMC, with a median age at onset of 1 year (range, 0-24 years). Patients often displayed bacterial (74%) infections, mostly because of Staphylococcus aureus (36%), including the respiratory tract and the skin in 47% and 28% of patients, respectively, and viral (38%) infections, mostly because of Herpesviridae (83%) and affecting the skin in 32% of patients. Invasive fungal infections (10%), mostly caused by Candida spp. (29%), and mycobacterial disease (6%) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, environmental mycobacteria, or Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccines were less common. Many patients had autoimmune manifestations (37%), including hypothyroidism (22%), type 1 diabetes (4%), blood cytopenia (4%), and systemic lupus erythematosus (2%). Invasive infections (25%), cerebral aneurysms (6%), and cancers (6%) were the strongest predictors of poor outcome. CMC persisted in 39% of the 202 patients receiving prolonged antifungal treatment. Circulating interleukin-17A-producing T-cell count was low for most (82%) but not all of the patients tested. STAT1 GOF mutations underlie AD CMC, as well as an unexpectedly wide range of other clinical features, including not only a variety of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but also cerebral aneurysms and carcinomas that confer a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Pediatr ; 3: 79, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26484337

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term outcome is not well known. In France, a collaborative pediatric network set up via the National Rare Disease Plan now provides comprehensive clinical data in children with this disease. Patients aged less than 18 years at the initial presentation of autoimmune cytopenia have been prospectively included into a national observational cohort since 2004. The definition of ES was restricted to the simultaneous or sequential association of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Cases were deemed secondary if associated with a primitive immunodeficiency or systemic lupus erythematosus. In December 2014, we analyzed the data pertaining to 156 children from 26 centers with ES whose diagnosis was made between 1981 and 2014. Median age (range) at the onset of cytopenia was 5.4 years (0.2-17.2). In 85 sequential cases, the time lapse between the first episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1-16.3). The follow-up period as from ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8). ES was secondary, revealing another underlying disease, in 10% of cases; various associated immune manifestations (mainly lymphoproliferation, other autoimmune diseases, and hypogammaglobulinemia) were observed in 60% of cases; and ES remained primary in 30% of cases. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were 25 and 61%, respectively. Overall, 69% of children required one or more second-line immune treatments, and 15 patients (10%) died at the age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1). To our knowledge, this is the first consistent long-term clinical description of this rare syndrome. It underscores the high rate of associated immune manifestations and the burden of long-term complications and treatment toxicity. Future challenges include (1) the identification of the underlying genetic defects inducing immune dysregulation and (2) the need to better characterize patient subgroups and second-line treatment strategies.

15.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 73(5): 587-90, 2015 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26489818

RESUMO

A pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency in an adult is reported. Interestingly, the P5'N-1 deficiency was associated to a polymalformative syndrome and was characterized by a chronic, pancytopenic evolution with concomitant dyserythropoiesis.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/deficiência , Anemia Hemolítica/genética , Eritrócitos Anormais/enzimologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 135(6): 1578-88.e5, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25842288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PRKDC encodes for DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a kinase that forms part of a complex (DNA-dependent protein kinase [DNA-PK]) crucial for DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. In mice DNA-PK also interacts with the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE) to promote central T-cell tolerance. OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand the causes of an inflammatory disease with granuloma and autoimmunity associated with decreasing T- and B-cell counts over time that had been diagnosed in 2 unrelated patients. METHODS: Genetic, molecular, and functional analyses were performed to characterize an inflammatory disease evocative of a combined immunodeficiency. RESULTS: We identified PRKDC mutations in both patients. These patients exhibited a defect in DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. Whole-blood mRNA analysis revealed a strong interferon signature. On activation, memory T cells displayed a skewed cytokine response typical of TH2 and TH1 but not TH17. Moreover, mutated DNA-PKcs did not promote AIRE-dependent transcription of peripheral tissue antigens in vitro. The latter defect correlated in vivo with production of anti-calcium-sensing receptor autoantibodies, which are typically found in AIRE-deficient patients. In addition, 9 months after bone marrow transplantation, patient 1 had Hashimoto thyroiditis, suggesting that organ-specific autoimmunity might be linked to nonhematopoietic cells, such as AIRE-expressing thymic epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: Deficiency of DNA-PKcs, a key AIRE partner, can present as an inflammatory disease with organ-specific autoimmunity, suggesting a role for DNA-PKcs in regulating autoimmune responses and maintaining AIRE-dependent tolerance in human subjects.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/genética , Granuloma/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Autoimunidade/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/imunologia , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/deficiência , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Granuloma/imunologia , Granuloma/metabolismo , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Proteínas Nucleares/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th1/patologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Células Th2/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Recombinação V(D)J/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur Respir J ; 45(6): 1613-23, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25614174

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by failure of superoxide production in phagocytic cells. The disease is characterised by recurrent infections and inflammatory events, frequently affecting the lungs. Improvement of life expectancy now allows most patients to reach adulthood. We aimed to describe the pattern of pulmonary manifestations occurring during adulthood in CGD patients. This was a retrospective study of the French national cohort of adult patients (≥16 years old) with CGD. Medical data were obtained for 67 adult patients. Pulmonary manifestations affected two-thirds of adult patients. Their incidence was significantly higher than in childhood (mean annual rate 0.22 versus 0.07, p=0.01). Infectious risk persisted despite anti-infectious prophylaxis. Invasive fungal infections were frequent (0.11 per year per patient) and asymptomatic in 37% of the cases. They often required lung biopsy for diagnosis (10 out of 30). Noninfectious respiratory events concerned 28% of adult patients, frequently associated with a concomitant fungal infection (40%). They were more frequent in patients with the X-linked form of CGD. Immune-modulator therapies were required in most cases (70%). Respiratory manifestations are major complications of CGD in adulthood. Noninfectious pulmonary manifestations are as deleterious as infectious pneumonia. A specific respiratory monitoring is necessary.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/etiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Assintomáticas , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADPH Oxidase 2 , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 9: 56, 2014 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24742017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunodeficiency Centromeric Instability and Facial anomalies (ICF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by reduction in serum immunoglobulins with severe recurrent infections, facial dysmorphism, and more variable symptoms including mental retardation. ICF is directly related to a genomic methylation defect that mainly affects juxtacentromeric heterochromatin regions of certain chromosomes, leading to chromosomal rearrangements that constitute a hallmark of this syndrome upon cytogenetic testing. Mutations in the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, the protein ZBTB24 of unknown function, or loci that remain to be identified, lie at its origin. Despite unifying features, common or distinguishing molecular signatures are still missing for this disease. METHOD: We used the molecular signature that we identified in a mouse model for ICF1 to establish transcriptional biomarkers to facilitate diagnosis and understanding of etiology of the disease. We assayed the expression and methylation status of a set of genes whose expression is normally restricted to germ cells, directly in whole blood samples and epithelial cells of ICF patients. RESULTS: We report that DNA hypomethylation and expression of MAEL and SYCE1 represent robust biomarkers, easily testable directly from uncultured cells to diagnose the most prevalent sub-type of the syndrome. In addition, we identified the first unifying molecular signatures for ICF patients. Of importance, we validated the use of our biomarkers to diagnose a baby born to a family with a sick child. Finally, our analysis revealed unsuspected complex molecular signatures in two ICF patients suggestive of a novel genetic etiology for the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis of ICF syndrome is crucial since early immunoglobulin supplementation can improve the course of disease. However, ICF is probably underdiagnosed, especially in patients that present with incomplete phenotype or born to families with no affected relatives. The specific and robust biomarkers identified in this study could be introduced into routine clinical immunology or neurology departments to facilitate testing of patients with suspected ICF syndrome. In addition, as exemplified by two patients with a combination of molecular defects never described before, our data support the search for new types of mutations at the origin of ICF syndrome.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 7: 71, 2012 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23009155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WHIM syndrome (WS), a rare congenital neutropenia due to mutations of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-induced Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, bacterial Infections and Myelokathexis. The long term follow up of eight patients highlights the clinical heterogeneity of this disease as well as the main therapeutic approaches and remaining challenges in the light of the recent development of new CXCR4 inhibitors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the natural history of WS based on a French cohort of 8 patients. METHODS: We have reviewed the clinical, biological and immunological features of patients with WS enrolled into the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry. RESULTS: We identified four pedigrees with WS comprised of eight patients and one foetus. Estimated incidence for WS was of 0.23 per million births. Median age at the last visit was 29 years. Three pedigrees encompassing seven patients and the fetus displayed autosomal dominant heterozygous mutations of the CXCR4 gene, while one patient presented a wild-type CXCR4 gene. Two subjects exhibited congenital conotruncal heart malformations. In addition to neutropenia and myelokathexis, all patients presented deep monocytopenia and lymphopenia. Seven patients presented repeated bacterial Ears Nose Throat as well as severe bacterial infections that were curable with antibiotics. Four patients with late onset prophylaxis developed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two patients reported atypical mycobacteria infections which in one case may have been responsible for one patient's death due to liver failure at the age of 40.6 years. HPV-related disease manifested in five subjects and progressed as invasive vulvar carcinoma with a fatal course in one patient at the age of 39.5 years. In addition, two patients developed T cell lymphoma skin cancer and basal cell carcinoma at the age of 38 and 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous prophylactic anti-infective measures, when started in early childhood, seem to effectively prevent further bacterial infections and the consequent development of COPD. Long-term follow up is needed to evaluate the effect of early anti-HPV targeted prophylaxis on the development of skin and genital warts.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Verrugas/genética , Verrugas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Sistema de Registros , Verrugas/complicações , Adulto Jovem
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