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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(9): e13238, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New electronic cohort (e-Cohort) study designs provide resource-effective methods for collecting participant data. It is unclear if implementing an e-Cohort study without direct, in-person participant contact can achieve successful participation rates. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare 2 distinct enrollment methods for setting up mobile health (mHealth) devices and to assess the ongoing adherence to device use in an e-Cohort pilot study. METHODS: We coenrolled participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) into the FHS-Health eHeart (HeH) pilot study, a digital cohort with infrastructure for collecting mHealth data. FHS participants who had an email address and smartphone were randomized to our FHS-HeH pilot study into 1 of 2 study arms: remote versus on-site support. We oversampled older adults (age ≥65 years), with a target of enrolling 20% of our sample as older adults. In the remote arm, participants received an email containing a link to enrollment website and, upon enrollment, were sent 4 smartphone-connectable sensor devices. Participants in the on-site arm were invited to visit an in-person FHS facility and were provided in-person support for enrollment and connecting the devices. Device data were tracked for at least 5 months. RESULTS: Compared with the individuals who declined, individuals who consented to our pilot study (on-site, n=101; remote, n=93) were more likely to be women, highly educated, and younger. In the on-site arm, the connection and initial use of devices was ≥20% higher than the remote arm (mean percent difference was 25% [95% CI 17-35] for activity monitor, 22% [95% CI 12-32] for blood pressure cuff, 20% [95% CI 10-30] for scale, and 43% [95% CI 30-55] for electrocardiogram), with device connection rates in the on-site arm of 99%, 95%, 95%, and 84%. Once connected, continued device use over the 5-month study period was similar between the study arms. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study demonstrated that the deployment of mobile devices among middle-aged and older adults in the context of an on-site clinic visit was associated with higher initial rates of device use as compared with offering only remote support. Once connected, the device use was similar in both groups.

2.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 74(1): 111-119, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898364

RESUMO

The probability of success of developing medicines to treat human disease can be improved by leveraging human genetics. Different types of genetic data and techniques, including genome-wide association, whole-exome sequencing, and whole-genome sequencing, can be used to gain insight into human disease. Layering different types of genetic evidence from Mendelian disease, coding variants, and common variation can bolster support for a genetic target. Human knockouts offer the potential to perform reverse genetic screens in humans to identify physiologically relevant targets. Other components of a good genetic target include protective loss-of-function mutations, some degree of known biology, tractability, and a clean on-target safety profile. In addition to using human genetics to inspire new drug programs, phenome-wide association studies can be used to identify alternative indications or repurposing opportunities. This information can be combined into a 5-step approach for selecting a genetic target for validation, which is presented in detail in this review. Finally, current challenges in leveraging human genetics are highlighted, including the difficulties translating certain types of genetic data, relatively small number of bona fide disease-associated coding rare variants, and current sample sizes of large well-curated biobanks linked to comprehensive genetic information.

3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(2): 115-127, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for progression of chronic kidney disease is strongly supported by biological plausibility, but empirical evidence to support its validity in epidemiological studies is lacking. We aimed to assess the consistency of the association between change in albuminuria and risk of end-stage kidney disease in a large individual participant-level meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: In this meta-analysis, we collected individual-level data from eligible cohorts in the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium (CKD-PC) with data on serum creatinine and change in albuminuria and more than 50 events on outcomes of interest. Cohort data were eligible if participants were aged 18 years or older, they had a repeated measure of albuminuria during an elapsed period of 8 months to 4 years, subsequent end-stage kidney disease or mortality follow-up data, and the cohort was active during this consortium phase. We extracted participant-level data and quantified percentage change in albuminuria, measured as change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) or urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR), during baseline periods of 1, 2, and 3 years. Our primary outcome of interest was development of end-stage kidney disease after a baseline period of 2 years. We defined an end-stage kidney disease event as initiation of kidney replacement therapy. We quantified associations of percentage change in albuminuria with subsequent end-stage kidney disease using Cox regression in each cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analysis. We further adjusted for regression dilution to account for imprecision in the estimation of albuminuria at the participant level. We did multiple subgroup analyses, and also repeated our analyses using participant-level data from 14 clinical trials, including nine clinical trials not in CKD-PC. FINDINGS: Between July, 2015, and June, 2018, we transferred and analysed data from 28 cohorts in the CKD-PC, which included 693 816 individuals (557 583 [80%] with diabetes). Data for 675 904 individuals and 7461 end-stage kidney disease events were available for our primary outcome analysis. Change in ACR was consistently associated with subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for end-stage kidney disease after a 30% decrease in ACR during a baseline period of 2 years was 0·83 (95% CI 0·74-0·94), decreasing to 0·78 (0·66-0·92) after further adjustment for regression dilution. Adjusted HRs were fairly consistent across cohorts and subgroups (ie, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes, and sex), but the association was somewhat stronger among participants with higher baseline ACR than among those with lower baseline ACR (pinteraction<0·0001). In individuals with baseline ACR of 300 mg/g or higher, a 30% decrease in ACR over 2 years was estimated to confer a more than 1% absolute reduction in 10-year risk of end-stage kidney disease, even at early stages of chronic kidney disease. Results were generally similar when we used change in PCR and when study populations from clinical trials were assessed. INTERPRETATION: Change in albuminuria was consistently associated with subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease across a range of cohorts, lending support to the use of change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for end-stage kidney disease in clinical trials of progression of chronic kidney disease in the setting of increased albuminuria. FUNDING: US National Kidney Foundation and US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4455, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367059

RESUMO

Thyroid dysfunction is an important public health problem, which affects 10% of the general population and increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many aspects of thyroid hormone regulation have only partly been elucidated, including its transport, metabolism, and genetic determinants. Here we report a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for thyroid function and dysfunction, testing 8 million genetic variants in up to 72,167 individuals. One-hundred-and-nine independent genetic variants are associated with these traits. A genetic risk score, calculated to assess their combined effects on clinical end points, shows significant associations with increased risk of both overt (Graves' disease) and subclinical thyroid disease, as well as clinical complications. By functional follow-up on selected signals, we identify a novel thyroid hormone transporter (SLC17A4) and a metabolizing enzyme (AADAT). Together, these results provide new knowledge about thyroid hormone physiology and disease, opening new possibilities for therapeutic targets.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4285, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327483

RESUMO

Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) have been proposed as a possible aid in drug development through elucidating mechanisms of action, identifying alternative indications, or predicting adverse drug events (ADEs). Here, we select 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to 19 candidate drug targets for common disease indications. We interrogate these SNPs by PheWAS in four large cohorts with extensive health information (23andMe, UK Biobank, FINRISK, CHOP) for association with 1683 binary endpoints in up to 697,815 individuals and conduct meta-analyses for 145 mapped disease endpoints. Our analyses replicate 75% of known GWAS associations (P < 0.05) and identify nine study-wide significant novel associations (of 71 with FDR < 0.1). We describe associations that may predict ADEs, e.g., acne, high cholesterol, gout, and gallstones with rs738409 (p.I148M) in PNPLA3 and asthma with rs1990760 (p.T946A) in IFIH1. Our results demonstrate PheWAS as a powerful addition to the toolkit for drug discovery.

6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4228, 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315176

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels can cause gout, an excruciating disease with suboptimal treatment. Previous GWAS identified common variants with modest effects on serum urate. Here we report large-scale whole-exome sequencing association studies of serum urate and kidney function among ≤19,517 European ancestry and African-American individuals. We identify aggregate associations of low-frequency damaging variants in the urate transporters SLC22A12 (URAT1; p = 1.3 × 10-56) and SLC2A9 (p = 4.5 × 10-7). Gout risk in rare SLC22A12 variant carriers is halved (OR = 0.5, p = 4.9 × 10-3). Selected rare variants in SLC22A12 are validated in transport studies, confirming three as loss-of-function (R325W, R405C, and T467M) and illustrating the therapeutic potential of the new URAT1-blocker lesinurad. In SLC2A9, mapping of rare variants of large effects onto the predicted protein structure reveals new residues that may affect urate binding. These findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of serum urate, and highlight molecular targets in SLC22A12 and SLC2A9 for lowering serum urate and preventing gout.

7.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Indices of body fat distribution are heritable, but few genetic signals have been reported from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of computed tomography (CT) imaging measurements of body fat distribution. We aimed to identify genes associated with adiposity traits and the key drivers that are central to adipose regulatory networks. SUBJECTS: We analyzed gene transcript expression data in blood from participants in the Framingham Heart Study, a large community-based cohort (n up to 4303), as well as implemented an integrative analysis of these data and existing biological information. RESULTS: Our association analyses identified unique and common gene expression signatures across several adiposity traits, including body mass index, waist-hip ratio, waist circumference, and CT-measured indices, including volume and quality of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. We identified six enriched KEGG pathways and two co-expression modules for further exploration of adipose regulatory networks. The integrative analysis revealed four gene sets (Apoptosis, p53 signaling pathway, Proteasome, Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis) and two co-expression modules with significant genetic variants and 94 key drivers/genes whose local networks were enriched with adiposity-associated genes, suggesting that these enriched pathways or modules have genetic effects on adiposity. Most identified key driver genes are involved in essential biological processes such as controlling cell cycle, DNA repair, and degradation of regulatory proteins are cancer related. CONCLUSIONS: Our integrative analysis of genetic, transcriptional, and biological information provides a list of compelling candidates for further follow-up functional studies to uncover the biological mechanisms underlying obesity. These candidates highlight the value of examining CT-derived and central adiposity traits.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(12)2018 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether increased aortic arch width (AAW) adds to standard Framingham risk factors and coronary artery calcium (CAC) for prediction of incident adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in community-dwelling adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3026 Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohort participants underwent noncontrast multidetector computed tomography from 2002 to 2005 to quantify CAC. We measured AAW as the distance between the centroids of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta, at the level of main pulmonary artery bifurcation or the right pulmonary artery. We determined sex, age group, and body size specific cut points for high (≥90th percentile) AAW from a healthy referent group (N=1471) and dichotomized AAW as high or not high across all study participants. Clinical covariates were obtained at Offspring cycle 7 (1998-2001) or Third Generation cycle 1 (2002-2005) examinations. The primary CVD outcome was a composite of myocardial infarction, coronary insufficiency, cerebrovascular accident, first hospitalization for heart failure, or CVD death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratio of high AAW on time-to-incident CVD after adjustment for Framingham risk factors and CAC. Net reclassification improvement was used to assess the effect of adding AAW to the baseline Framingham risk factor+CAC model. A total of 2826 participants (aged 51±11 years, 48% women) had complete covariates and were free of CVD at multidetector computed tomography. Over a median 8.9 years of follow-up, there were 135 incident CVD events. High AAW was independently predictive of CVD events (hazard ratio, 1.55; P=0.032) and appropriately reclassified participants at risk: net reclassification improvement, 0.31 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.48). CONCLUSION: AAW augments traditional CVD risk factors and CAC for prediction of incident adverse CVD events among community-dwelling adults.

9.
Nature ; 558(7708): 73-79, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875488

RESUMO

Although plasma proteins have important roles in biological processes and are the direct targets of many drugs, the genetic factors that control inter-individual variation in plasma protein levels are not well understood. Here we characterize the genetic architecture of the human plasma proteome in healthy blood donors from the INTERVAL study. We identify 1,927 genetic associations with 1,478 proteins, a fourfold increase on existing knowledge, including trans associations for 1,104 proteins. To understand the consequences of perturbations in plasma protein levels, we apply an integrated approach that links genetic variation with biological pathway, disease, and drug databases. We show that protein quantitative trait loci overlap with gene expression quantitative trait loci, as well as with disease-associated loci, and find evidence that protein biomarkers have causal roles in disease using Mendelian randomization analysis. By linking genetic factors to diseases via specific proteins, our analyses highlight potential therapeutic targets, opportunities for matching existing drugs with new disease indications, and potential safety concerns for drugs under development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Genômica , Proteoma/genética , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Mieloblastina/genética , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Vasculite/genética , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética
10.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(10): 1246-1252, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656781

RESUMO

It is unknown if lifelong exposure to increased hemodynamic stress from an elevated resting heart rate (HR) may contribute to aortic valve calcium (AVC). We performed multivariate regression analyses using data from 1,266 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring cohort participants and 6,764 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants. We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) for HR using summary-level data in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) AVC Consortium to investigate if there was evidence in favor of a causal relation. AVC was present in 39% of FHS Offspring cohort participants and in 13% of MESA cohort participants. In multivariate adjusted models, participants in the highest resting HR quartiles had significantly greater prevalence of AVC, with a prevalence ratio of 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99 to 1.44) for the FHS Offspring cohort and 1.32 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.63) for the MESA cohort, compared with those in the lowest quartile. There was a similar increase in the prevalence of AVC per standard deviation increase in resting HR in both FHS Offspring (prevalence ratio 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.15) and MESA (1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17). In contrast with these observational findings, a HR associated GRS was not significantly associated with AVC. Although our observational analysis indicates that a higher resting HR is associated with AVC, our genetic results do not support a causal relation. Unmeasured environmental and/or lifestyle factors associated with both increased resting HR and AVC that are not fully explained by covariates in our observational models may account for the association between resting HR and AVC.

11.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(1): e006209, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and freedom from coronary artery calcium (CAC). Prospective data on the association between maintenance of optimal CVH and the progression of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis are limited. We assessed the influence of unfavorable versus favorable CVH on the incidence of CAC progression. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population consisted of 1119 FHS (Framingham Heart Study) participants who attended the serial FHS MDCT I and MDCT II study (Multi-Detector Computed Tomography) and had a zero Agatston CAC score at baseline. CVH status was defined using 6 CVH metrics from the American Heart Association definition. CAC progression was defined by an increase in Agatston CAC score to ≥3.4. Generalized estimating equations were applied to identify significant associations of CAC progression with both the baseline measurement of CVH and the longitudinal maintenance of CVH. After follow-up (mean, 6.1 years), we observed CAC progression in 191 participants (17.1%). Participants with unfavorable CVH at baseline had a greater risk of CAC progression (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-4.23; P=0.0017). In addition, each unit decrease in ideal CVH metric was associated with an increase in CAC progression (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.34; P=0.067), after adjustment for baseline ideal CVH metrics. CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations between an unfavorable CVH profile and CAC progression support public health measures that seek to prevent cardiovascular disease by promoting favorable CVH profiles in persons free of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(3): 215-224, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29322198

RESUMO

Importance: Nearly half of all patients with heart failure have preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) as opposed to reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), yet associations of biomarkers with future heart failure subtype are incompletely understood. Objective: To evaluate the associations of 12 cardiovascular biomarkers with incident HFpEF vs HFrEF among adults from the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study included 4 longitudinal community-based cohorts: the Cardiovascular Health Study (1989-1990; 1992-1993 for supplemental African-American cohort), the Framingham Heart Study (1995-1998), the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2002), and the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease study (1997-1998). Each cohort had prospective ascertainment of incident HFpEF and HFrEF. Data analysis was performed from June 25, 2015, to November 9, 2017. Exposures: The following biomarkers were examined: N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide or brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T or I, C-reactive protein (CRP), urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), renin to aldosterone ratio, D-dimer, fibrinogen, soluble suppressor of tumorigenicity, galectin-3, cystatin C, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and interleukin 6. Main Outcomes and Measures: Development of incident HFpEF and incident HFrEF. Results: Among the 22 756 participants in these 4 cohorts (12 087 women and 10 669 men; mean [SD] age, 60 [13] years) in the study, during a median follow-up of 12 years, 633 participants developed incident HFpEF, and 841 developed HFrEF. In models adjusted for clinical risk factors of heart failure, 2 biomarkers were significantly associated with incident HFpEF: UACR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.20-1.48; P < .001) and natriuretic peptides (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.40; P < .001), with suggestive associations for high-sensitivity troponin (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19; P = .008), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45; P = .02), and fibrinogen (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22; P = .01). By contrast, 6 biomarkers were associated with incident HFrEF: natriuretic peptides (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.41-1.68; P < .001), UACR (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11-1.32; P < .001), high-sensitivity troponin (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.29-1.46; P < .001), cystatin C (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.11-1.27; P < .001), D-dimer (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.11-1.35; P < .001), and CRP (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.11-1.28; P < .001). When directly compared, natriuretic peptides, high-sensitivity troponin, and CRP were more strongly associated with HFrEF compared with HFpEF. Conclusions and Relevance: Biomarkers of renal dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were associated with incident HFrEF. By contrast, only natriuretic peptides and UACR were associated with HFpEF. These findings highlight the need for future studies focused on identifying novel biomarkers of the risk of HFpEF.

13.
Intern Med J ; 48(4): 414-421, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the elderly, impaired cognition may weaken medication adherence and compromise treatment for cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIM: We examined risk factors for medication adherence and the relationship between adherence and levels of CVD risk factors among older participants with hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS: The four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was administered to 1559 participants, median age 70 years, 53% women. We created an adherence score, ranging from 0 to 4, with low adherence defined as a score ≥2. CVD risk factors were assessed using standard protocols. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression (CES-D) scale. RESULTS: Among participants who self-reported taking antihypertensive, lipid-lowering and/or hyperglycaemic medication(s), 12% (n = 191) had low medication adherence. The risk of low adherence increased by 45% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-68%, P < 0.001) per five-unit increase in CES-D score. In participants taking antihypertensive medication (n = 1017), low adherence was associated with higher mean diastolic blood pressure (73 mmHg, 95% CI: 71-75 vs 71 mmHg, 95% CI: 70-71; P = 0.04) after adjusting for covariates. Among participants taking lipid-lowering medication (n = 937), low adherence was associated with higher mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (92 mg/dL, 95% CI: 87-96 vs 86 mg/dL, 95% CI: 84-88; P = 0.03). Low adherence was not associated with fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.10) or haemoglobin A1c (P = 0.68) in the subgroup of participants (n = 192) taking hypoglycaemic medication. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms might act as a barrier for medication adherence, which exacerbates CVD risk factors in older-aged adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Autorrelato , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(4): 651-659, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226491

RESUMO

AIMS: While heart failure with preserved (HFpEF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are well described, determinants and outcomes of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) remain unclear. We sought to examine clinical and biochemical predictors of incident HFmrEF in the community. METHODS AND RESULTS: We pooled data from four community-based longitudinal cohorts, with ascertainment of new heart failure (HF) classified into HFmrEF [ejection fraction (EF) 41-49%], HFpEF (EF ≥50%), and HFrEF (EF ≤40%). Predictors of incident HF subtypes were assessed using multivariable Cox models. Among 28 820 participants free of HF followed for a median of 12 years, there were 200 new HFmrEF cases, compared with 811 HFpEF and 1048 HFrEF. Clinical predictors of HFmrEF included age, male sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and prior myocardial infarction (multivariable adjusted P ≤ 0.003 for all). Biomarkers that predicted HFmrEF included natriuretic peptides, cystatin-C, and high-sensitivity troponin (P ≤ 0.0004 for all). Natriuretic peptides were stronger predictors of HFrEF [hazard ratio (HR) 2.00 per 1 standard deviation increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81-2.20] than of HFmrEF (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.20-1.90, P = 0.01 for difference), and did not differ in their association with incident HFmrEF and HFpEF (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.41-1.73, P = 0.68 for difference). All-cause mortality following the onset of HFmrEF was worse than that of HFpEF (50 vs. 39 events per 1000 person-years, P = 0.02), but comparable to that of HFrEF (46 events per 1000 person-years, P = 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: We found overlap in predictors of incident HFmrEF with other HF subtypes. In contrast, mortality risk after HFmrEF was worse than HFpEF, and similar to HFrEF.

15.
Environ Int ; 111: 14-22, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of proximity to major roadways, sustained exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and acute exposure to ambient air pollutants with adipokines and measures of glucose homeostasis among participants living in the northeastern United States. METHODS: We included 5958 participants from the Framingham Offspring cohort examination cycle 7 (1998-2001) and 8 (2005-2008) and Third Generation cohort examination cycle 1 (2002-2005) and 2 (2008-2011), who did not have type 2 diabetes at the time of examination visit. We calculated 2003 annual average PM2.5 at participants' home address, residential distance to the nearest major roadway, and daily PM2.5, black carbon (BC), sulfate, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone concentrations. We used linear mixed effects models for fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which were measured up to twice, and used linear regression models for adiponectin, resistin, leptin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) which were measured only once, adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic position, lifestyle, time, and seasonality. RESULTS: The mean age was 51years and 55% were women. Participants who lived 64m (25th percentile) from a major roadway had 0.28% (95% CI: 0.05%, 0.51%) higher fasting plasma glucose than participants who lived 413m (75th percentile) away, and the association appeared to be driven by participants who lived within 50m from a major roadway. Higher exposures to 3- to 7-day moving averages of BC and NOx were associated with higher glucose whereas the associations for ozone were negative. The associations otherwise were generally null and did not differ by median age, sex, educational attainment, obesity status, or prediabetes status. CONCLUSIONS: Living closer to a major roadway or acute exposure to traffic-related air pollutants were associated with dysregulated glucose homeostasis but not with adipokines among participants from the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Homeostase , Habitação , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem/análise , Sulfatos/análise , Emissões de Veículos
16.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1286, 2017 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097680

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Previous genetic studies have implicated regulatory mechanisms contributing to CKD. Here we present epigenome-wide association studies of eGFR and CKD using whole-blood DNA methylation of 2264 ARIC Study and 2595 Framingham Heart Study participants to identify epigenetic signatures of kidney function. Of 19 CpG sites significantly associated (P < 1e-07) with eGFR/CKD and replicated, five also associate with renal fibrosis in biopsies from CKD patients and show concordant DNA methylation changes in kidney cortex. Lead CpGs at PTPN6/PHB2, ANKRD11, and TNRC18 map to active enhancers in kidney cortex. At PTPN6/PHB2 cg19942083, methylation in kidney cortex associates with lower renal PTPN6 expression, higher eGFR, and less renal fibrosis. The regions containing the 243 eGFR-associated (P < 1e-05) CpGs are significantly enriched for transcription factor binding sites of EBF1, EP300, and CEBPB (P < 5e-6). Our findings highlight kidney function associated epigenetic variation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Progressão da Doença , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2(11): 1236-1246, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975197

RESUMO

Importance: Increased ability to quantify anatomical phenotypes across multiple organs provides the opportunity to assess their cumulative ability to identify individuals at greatest susceptibility for adverse outcomes. Objective: To apply unsupervised machine learning to define the distribution and prognostic importance of computed tomography-based multiorgan phenotypes associated with adverse health outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This asymptomatic community-based cohort study included 2924 Framingham Heart Study participants between July 2002 and April 2005 undergoing computed tomographic imaging of the chest and abdomen. Participants are from the offspring and third-generation cohorts. Exposures: Eleven computed tomography-based measures of valvular/vascular calcification, adiposity, and muscle attenuation. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death). Results: The median age of the participants was 50 years (interquartile range, 43-60 years), and 1422 (48.6%) were men. Principal component analysis identified 3 major anatomic axes: (1) global calcification (defined by aortic, thoracic, coronary, and valvular calcification); (2) adiposity (defined by pericardial, visceral, hepatic, and intrathoracic fat); and (3) muscle attenuation that explained 65.7% of the population variation. Principal components showed different evolution with age (continuous increase in global calcification, decrease in muscle attenuation, and U-shaped association with adiposity) but similar patterns in men and women. Using unsupervised clustering approaches in the offspring cohort (n = 1150), we identified a cohort (n = 232; 20.2%) with an unfavorable multiorgan phenotype across all 3 anatomic axes as compared with a favorable multiorgan phenotype. Membership in the unfavorable phenotypic cluster was associated with a greater prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.74-3.92; P < .001), independent of coronary artery calcium score, visceral adipose tissue, and 10-year global cardiovascular disease Framingham risk, and it provided improvement in metrics of discrimination and reclassification. Conclusions and Relevance: This proof-of-concept analysis demonstrates that unsupervised machine learning, in an asymptomatic community cohort, identifies an unfavorable multiorgan phenotype associated with adverse health outcomes, especially in elderly American adults. Future investigations in larger populations are required not only to validate the present results, but also to harness clinical, biochemical, imaging, and genetic markers to increase our understanding of healthy cardiovascular aging.

18.
JAMA Intern Med ; 177(11): 1586-1593, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973115

RESUMO

Importance: Gamification, the application of game design elements such as points and levels in nongame contexts, is often used in digital health interventions, but evidence on its effectiveness is limited. Objective: To test the effectiveness of a gamification intervention designed using insights from behavioral economics to enhance social incentives within families to increase physical activity. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Behavioral Economics Framingham Incentive Trial (BE FIT) was a randomized clinical trial with a 12-week intervention period and a 12-week follow-up period. The investigation was a community-based study between December 7, 2015, and August 14, 2016. Participants in the modified intent-to-treat analysis were adults enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study, a long-standing cohort of families. Interventions: All participants tracked daily step counts using a wearable device or a smartphone, established a baseline, selected a step goal increase, and received daily individual feedback on goal performance by text message or email for 24 weeks. Families in the gamification arm could earn points and progress through levels based on physical activity goal achievement during the 12-week intervention. The game design was meant to enhance collaboration, accountability, and peer support. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of participant-days that step goals were achieved during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of participant-days that step goals were achieved during the follow-up period and the change in the mean daily steps during the intervention and follow-up periods. Results: Among 200 adults comprising 94 families, the mean age was 55.4 years, and 56.0% (n = 112) were female. During the intervention period, participants in the gamification arm achieved step goals on a significantly greater proportion of participant-days (0.53 vs 0.32; adjusted difference, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.20-0.33; P < .001) and had a significantly greater increase in the mean daily steps compared with baseline (1661 vs 636; adjusted difference, 953; 95% CI, 505-1401; P < .001) than the control arm. During the follow-up period, physical activity in the gamification arm declined but remained significantly greater than that in the control arm for the proportion of participant-days achieving step goals (0.44 vs 0.33; adjusted difference, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05-0.19; P < .001) and the mean daily steps compared with baseline (1385 vs 798; adjusted difference, 494; 95% CI, 170-818; P < .01). Conclusions and Relevance: Gamification designed to leverage insights from behavioral economics to enhance social incentives significantly increased physical activity among families in the community. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02531763.


Assuntos
Exercício , Saúde da Família , Jogos Experimentais , Motivação , Caminhada/fisiologia , Feminino , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(7): 857-865, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605427

RESUMO

We examined associations between ambient air pollution and hepatic steatosis among 2,513 participants from the Framingham (Massachusetts) Offspring Study and Third Generation Cohort who underwent a computed tomography scan (2002-2005), after excluding men who reported >21 drinks/week and women who reported >14 drinks/week. We calculated each participant's residential-based distance to a major roadway and used a spatiotemporal model to estimate the annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter. Liver attenuation was measured by computed tomography, and liver-to-phantom ratio (LPR) was calculated. Lower values of LPR represent more liver fat. We estimated differences in continuous LPR using linear regression models and prevalence ratios for presence of hepatic steatosis (LPR ≤ 0.33) using generalized linear models, adjusting for demographics, individual and area-level measures of socioeconomic position, and clinical and lifestyle factors. Participants who lived 58 m (25th percentile) from major roadways had lower LPR (ß = -0.003, 95% confidence interval: -0.006, -0.001) and higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis (prevalence ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.28) than those who lived 416 m (75th percentile) away. The 2003 annual average fine particulate matter concentration was not associated with liver-fat measurements. Our findings suggest that living closer to major roadways was associated with more liver fat.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
20.
Lancet ; 390(10105): 1888-1917, 2017 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434650

RESUMO

The global nephrology community recognises the need for a cohesive plan to address the problem of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In July, 2016, the International Society of Nephrology hosted a CKD summit of more than 85 people with diverse expertise and professional backgrounds from around the globe. The purpose was to identify and prioritise key activities for the next 5-10 years in the domains of clinical care, research, and advocacy and to create an action plan and performance framework based on ten themes: strengthen CKD surveillance; tackle major risk factors for CKD; reduce acute kidney injury-a special risk factor for CKD; enhance understanding of the genetic causes of CKD; establish better diagnostic methods in CKD; improve understanding of the natural course of CKD; assess and implement established treatment options in patients with CKD; improve management of symptoms and complications of CKD; develop novel therapeutic interventions to slow CKD progression and reduce CKD complications; and increase the quantity and quality of clinical trials in CKD. Each group produced a prioritised list of goals, activities, and a set of key deliverable objectives for each of the themes. The intended users of this action plan are clinicians, patients, scientists, industry partners, governments, and advocacy organisations. Implementation of this integrated comprehensive plan will benefit people who are at risk for or affected by CKD worldwide.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Saúde Global , Prioridades em Saúde , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Congressos como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
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