Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 92
Filtrar
2.
Chest ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whilst estimates of sub-optimal adherence to oral corticosteroids in asthma range from 30 to 50%, no ideal method for measurement exists; the impact of poor adherence in severe asthma is likely to be particularly high. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: 1. What is the prevalence of suboptimal adherence detected using self-reporting and direct measures? 2. Is suboptimal adherence associated with disease activity? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were included from individuals with severe asthma taking part in the U-BIOPRED study prescribed daily oral corticosteroids. Participants completed the MARS, a five-item questionnaire used to grade adherence on a scale from 1 to 5, and provided a urine sample for analysis of prednisolone and metabolites by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Data from 166 participants were included in this study, mean (SD) age 54.2 (11.9) years, FEV1 65.1 (20.5) % predicted, 58% female. 37% completing the MARS reported sub-optimal adherence, and 43% with urinary corticosteroid data did not have detectable prednisolone or metabolites in their urine. Good adherence by both methods was detected in 35% participants who had both performed; adherence detection did not match between methods in 53%. Self-reported high-adherers had better asthma control and quality of life, whereas directly-measured high-adherers had lower blood eosinophils. INTERPRETATION: Low adherence is a common problem in severe asthma, whether measured directly or self-reported. We report poor agreement between the two methods suggesting some disassociation between self-assessment of medication adherence and regular oral corticosteroid use, which suggests that each approach may provide complementary information in clinical practice.

3.
Thorax ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504564

RESUMO

Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in the UK; however, the misdiagnosis rate is substantial. The lack of consistency in national guidelines and the paucity of data on the performance of diagnostic algorithms compound the challenges in asthma diagnosis. Asthma is a highly rhythmic disease, characterised by diurnal variability in clinical symptoms and pathogenesis. Asthma also varies day to day, seasonally and from year to year. As much as it is a hallmark for asthma, this variability also poses significant challenges to asthma diagnosis. Almost all established asthma diagnostic tools demonstrate diurnal variation, yet few are performed with standardised timing of measurements. The dichotomous interpretation of diagnostic outcomes using fixed cut-off values may further limit the accuracy of the tests, particularly when diurnal variability straddles cut-off values within a day, and careful interpretation beyond the 'positive' and 'negative' outcome is needed. The day-to-day and more long-term variations are less predictable and it is unclear whether performing asthma diagnostic tests during asymptomatic periods may influence diagnostic sensitivities. With the evolution of asthma diagnostic tools, home monitoring and digital apps, novel strategies are needed to bridge these gaps in knowledge, and circadian variability should be considered during the standardisation process. This review summarises the biological mechanisms of circadian rhythms in asthma and highlights novel data on the significance of time (the fourth dimension) in asthma diagnosis.

4.
J Breath Res ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302258

RESUMO

Exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which offers the potential for diagnosing and monitoring a wide range of diseases. As the breath research field has grown, sampling and analytical practices have become highly varied between groups. Standardisation would allow meta-analyses of data from multiple studies and greater confidence in published results. The Peppermint Consortium has been formed to address this task of standardisation. In the current study we aimed to generate initial benchmark values for thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) analysis of breath samples containing peppermint-derived VOCs. Headspace analysis of peppermint oil capsules was performed to determine compounds of interest. Ten healthy participants were recruited by three groups. Each participant provided a baseline breath sample prior to taking a peppermint capsule, with further samples collected at 60, 90, 165, 285 and 360 min following ingestion. Sampling and analytical protocols were different for each institution, in line with their usual practice. Samples were analysed by TD-GC-MS and benchmarking values determined for the time taken for detected peppermint VOCs to return to baseline values. Sixteen compounds were identified in the capsule headspace. Additionally, 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole was uniquely found in the breath samples, with a washout profile that suggested it was a product of peppermint metabolism. Five compounds (α-pinene, ß-pinene, eucalyptol, menthol and menthone) were quantified by all three groups. Differences in recovery were observed between the groups, particularly for menthone and menthol. The average time taken for VOCs to return to baseline was selected as the benchmark and were 441, 648, 1736, 643 and 375 min for α-pinene, ß-pinene, eucalyptol, menthone and menthol respectively. An initial set of easy-to-measure benchmarking values for assessing the performance of TD-GC-MS systems for the analysis of VOCs in breath is presented. These values will be updated when more groups provide additional data.

5.
J Breath Res ; 15(1): 016016, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336649

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology with a variable clinical course and prognosis. There is an urgent need to identify new and novel biomarkers to help differentiate between clinical phenotypes and guide clinical decisions with respect to commencing and monitoring treatment. Across the spectrum of respiratory disease there has been a growing interest in the role of breath-based biomarkers given their non-invasive nature and ability to repeat sampling with ease for serial monitoring. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R) in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum correlates with disease activity in sarcoidosis; however, no previous study has evaluated sIL2R in exhaled breath. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this cross-sectional case-controlled pilot study was to determine the concentration of sIL2R in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from patients with recently diagnosed sarcoidosis compared to healthy volunteers and to establish, if present, if this correlated with markers of disease activity, pulmonary function tests and serological markers used in current clinical practice. METHODS: Paired serum and EBC samples were collected from twelve treatment naïve patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis diagnosed during the previous six months and compared to twelve healthy volunteers matched for age and gender. RESULTS: Mean concentration of serum sIL2R was significantly elevated in participants with sarcoidosis compared to healthy controls (1584.3 ± 489.1 versus 874.2 ± 235.7 pg mL-1; p = 0.001). Soluble interleukin-2 receptor in EBC was detectable in only five subjects including three participants with sarcoidosis. The range of sIL2R across all five samples was 148.0-288.2 pg mL-1 with the two highest concentrations observed in two participants with sarcoidosis. There was no significant difference observed in EBC sIL2R between sarcoidosis and healthy controls (p = 0.71). No apparent correlations were observed between EBC sIL2R and radiological stage, pulmonary function tests or serological markers. CONCLUSION: Soluble interleukin-2 receptor is detectable in EBC; however, the findings from our study do not support its role as a diagnostic marker in sarcoidosis. Further research is required to evaluate its prognostic utility.

6.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the efficacy of corticosteroid treatment in controlling asthma is widely accepted, its effectiveness is undermined by poor adherence. However, the optimal method for measuring adherence to asthma therapy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To perform a review of the literature reporting biological, objective methods for assessing adherence to inhaled or oral corticosteroids in asthma; we included studies reporting direct measurement of exogenous corticosteroids in blood, or the effect of adherence on exhaled nitric oxide. DESIGN: We searched three databases MEDLINE (using both PubMed and Ovid), the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Web of Science for articles published between January 1975 and July 2020. Quality of the studies was assessed using the National Institute of Health checklist. RESULTS: From 2850 screened articles, 26 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Measurement of blood prednisolone with or without cortisol was used in eight studies as a measure of oral corticosteroid adherence, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in 17 studies for inhaled corticosteroid adherence. Inhaled corticosteroids were measured directly in the blood in one study. By direct measurement of drug levels in the blood, adherence rates to oral corticosteroids ranged from 47% to 92%, although the performance and timing of the test were often not known, making interpretation of findings and serum prednisolone concentrations difficult. FeNO is generally lower in adherent than non-adherent patients, but no absolute cut-off can be proposed based on the available data. However, a fall in FeNO following supervised inhaled corticosteroid dosing could indicate previous poor adherence. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Despite prednisolone and cortisol levels commonly being used as adherence markers in clinical practice, further work is required to assess the influence of the dose and timing on blood levels. The promising findings of FeNO suppression testing should be explored in further prospective studies.

7.
Analyst ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103170

RESUMO

Exhaled breath analysis is a promising new diagnostic tool, but currently no standardised method for sampling is available in mechanically ventilated patients. We compared two breath sampling methods, first using an artificial ventilator circuit, then in "real life" in mechanically ventilated patients on the intensive care unit. In the laboratory circuit, a 24-component synthetic-breath volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture was injected into the system as air was sampled: (A) through a port on the exhalation limb of the circuit and (B) through a closed endo-bronchial suction catheter. Sorbent tubes were used to collect samples for analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Realistic mechanical ventilation rates and breath pressure-volume loops were established and method detection limits (MDLs) were calculated for all VOCs. Higher yields of VOCs were retrieved using the closed suction catheter; however, for several VOCs MDLs were compromised due to the background signal associated with plastic and rubber components in the catheters. Different brands of suction catheter were compared. Exhaled VOC data from 40 patient samples collected at two sites were then used to calculate the proportion of data analysed above the MDL. The relative performance of the two methods differed depending on the VOC under study and both methods showed sensitivity towards different exhaled VOCs. Furthermore, method performance differed depending on recruitment site, as the centres were equipped with different brands of respiratory equipment, an important consideration for the design of multicentre studies investigating exhaled VOCs in mechanically ventilated patients.

8.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 336, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Severe Asthma Questionnaire (SAQ) is a health related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaire validated for use in severe asthma. It is scored using the mean value of 16 items (SAQ score) in addition to a single item global rating of HRQoL (SAQ-global). The aim was to validate clinically relevant subscales using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). METHODS: The SAQ was completed, along with measures of asthma control and EQ5D-5L by patients attending six UK severe asthma centres. Clinical data were included in the analysis. EFA using principal axis factoring and oblimin rotation was used to achieve simple structure of data. RESULTS: 460 patients with severe asthma participated, 65% women, mean age 51 (16-83) years. A three factor solution achieved best fit and showed that the SAQ items formed three distinct but inter-correlated groups of items where items were grouped in a way that was consistent with item content. The three subscales were differentially associated with clinically relevant variables (lung function and mood). Males and females interpreted the question of night disturbance in different ways. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides a template for best practice in the use of EFA when validating HRQoL subscales. The SAQ can be scored as three subscales with content reflecting three different constructs people with severe asthma use when making judgements about their lives. The subscale 'My Life' assesses the impact of severe asthma on different life activities, 'My Mind' assesses the perceived emotional impact and 'My Body' the impact of extra-pulmonary symptoms and side effects.

9.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(12): 1287-1293, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034142

RESUMO

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, laryngoscopy was the mandatory gold standard for the accurate assessment and diagnosis of inducible laryngeal obstruction. However, upper airway endoscopy is considered an aerosol-generating procedure in professional guidelines, meaning routine procedures are highly challenging and the availability of laryngoscopy is reduced. In response, we have convened a multidisciplinary panel with broad experience in managing this disease and agreed a recommended strategy for presumptive diagnosis in patients who cannot have laryngoscopy performed due to pandemic restrictions. To maintain clinical standards whilst ensuring patient safety, we discuss the importance of triage, information gathering, symptom assessment and early review of response to treatment. The consensus recommendations will also be potentially relevant to other future situations where access to laryngoscopy is restricted, although we emphasize that this investigation remains the gold standard.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma treatment guidelines recommend increasing corticosteroid dose to control symptoms and reduce exacerbations. This approach is potentially flawed because symptomatic asthma can occur without corticosteroid responsive type-2 (T2)-driven eosinophilic inflammation, and inappropriately high-dose corticosteroid treatment might have little therapeutic benefit with increased risk of side-effects. We compared a biomarker strategy to adjust corticosteroid dose using a composite score of T2 biomarkers (fractional exhaled nitric oxide [FENO], blood eosinophils, and serum periostin) with a standardised symptom-risk-based algorithm (control). METHODS: We did a single-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial in adults (18-80 years of age) with severe asthma (at treatment steps 4 and 5 of the Global Initiative for Asthma) and FENO of less than 45 parts per billion at 12 specialist severe asthma centres across England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Patients were randomly assigned (4:1) to either the biomarker strategy group or the control group by an online electronic case-report form, in blocks of ten, stratified by asthma control and use of rescue systemic steroids in the previous year. Patients were masked to study group allocation throughout the entirety of the study. Patients attended clinic every 8 weeks, with treatment adjustment following automated treatment-group-specific algorithms: those in the biomarker strategy group received a default advisory to maintain treatment and those in the control group had their treatment adjusted according to the steps indicated by the trial algorithm. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with corticosteroid dose reduction at week 48, in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary outcomes were inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose at the end of the study; cumulative dose of ICS during the study; proportion of patients on maintenance oral corticosteroids (OCS) at study end; rate of protocol-defined severe exacerbations per patient year; time to first severe exacerbation; number of hospital admissions for asthma; changes in lung function, Asthma Control Questionnaire-7 score, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score, and T2 biomarkers from baseline to week 48; and whether patients declined to progress to OCS. A secondary aim of our study was to establish the proportion of patients with severe asthma in whom T2 biomarkers remained low when corticosteroid therapy was decreased to a minimum ICS dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02717689 and has been completed. FINDINGS: Patients were recruited from Jan 8, 2016, to July 12, 2018. Of 549 patients assessed, 301 patients were included in the ITT population and were randomly assigned to the biomarker strategy group (n=240) or to the control group (n=61). 28·4% of patients in the biomarker strategy group were on a lower corticosteroid dose at week 48 compared with 18·5% of patients in the control group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1·71 [95% CI 0·80-3·63]; p=0·17). In the per-protocol (PP) population (n=121), a significantly greater proportion of patients were on a lower corticosteroid dose at week 48 in the biomarker strategy group (30·7% of patients) compared with the control group (5·0% of patients; aOR 11·48 [95% CI 1·35-97·83]; p=0·026). Patient choice to not follow treatment advice was the principle reason for loss to PP analysis. There was no difference in secondary outcomes between study groups and no loss of asthma control among patients in the biomarker strategy group who reduced their corticosteroid dose. INTERPRETATION: Biomarker-based corticosteroid adjustment did not result in a greater proportion of patients reducing corticosteroid dose versus control. Understanding the reasons for patients not following treatment advice in both treatment strategies is an important area for future research. The prevalence of T2 biomarker-low severe asthma was low. FUNDING: This study was funded, in part, by the Medical Research Council UK.

11.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(11): 1230-1237, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) is often misdiagnosed as, or may coexist with, asthma. Identifying differences in triggering factors may assist clinicians to differentiate between the two conditions and could give mechanistic insights. OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare patient-reported triggers in ILO and asthma. METHODS: This was a two-part study. Initially, we conducted a retrospective case note review of the triggers of ILO from endoscopically confirmed ILO patients to generate a Breathlessness Triggers Survey (BrTS). Triggers were categorized as scents, environmental factors, temperature, emotions, mechanical factors and daily activities. Secondly, ILO and/or asthma patients completed the BrTS prospectively, rating the likelihood of each item triggering their symptoms using a five-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). Chi-square testing was performed to compare responses by cohort. RESULTS: Data from 202 patients with ILO [73% female, mean (SD) age 53(16) years] were included in the case note review. For the prospective study, 38 patients with ILO only [63% females, age 57(16) years], 39 patients with asthma only [(56% female, age 53(13) years] and 12 patients with both ILO and asthma [83% female, mean age, 57 (14) years)] completed the BrTS. The triggers identified in the case note review were confirmed in the independent sample of patients with ILO and/or asthma and identified several difference in prevalence of the triggers between disease types. Mechanical factors (talking [P < .001], shouting [P = .007] and swallowing [P = .002]) were more common in the ILO cohort compared to patients with asthma. Environmental factors (pollen/flowers [P = .005] and damp air [P = .012]) were more common in asthma. There were no differences between groups in frequency of reporting scents as triggers (except for vinegar, more common in ILO, P = .019), temperature, emotions or daily activities. CONCLUSION: There were notable differences between patient-reported triggers of ILO and asthma, which may support clinician differential diagnosis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667261

RESUMO

RATIONALE: New approaches are needed to guide personalized treatment of asthma. OBJECTIVE: To test if urinary eicosanoid metabolites can direct asthma phenotyping. METHODS: Urinary metabolites of prostaglandins (PGs), cysteinyl-leukotrienes (LTs) and isoprostanes were quantified in the Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Diseases Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) study including 86 adults with mild-to-moderate asthma (MMA), 411 with severe asthma (SA), and 100 healthy controls (HC). Validation was performed internally in 302 SA subjects followed-up after 12-18 months, and externally in 95 adolescents with asthma. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Metabolite levels in HC were unrelated to age, BMI and sex, except for the PGE2-pathway. Eicosanoid levels were generally greater in MMA relative to HC, with further elevations in SA. However, PGE2-metabolite levels were either the same or lower in male non-smoking asthmatics as in HC. Metabolite levels were unchanged in asthmatics adherent to oral corticosteroid treatment as documented by urinary prednisolone detection, whereas SA treated with omalizumab had lower levels of LTE4 and the PGD2 metabolite 2,3-dinor-11ß-PGF2α. High levels of LTE4 and PGD2-metabolites were associated with lower lung-function, and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide and eosinophil markers in blood, sputum and urine in U-BIOPRED and in adolescents with asthma. These type-2 (T2) asthma associations were reproduced in the follow-up visit of the U-BIOPRED study, and found to be as sensitive to detect T2 inflammation as the established biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of urinary eicosanoids can identify T2 asthma and introduces a new non-invasive approach for molecular phenotyping of adult and adolescent asthma. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

13.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 046008, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604084

RESUMO

Sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has shown promise for detection of a range of diseases but results have proved hard to replicate due to a lack of standardization. In this work we introduce the 'Peppermint Initiative'. The initiative seeks to disseminate a standardized experiment that allows comparison of breath sampling and data analysis methods. Further, it seeks to share a set of benchmark values for the measurement of VOCs in breath. Pilot data are presented to illustrate the standardized approach to the interpretation of results obtained from the Peppermint experiment. This pilot study was conducted to determine the washout profile of peppermint compounds in breath, identify appropriate sampling time points, and formalise the data analysis. Five and ten participants were recruited to undertake a standardized intervention by ingesting a peppermint oil capsule that engenders a predictable and controlled change in the VOC profile in exhaled breath. After collecting a pre-ingestion breath sample, five further samples are taken at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after ingestion. Samples were analysed using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to multi-capillary column and thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A regression analysis of the washout data was used to determine sampling times for the final peppermint protocol, and the time for the compound measurement to return to baseline levels was selected as a benchmark value. A measure of the quality of the data generated from a given technique is proposed by comparing data fidelity. This study protocol has been used for all subsequent measurements by the Peppermint Consortium (16 partners from seven countries). So far 1200 breath samples from 200 participants using a range of sampling and analytical techniques have been collected. The data from the consortium will be disseminated in subsequent technical notes focussing on results from individual platforms.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Mentha piperita/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Benchmarking , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Respir Med ; 169: 105984, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics refers to study of the metabolome, the entire set of metabolites produced by a biological system. The application of metabolomics to exhaled breath samples - breathomics - is a rapidly growing field with potential application to asthma diagnosis and management. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to review the adult asthma breathomic literature and present a comprehensive list of volatile organic compounds identified by asthma breathomic models. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search for literature on exhaled volatile organic compounds in adult asthma. We assessed the quality of studies and performed a qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: We identified twenty studies; these were methodologically heterogenous with a variable risk of bias. Studies almost universally reported breathomics to be capable of differentiating - with moderate or greater accuracy - between samples from healthy controls and those with asthma; and to be capable of phenotyping disease. However, there was little concordance in the compounds upon which discriminatory models were based. CONCLUSION: Results to-date are promising but validation in independent prospective cohorts is needed. This may be challenging given the high levels of inter-individual variation. However, large-scale, multi-centre studies are underway and validation efforts have been aided by the publication of technical standards likely to increase inter-study comparability. Successful validation of breathomic models for diagnosis and phenotyping would constitute an important step towards personalised medicine in asthma.

16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 1045-1055, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic noses (eNoses) are emerging point-of-care tools that may help in the subphenotyping of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether eNoses can classify atopy in pediatric and adult patients with asthma. METHODS: Participants with asthma and/or wheezing from 4 independent cohorts were included; BreathCloud participants (n = 429), Unbiased Biomarkers in Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes adults (n = 96), Unbiased Biomarkers in Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes pediatric participants (n = 100), and Pharmacogenetics of Asthma Medication in Children: Medication with Anti-Inflammatory Effects 2 participants (n = 30). Atopy was defined as a positive skin prick test result (≥3 mm) and/or a positive specific IgE level (≥0.35 kU/L) for common allergens. Exhaled breath profiles were measured by using either an integrated eNose platform or the SpiroNose. Data were divided into 2 training and 2 validation sets according to the technology used. Supervised data analysis involved the use of 3 different machine learning algorithms to classify patients with atopic versus nonatopic asthma with reporting of areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves as a measure of model performance. In addition, an unsupervised approach was performed by using a bayesian network to reveal data-driven relationships between eNose volatile organic compound profiles and asthma characteristics. RESULTS: Breath profiles of 655 participants (n = 601 adults and school-aged children with asthma and 54 preschool children with wheezing [68.2% of whom were atopic]) were included in this study. Machine learning models utilizing volatile organic compound profiles discriminated between atopic and nonatopic participants with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of at least 0.84 and 0.72 in the training and validation sets, respectively. The unsupervised approach revealed that breath profiles classifying atopy are not confounded by other patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: eNoses accurately detect atopy in individuals with asthma and wheezing in cohorts with different age groups and could be used in asthma phenotyping.

18.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 046006, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153262

RESUMO

Offline breath analysis by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) requires the use of sorbent traps to concentrate and store volatile compounds. The selection of which sorbent to use and best practices for managing high relative humidity are important considerations to allow for reproducible, untargeted, biomarker discovery in water saturated breath samples. This work aims to assess three commonly used sorbent materials for their use in breath volatile sampling and determine how the high relative humidity inherent in such samples effects the capture of volatile compounds of interest. TenaxGR, TenaxTA/Carbograph1TD and TenaxTA/Carbograph5TD tubes were selected as they are the most commonly used sorbents in the breath sampling literature. The recovery of 29 compounds in a standard mix loaded using high humidity gas was tested for each sorbent and compared to loading in dry gas. Water retention and dry purge rates were determined for each sorbent for 500 ml and 1000 ml breath collections. Finally, breath samples were collected simultaneously on to each sorbent type using the ReCIVA and analysed by TD-GC-MS. All three sorbents exhibited acceptable reproducibility when loaded with the standard mix in dry gas (RSD < 10%). Loading the standard mix in humid gas led to reduced recovery of compounds based on their chemical properties. Dry purging performance for each sorbent material was assessed and was shown to be 1.14, 1.13 and 0.89 mg H2O min-1 for TenaxGR, TenaxTA/Carbograph1TD and TenaxTA/Carbograph5TD respectively when flushed with 50 ml min-1 of N2. A comparison of breath profiles on different sorbents showed differences in background artefacts (sulfur dioxide, cyclopenten-1-one and 3-nonene) and endogenous breath compounds (2-methyl-furan and furfural). This work demonstrates that high relative humidity during sampling reduces the ability of sorbent tubes to capture volatile compounds and could impact method detection limits during breath sampling. Sufficient water to impair accurate analysis was retained on all tubes. Minimal differences were observed between sorbent materials when used to sample breath, however, suggestions are provided for sorbent selection for future studies.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Umidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adsorção , Análise Discriminante , Gases/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Água
19.
Eur Respir J ; 55(2)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515400

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a heterogeneous condition, characterised by chronic inflammation of the airways, typically managed with inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids. In the case of uncontrolled asthma, oral corticosteroids (OCSs) are often prescribed. Good adherence and inhalation technique are associated with improved outcomes; however, it is difficult to monitor appropriate drug intake and effectiveness in individual patients. Exhaled breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that reflect changes in the body's chemistry and may be useful for monitoring drug pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. We aimed to investigate the association of exhaled VOCs in severe asthma patients from the U-BIOPRED cohort (by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry) with urinary levels of salbutamol and OCSs (by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry). METHODS: Samples were collected at baseline and after 12-18 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis was based on univariate and multivariate modelling, followed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) calculation. Results were verified through longitudinal replication and independent validation. RESULTS: Data were available for 78 patients (baseline n=48, replication n=30 and validation n=30). Baseline AUC values were 82.1% (95% CI 70.4-93.9%) for salbutamol and 78.8% (95% CI 65.8-91.8%) for OCS. These outcomes could be adequately replicated and validated. Additional regression analysis between qualified exhaled VOCs and urinary concentrations of salbutamol and prednisone showed statistically significant correlations (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: We have linked exhaled VOCs to urinary detection of salbutamol and OCSs. This merits further development of breathomics into a point-of-care tool for therapeutic drug monitoring.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA