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1.
AIDS Care ; : 1-10, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411046

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of women living with HIV are reaching their midlife. We explore the association of HIV status with sexual function (SF) in women aged 45-60 using two national cross-sectional surveys: the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles ("Natsal-3") and "PRIME", a survey of women living with HIV attending HIV clinics across England. Both studies asked the same questions about SF that take account not only sexual difficulties but also the relationship context and overall level of satisfaction, which collectively allowed an overall SF score to be derived. We undertook analyses of sexually-active women aged 45-60 from Natsal-3 (N = 1228, presumed HIV-negative given the low estimated prevalence of HIV in Britain) and PRIME (N = 386 women living with HIV). Women living with HIV were compared to Natsal-3 participants using multivariable logistic regression (adjusting for key confounders identified a priori: ethnicity, ongoing relationship status, depression and number of chronic conditions) and propensity scoring. Relative to Natsal-3 participants, women living with HIV were more likely to: have low overall SF (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.75 [2.15-6.56]), report ≥1 sexual problem(s) lasting ≥3 months (AOR 2.44 [1.49-4.00]), and report almost all 8 sexual problems asked about (AORs all ≥2.30). The association between HIV status and low SF remained statistically significant when using propensity scoring (AOR 2.43 [1.68-3.51]). Among women living with HIV (only), low SF was more common in those who were postmenopausal vs. Premenopausal (55.6% vs. 40.4%). This study suggests a negative association between HIV status and sexual function in women aged 45-60. We recommend routine assessment of SF in women living with HIV.

2.
Mucosal Immunol ; 12(5): 1212-1219, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239514

RESUMO

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a key location for the HIV reservoir. The observation that B-cell-T-cell doublets are enriched for CD32a (a low-affinity IgG receptor) in peripheral blood raises interesting questions, especially as these cells have been associated with HIV DNA in some studies. We sought to determine if similar doublets were present in GALT, the significance of these doublets, and their implications for the HIV reservoir. Given the importance of GALT as a reservoir for HIV, we looked for expression of CD32 on gut CD4 T cells and for evidence of doublets, and any relationship with HIV DNA in HIV + individuals initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) during primary HIV infection (PHI). Tonsil tissue was also available for one individual. As previously shown for blood, CD32high CD4 cells were mainly doublets of CD4 T cells and B cells, with T-cell expression of ICOS in tonsil and gut tissue. CD4 T cells associated with CD32 (compared with 'CD32-' CD4 cells) had higher expression of follicular markers CXCR5, PD-1, ICOS, and Bcl-6 consistent with a T follicular helper (TFH) phenotype. There was a significant correlation between rectal HIV DNA levels and CD32 expression on TFH cells. Together, these data suggest that CD32high doublets are primarily composed of TFH cells, a subset known to be preferentially infected by HIV.

3.
AIDS ; 33(7): 1253-1256, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045943

RESUMO

: Soluble forms of the coinhibitory receptors programmed death 1 (PD-1) and Tim-3 exist, but their relationship with T-cell surface expression remains unclear. When measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plasma, soluble PD-1, and soluble Tim-3 were elevated during primary HIV infection, decreased on antiretroviral therapy to levels found in controls, and correlated with cell surface expression. We conclude that soluble PD-1 and soluble Tim-3 are easy to measure biomarkers of immune exhaustion which potentially eliminate the need for flow cytometry.

4.
Sci Immunol ; 4(35)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101672

RESUMO

Infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and arthralgia. However, CHIKV infection can sometimes progress to chronic arthritis or even lethal disease. CHIKV continues to cause substantial morbidity worldwide as its vector mosquitoes expand and spread. There are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV. Although antibody therapy has shown promise in the prevention or treatment of CHIKV disease in preclinical models, challenges remain for implementing such therapies. Here, from the B cells of a survivor of natural CHIKV infection, we isolated ultrapotent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and encoded their sequences into mRNA molecules delivered by infusion. One human mAb, CHKV-24, was expressed to biologically significant levels in vivo after infusion of mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles in mice. We evaluated the protective capacity of CHKV-24 mAb immunoglobulin G protein or mRNA in mouse models of CHIKV infection. Treatment with CHKV-24 mRNA protected mice from arthritis, musculoskeletal tissue infection, and lethality and reduced viremia to undetectable levels at 2 days after inoculation. Infusion of macaques with CHKV-24 mRNA achieved a mean maximal mAb concentration of 10.1 to 35.9 micrograms per milliliter, with a half-life of 23 days, a level well above what is needed for protection in mice. Studies with CHKV-24 mRNA in macaques demonstrated a dose-response effect after the first dose of mRNA and maintained levels after second dose. These preclinical data with CHKV-24 mRNA suggest that it might be useful to prevent human disease.

5.
Sci Immunol ; 4(32)2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796092

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that has caused explosive outbreaks worldwide. Although neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CHIKV inhibit infection in animals, the contribution of Fc effector functions to protection remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the activity of therapeutic mAbs that had or lacked the ability to engage complement and Fcγ receptors (FcγR). When administered as post-exposure therapy in mice, the Fc effector functions of mAbs promoted virus clearance from infected cells and reduced joint swelling-results that were corroborated in antibody-treated transgenic animals lacking activating FcγR. The control of CHIKV infection by antibody-FcγR engagement was associated with an accelerated influx of monocytes. A series of immune cell depletions revealed that therapeutic mAbs required monocytes for efficient clearance of CHIKV infection. Overall, our study suggests that in mice, FcγR expression on monocytes is required for optimal therapeutic activity of antibodies against CHIKV and likely other related viruses.

6.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(4): 415-418, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621548

RESUMO

Following changes in national antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines removing the CD4 threshold for initiation of ART, we evaluated the time to ART initiation and reasons for delayed or non-initiation. A retrospective notes review of 292 newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals attending two London clinics between August 2015 and December 2016 was performed. Two hundred and fifty-four of 292 (87%) individuals started ART. Median time to ART initiation was 29 days (range: 0-514). Thirty of 292 (13%) did not start ART. Rates of virological suppression at six months were similar regardless of time to ART initiation. People who inject drugs (16.7% vs. 3.6%) (p = 0.009), having a higher median baseline CD4 cell count (500 vs. 388 cells/mm3, p = 0.001), and having gastrointestinal/liver co-morbidities (23% vs. 9%, p = 0.001) were associated with delayed ART initiation. The cohort not on ART had a higher median baseline CD4 cell count (500 vs. 388 cells/mm3, p < 0.001). Documented reasons for delayed or ART non-initiation included patient's choice, prolonged adjustment periods, and difficulty leaving work. We conclude that delayed or non-initiation of ART was associated with injecting drug use and prolonged adjustment to a new HIV diagnosis. Clinician factors may include lack of urgency with higher baseline CD4 cell counts. Improved linkage to care and drug services pathways may encourage timely ART initiation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
7.
AIDS Behav ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306439

RESUMO

There are still important gaps in our understanding of how people will incorporate PrEP into their existing HIV prevention strategies. In this paper, we explore how PrEP use impacted existing sexual risk behaviours and risk reduction strategies using qualitative data from the PROUD study. From February 2014 to January 2016, we conducted 41 in-depth interviews with gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) enrolled in the PROUD PrEP study at sexual health clinics in England. The interviews were conducted in English and were audio-recorded. The recordings were transcribed, coded and analysed using framework analysis. In the interviews, we explored participants' sexual behaviour before joining the study and among those using or who had used PrEP, changes to sexual behaviour after starting PrEP. Participants described the risk behaviour and management strategies before using PrEP, which included irregular condom use, sero-sorting, and strategic positioning. Participants described their sexual risk taking before initiating PrEP in the context of the sexualised use of drugs, geographical spaces linked with higher risk sexual norms, and digitised sexual networking, as well as problematic psychological factors that exacerbated risk taking. The findings highlight that in the main, individuals who were already having frequent condomless sex, added PrEP to the existing range of risk management strategies, influencing the boundaries of the 'rules' for some but not all. While approximately half the participants reduced other risk reduction strategies after starting PrEP, the other half did not alter their behaviours. PrEP provided an additional HIV prevention option to a cohort of GBMSM at high risk of HIV due to inconsistent use of other prevention options. In summary, PrEP provides a critical and necessary additional HIV prevention option that individuals can add to existing strategies in order to enhance protection, at least from HIV. As a daily pill, PrEP offers protection in the context of the sex cultures associated with sexualised drug use, digitised sexual applications and shifting social norms around sexual fulfilment and risk taking. PrEP can offer short or longer-term options for individuals as their sexual desires change over their life course offering protection from HIV during periods of heightened risk. PrEP should not be perceived or positioned in opposition to the existing HIV prevention toolkit, but rather as additive and as a tool that can and is having a substantial impact on HIV.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376108

RESUMO

Objectives: To determine the impact of valaciclovir on HIV disease progression in treatment-naive HIV-positive adults. Methods: In this fully blind, multicentre, 1:1 randomized placebo-controlled trial, treatment-naive HIV-1-positive adults with CD4 counts 400-900 cells/mm3 and not meeting contemporaneous recommendations for combination ART (cART) were randomized to valaciclovir 500 mg or placebo twice daily, and followed quarterly until having two consecutive CD4 counts ≤350 cells/mm3 or initiating cART for any reason. The primary analysis compared the rate of CD4 count decline by study arm after adjusting for baseline CD4 count and viral load (VL). Secondary analyses compared the rate of CD4 percentage decline, HIV VL, herpes simplex virus (HSV) recurrences and drug-related adverse events. The trial closed after release of the START trial results in August 2015. Results: We enrolled 198 participants in Canada, Brazil, Argentina and the UK. Median (IQR) age was 35 (30-43) years. Baseline CD4 count was 592 (491-694) cells/mm3 and VL was 4.04 (3.5-4.5) log10 copies/mL. Over 276 person-years of follow-up, CD4 counts declined by 49 cells/mm3/year in the valaciclovir arm versus 58 cells/mm3/year in the placebo arm (P = 0.65). No differences were seen in the rate of change in CD4 percentage (-1.2%/year versus -1.7%/year, P = 0.34). VL was 0.27 log10 copies/mL lower in valaciclovir participants overall (P<0.001). Placebo participants had more HSV recurrences (62 versus 21/100 person-years, P < 0.0001) but similar rates of grade ≥2 drug-related adverse events. Conclusions: Unlike prior trials using aciclovir, we found that valaciclovir did not slow CD4 count decline in cART-untreated adults, although power was limited due to premature study discontinuation. Valaciclovir modestly lowered HIV VL.

9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(4): 519-526, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few data comparing patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in randomized trials of initial antiretroviral therapy. We present results from a substudy of the NEAT001/ANRS143 trial. METHODS: The randomized trial compared first-line DRV/r 800/100 mg once daily plus RAL 400 mg twice daily and DRV/r plus TDF/FTC 245/200 mg once daily. Changes in PROs were assessed with 3 questionnaires: EuroQoL 5 domains (EQ-5D), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and HIV Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire. Major depressive disorder (MDD) was defined as CES-D ≥ 16. General estimating equations were used to model change over 96 weeks in PROs from baseline. RESULTS: Of the 805 participants, 797 (99%) contributed to the substudy. Baseline PRO data were similar for the 2 randomized groups. Health status improved over time with a mean increase in EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS) of 8.0 by W96 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.5 to 9.4; P < 0.001], and no statistically significant differences between groups (difference of 0.3 on VAS score (95% CI: -1.7 to 2.3); P = 0.7, global P value ≥0.05 for all domains over follow-up). There was no significant difference between groups on CES-D [difference of -0.1 (95% CI: -1.3 to 1.1); P = 0.9], or MDD during follow-up, adjusted for baseline MDD (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.18; P = 0.9). RAL + DRV/r group had lower level of convenience (P = 0.03) and fitted less well into patients' lifestyle (P = 0.007) than the TDF/FTC + DRV/r regimen, and was associated with lower treatment satisfaction [median score: 53 RAL + DRV/r vs 55 TDF/FTC + DRV/r (P = 0.001)]. CONCLUSION: PROs improved after starting antiretroviral therapy, with no statistically significant difference between groups. The lower satisfaction with RAL + DRV/r may be explained by twice-daily administration.

10.
Sci Immunol ; 3(26)2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120121

RESUMO

HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) confer protection after passive immunization, but the immunological mechanisms that drive their development are poorly understood. Structural features of bNAbs indicate that they originate from extensive germinal center (GC) selection, which relies on persistent GC activity. However, why a fraction of infected individuals are able to successfully drive more effective affinity maturation is unclear. Delivery of antigens in the form of antibody-immune complexes (ICs), which bind to complement receptors (CRs) or Fc receptors (FcRs) on follicular dendritic cells, represents an effective mechanism for antigen delivery to the GC. We sought to define whether IC-FcR or CR interactions differ among individuals who develop bNAb responses to HIV. Enhanced Fc effector functions and FcR/CR interactions, via altered Fc glycosylation profiles, were observed among individuals with neutralizing antibody responses to HIV compared with those without neutralizing antibody activity. Moreover, both polyclonal neutralizer ICs and monoclonal IC mimics of neutralizer antibodies induced higher antibody titers, higher-avidity antibodies, and expanded GC B cell reactions after immunization of mice via accelerated antigen deposition within B cell follicles in a complement-dependent manner. Thus, these data point to a direct role for altered Fc profile/complement interactions in shaping the maturation of the humoral immune response, providing insights into how GC activity may be enhanced to drive affinity maturation in next-generation vaccine approaches.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912307

RESUMO

Background: Both immediate or deferred switching from a PI/r to DTG may improve lipid profile. Methods: NEAT022 is a European, open label, randomized, trial. HIV-infected adults ≥ 50 years or with a Framingham score ≥10% were eligible if HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL. Patients were randomized to switch the PI/r to DTG immediately (DTG-I) or to deferred switch at week 48 (DTG-D) . Week 96 end-points were: proportion of patients with HIV RNA < 50 copies/ml, percentage change of lipid fractions and adverse events. Results: 415 patients were randomized: 205 to DTG-I and 210 to continue PI/r plus a deferred switch (DTG-D) at week 48 . The primary objective of non-inferiority at week 48 was met. At week 96, treatment success rate was 92.2 % in DTG-I arm and 87% in DTG-D arm (difference 5.2%, 95% CI -0.6 to 11). There were 5 virological failures in the DTG-I arm and 5 (1 while on PI/r and 4 after switching to DTG) in the DTG-D arm without selection of resistance mutations. There was no significant difference in terms of grade 3 or 4 AE´s or treatment modifying AE´s. Total cholesterol and other lipid fractions (except HDL) significantly (p<0.001) improved both after immediate and deferred switching to DTG overall and regardless of baseline PI/r strata. Conclusions: Both immediate and deferred switching from a PI/r to a DTG regimen in virologically suppressed HIV patients ≥ 50 years old or with a Framingham score ≥10% was highly efficacious, well tolerated and improved lipid profile.

12.
Nature ; 557(7706): 570-574, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769725

RESUMO

Arthritogenic alphaviruses comprise a group of enveloped RNA viruses that are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes and cause debilitating acute and chronic musculoskeletal disease 1 . The host factors required for alphavirus entry remain poorly characterized 2 . Here we use a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-based screen to identify the cell adhesion molecule Mxra8 as an entry mediator for multiple emerging arthritogenic alphaviruses, including chikungunya, Ross River, Mayaro and O'nyong nyong viruses. Gene editing of mouse Mxra8 or human MXRA8 resulted in reduced levels of viral infection of cells and, reciprocally, ectopic expression of these genes resulted in increased infection. Mxra8 bound directly to chikungunya virus particles and enhanced virus attachment and internalization into cells. Consistent with these findings, Mxra8-Fc fusion protein or anti-Mxra8 monoclonal antibodies blocked chikungunya virus infection in multiple cell types, including primary human synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and skeletal muscle cells. Mutagenesis experiments suggest that Mxra8 binds to a surface-exposed region across the A and B domains of chikungunya virus E2 protein, which are a speculated site of attachment. Finally, administration of the Mxra8-Fc protein or anti-Mxra8 blocking antibodies to mice reduced chikungunya and O'nyong nyong virus infection as well as associated foot swelling. Pharmacological targeting of Mxra8 could form a strategy for mitigating infection and disease by multiple arthritogenic alphaviruses.


Assuntos
Vírus Chikungunya/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Vírus O'nyong-nyong/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Vírus O'nyong-nyong/patogenicidade , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/deficiência , Receptores Virais/genética
13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 928, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780387

RESUMO

Efforts to both characterize and eradicate the HIV reservoir have been limited by the rarity of latently infected cells and the absence of a specific denoting biomarker. CD32a (FcγRIIa) has been proposed to be a marker for an enriched CD4 T cell HIV reservoir, but this finding remains controversial. Here, we explore the expression of CD32 on CD3+CD4+ cells in participants from two primary HIV infection studies and identify at least three distinct phenotypes (CD32low, CD32+CD14+, and CD32high). Of note, CD4 negative enrichment kits remove the majority of CD4+CD32+ T cells, potentially skewing subsequent analyses if used. CD32high CD4 T cells had higher levels of HLA-DR and HIV co-receptor expression than other subsets, compatible with their being more susceptible to infection. Surprisingly, they also expressed high levels of CD20, TCRαß, IgD, and IgM (but not IgG), markers for both T cells and naïve B cells. Compared with other populations, CD32low cells had a more differentiated memory phenotype and high levels of immune checkpoint receptors, programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), Tim-3, and TIGIT. Within all three CD3+CD4+CD32+ phenotypes, cells could be identified in infected participants, which contained HIV DNA. CD32 expression on CD4 T cells did not correlate with HIV DNA or cell-associated HIV RNA (both surrogate measures of overall reservoir size) or predict time to rebound viremia following treatment interruption, suggesting that it is not a dominant biomarker for HIV persistence. Our data suggest that while CD32+ T cells can be infected with HIV, CD32 is not a specific marker of the reservoir although it might identify a population of HIV enriched cells in certain situations.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(3): 420-429, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538636

RESUMO

Background: Randomized trials have shown increased risk of suicidality associated with efavirenz (EFV). The START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) trial randomized treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults with high CD4 cell counts to immediate vs deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: The initial ART regimen was selected prior to randomization (prespecified). We compared the incidence of suicidal and self-injurious behaviours (suicidal behavior) between the immediate vs deferred ART groups using proportional hazards models, separately for those with EFV and other prespecified regimens, by intention to treat, and after censoring participants in the deferred arm at ART initiation. Results: Of 4684 participants, 271 (5.8%) had a prior psychiatric diagnosis. EFV was prespecified for 3515 participants (75%), less often in those with psychiatric diagnoses (40%) than without (77%). While the overall intention-to-treat comparison showed no difference in suicidal behavior between arms (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07, P = .81), subgroup analyses suggest that initiation of EFV, but not other ART, is associated with increased risk of suicidal behavior. When censoring follow-up at ART initiation in the deferred group, the immediate vs deferred HR among those who were prespecified EFV was 3.31 (P = .03) and 1.04 (P = .93) among those with other prespecified ART; (P = .07 for interaction). In the immediate group, the risk was higher among those with prior psychiatric diagnoses, regardless of prespecified treatment group. Conclusions: Participants who used EFV in the immediate ART group had increased risk of suicidal behavior compared with ART-naive controls. Those with prior psychiatric diagnoses were at higher risk.

15.
AIDS ; 31(18): 2503-2514, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, safety, and impact on lipid fractions of switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) to a dolutegravir (DTG) regimen. METHODS: HIV type 1-infected adults more than 50 years or with a Framingham score more than 10% were eligible if plasma HIV RNA less than 50 copies per ml for at least 24 weeks while on a PI/r regimen. Patients were randomized to switch to DTG or to remain on PI/r. Primary endpoints were: proportion maintaining HIV RNA less than 50 copies per ml and percentage change from baseline of total cholesterol at week 48. RESULTS: In total, 415 patients (32 sites in six European countries) were randomized: 205 to DTG and 210 to continue PI/r. About 89% were men, 87% more than 50 years, 74% had a Framingham score more than 10%, with a median CD4 cell count of 617 cells per µl and suppressed viremia for a median of 5 years. At week 48, in the intent-to-treat analysis, treatment success rate was 93.1% in DTG group and 95.2% in PI/r group (difference -2.1%, 95% confidence interval -6.6 to 2.4, noninferiority demonstrated). There were four virological failures with DTG and one with PI/r with no emergent resistance mutations. There was no significant difference in severe adverse events or grade 3 or 4 adverse events or treatment modifying adverse events. Total cholesterol and other lipid fractions (except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) improved significantly (P < 0.001) in the DTG group regardless of PI/r at baseline. CONCLUSION: Switching to a DTG regimen in virologically suppressed HIV type 1 patients with high cardiovascular disease risk was noninferior, and significantly improved lipid profiles.


Assuntos
Substituição de Medicamentos/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BMJ Open ; 7(8): e016494, 2017 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A key UK public health priority is to reduce HIV incidence among gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to explore the social and environmental context in which new HIV infections occurred among MSM in London and Brighton in 2015. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study, comprising in-depth interviews, was carried out as a substudy to the UK Register of HIV Seroconverters cohort: an observational cohort of individuals whose date of HIV seroconversion was well estimated. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted in NVivo, guided by a socio-ecological framework. SETTING: Participants were recruited from six HIV clinics in London and Brighton. Fieldwork was conducted between January and April 2015. PARTICIPANTS: All MSM eligible for the UK Register Seroconverter cohort (an HIV-positive antibody test result within 12 months of their last documented HIV-negative test or other laboratory evidence of HIV seroconversion) diagnosed within the past 12 months and aged ≥18 were eligible for the qualitative substudy. 21 MSM participated, aged 22-61 years and predominantly white. RESULTS: A complex interplay of factors, operating at different levels, influenced risk behaviours and HIV acquisition. Participants saw risk as multi-factorial, but the relative importance of factors varied for each person. Individual psycho-social factors, including personal history, recent life stressors and mental health, enhanced vulnerability towards higher risk situations, while features of the social environment, such as chemsex and social media, and prevalent community beliefs regarding treatment and HIV normalisation, encouraged risk taking. CONCLUSIONS: Recently acquired HIV infection among MSM reflects a complex web of factors operating at different levels. These findings point to the need for multi-level interventions to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition among high-risk MSM in the UK and similar settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Meio Social , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra , Meio Ambiente , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Mídias Sociais , Normas Sociais , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Virol ; 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28747508

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes debilitating musculoskeletal pain and inflammation and can persist for months to years after acute infection. Although studies in humans and experimentally-infected animals suggest that CHIKV infection persists in musculoskeletal tissues, the mechanisms for this remain poorly understood. To evaluate this further, we isolated CHIKV from the serum of persistently infected Rag1-/- mice at day 28. When inoculated into naïve WT mice, this persistently circulating CHIKV strain displayed a capacity for earlier dissemination and greater pathogenicity compared with the parental virus. Sequence analysis revealed a nonsynonymous mutation in the E2 glycoprotein (E2 K200R) and a deletion within the 3' untranslated region (3' -UTR). Introduction of these changes into the parental virus conferred enhanced virulence in mice although a primary tropism for musculoskeletal tissues was maintained. The E2 K200R mutation was largely responsible for enhanced viral dissemination and pathogenicity, although these effects were augmented by the 3' -UTR deletion. Finally, studies in Irf3/Irf7-/- and Ifnar1-/- mice suggest that the E2 K200R mutation enhances viral dissemination from the site of inoculation independently of IRF3, IRF7, and IFNAR1 mediated responses. As our findings reveal viral determinants of CHIKV dissemination and pathogenicity, their further study should help to elucidate host-virus interactions that determine acute and chronic CHIKV infection.IMPORTANCE CHIKV is a globally-spreading, mosquito-transmitted virus that causes debilitating acute and chronic musculoskeletal disease in humans. The viral genetic determinants that dictate acute and chronic disease severity are not understood. To improve our understanding of CHIKV pathogenesis, we evaluated a CHIKV strain isolated from the serum of chronically-infected immunocompromised mice. Sequence analysis of this persistent CHIKV strain identified two mutations, an amino acid change in the E2 viral attachment protein and a deletion within the 3' -UTR of the viral genome. We identified roles for these mutations in enhancement of viral dissemination from the inoculation site and in disease severity. These data improve our understanding of the viral determinants of CHIKV pathogenesis and adaptive changes that occur during viral persistence.

18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(6): e0005637, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628616

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes a febrile syndrome in humans associated with acute and chronic debilitating joint and muscle pain. Currently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are available to prevent or treat CHIKV infections. We recently isolated a panel of potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), one (4N12) of which exhibited prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic activity against CHIKV in immunocompromised mice. Here, we describe the development of an engineered CHIKV mAb, designated SVIR001, that has similar antigen binding and neutralization profiles to its parent, 4N12. Because therapeutic administration of SVIR001 in immunocompetent mice significantly reduced viral load in joint tissues, we evaluated its efficacy in a rhesus macaque model of CHIKV infection. Rhesus macaques that were treated after infection with SVIR001 showed rapid elimination of viremia and less severe joint infiltration and disease compared to animals treated with SVIR002, an isotype control mAb. SVIR001 reduced viral burden at the site of infection and at distant sites and also diminished the numbers of activated innate immune cells and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SVIR001 therapy; however, did not substantively reduce the induction of CHIKV-specific B or T cell responses. Collectively, these results show promising therapeutic activity of a human anti-CHIKV mAb in rhesus macaques and provide proof-of-principle for its possible use in humans to treat active CHIKV infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Febre de Chikungunya/terapia , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Febre de Chikungunya/patologia , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Macaca mulatta , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Virol ; 91(15)2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539449

RESUMO

There is growing interest in utilizing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to eliminate infected cells following reactivation from HIV-1 latency. A potential barrier is that HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies decline in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may not be sufficient to eliminate reactivated latently infected cells. It is not known whether reactivation from latency with latency-reversing agents (LRAs) could provide sufficient antigenic stimulus to boost HIV-1-specific ADCC. We found that treatment with the LRA panobinostat or a short analytical treatment interruption (ATI), 21 to 59 days, was not sufficient to stimulate an increase in ADCC-competent antibodies, despite viral rebound in all subjects who underwent the short ATI. In contrast, a longer ATI, 2 to 12 months, among subjects enrolled in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial robustly boosted HIV-1 gp120-specific Fc receptor-binding antibodies and ADCC against HIV-1-infected cells in vitro These results show that there is a lag between viral recrudescence and the boosting of ADCC antibodies, which has implications for strategies toward eliminating latently infected cells.IMPORTANCE The "shock and kill" HIV-1 cure strategy aims to reactivate HIV-1 expression in latently infected cells and subsequently eliminate the reactivated cells through immune-mediated killing. Several latency reversing agents (LRAs) have been examined in vivo, but LRAs alone have not been able to achieve HIV-1 remission and prevent viral rebound following analytical treatment interruption (ATI). In this study, we examined whether LRA treatment or ATI can provide sufficient antigenic stimulus to boost HIV-1-specific functional antibodies that can eliminate HIV-1-infected cells. Our study has implications for the antigenic stimulus required for antilatency strategies and/or therapeutic vaccines to boost functional antibodies and assist in eliminating the latent reservoir.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/administração & dosagem , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Panobinostat , Fatores de Tempo
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