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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e049933, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF), do baseline risk factors and stroke prevention strategies account for the geographically diverse outcomes. DESIGN: Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation is a prospective multinational non-interventional registry of patients with newly diagnosed AF (n=52 018 patients). SETTING: Investigator sites (n=1317) were representative of the care settings/locations in each of the 35 participating countries. Treatment decisions were all determined by the local responsible clinicians. PARTICIPANTS: The patients (18 years and over) with newly diagnosed AF had at least 1 investigator-determined stroke risk factor and patients were not required to meet specific thresholds of risk score for anticoagulant treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Observed 1-year event rates and risk-standardised rates were derived. RESULTS: Rates of death, non-haemorrhagic stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding varied more than three-to-four fold across countries even after adjustment for baseline factors and antithrombotic treatments. Rates of anticoagulation and antithrombotic treatment varied widely. Patients from countries with the highest rates of cardiovascular mortality and stroke were among the least likely to receive oral anticoagulants. Beyond anticoagulant treatment, variations in the treatment of comorbidities and lifestyle factors may have contributed to the variations in outcomes. Countries with the lowest healthcare Access and Quality indices (India, Ukraine, Argentina, Brazil) had the highest risk-standardised mortality. CONCLUSION: The variability in outcomes across countries for patients with newly diagnosed AF is not accounted for by baseline characteristics and antithrombotic treatments. Residual mortality rates were correlated with Healthcare Access and Quality indices. The findings suggest the management of patients with AF needs to not only address guideline indicated and sustained anticoagulation, but also the treatment of comorbidities and lifestyle factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01090362.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e022485, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569249

RESUMO

Background In event-driven clinical trials, study termination is based on accrual of a target number of primary efficacy events. For noninferiority trials in which superiority is conditionally examined, the ideal cohort in which to track event accrual is unclear. We used data from the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial to determine the effect of primary efficacy-event tracking in the per-protocol cohort during the on-treatment period versus the intention-to-treat (ITT) cohort during the ITT period. Methods and Results ROCKET AF was terminated after accruing 429 primary efficacy events (stroke or systemic embolism) in the per-protocol cohort during the on-treatment period for noninferiority. We identified the date on which 429 events occurred in the ITT cohort during the ITT period. We performed noninferiority and superiority analyses based on hypothetical study termination on this date. ROCKET AF would have terminated 226 days earlier if events were tracked during the ITT period. Similar to the main trial findings, rivaroxaban would have met noninferiority versus warfarin for the primary efficacy end point (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.96; P<0.001). In contrast to the main trial findings, rivaroxaban would have met superiority for the primary efficacy end point (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P=0.038). In both termination scenarios, rivaroxaban was associated with a lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage and similar risk of other safety end points. Conclusions Clinical trial termination based on event accrual in the ITT cohort versus the per-protocol cohort may have important implications on trial results depending on rates of study drug discontinuation and event rates off treatment.

3.
Heart Rhythm O2 ; 2(3): 215-222, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337571

RESUMO

Background: Insulin use may be a better predictor of stroke risk and morbidity and mortality than diabetes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Objectives: Determine if the increased risk of stroke observed in patients with AF and diabetes is restricted to those treated with insulin. Methods: We analyzed the association between diabetes and treatment and the occurrence of stroke/systemic embolism, myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause death, vascular death, composite outcomes, and bleeding risk in the ROCKET AF trial. Results: In a cohort of 14,264 patients, there were 40.3% (n = 5746) with diabetes, 5.9% (n = 842) on insulin, 18.9% (n = 2697) on oral medications, and 11.9% (n = 1703) diet-controlled. Compared to those without diabetes, patients with non-insulin-treated diabetes had increased risks of stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.68), MI (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.17-2.30), all-cause death (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46), vascular death (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), and composite outcomes (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.18-1.157). Patients with insulin-treated diabetes had a significantly higher risk of MI (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.33-4.01) and composite outcomes (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.08) compared to those without diabetes. There were no significant differences between insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated diabetes for any outcome. Conclusion: Among patients with AF and diabetes, there were no significant differences in outcomes in insulin-treated diabetes compared to non-insulin-treated diabetes.

4.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463737

RESUMO

AIMS: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients suffer a high risk of major cardiovascular (CV) events, with athero-thrombo-embolism as the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism. Recently, two large randomized clinical trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of low-dose rivaroxaban twice daily plus aspirin in stable PAD outpatients and those immediately after peripheral revascularization. We sought to determine if the effects of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared to aspirin alone are consistent across this broad spectrum of PAD patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of the COMPASS and VOYAGER randomized trials among 11 560 PAD patients (4996 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) in the primary analysis and 9332 (2768 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) with lower extremity (LE)-PAD in the secondary analysis. The hazard ratio (HR) for the composite of CV death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, acute limb ischaemia, or major vascular amputation was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.65-0.95) comparing low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin to aspirin alone. While the risk of major bleeding was increased with low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared to aspirin alone [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22-1.87)], there was no significant increase in severe bleeding [HR: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.79-1.76)]. Similar effects were observed in the subset with symptomatic LE-PAD. CONCLUSIONS: Among PAD patients, low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin is superior to aspirin alone in reducing CV and limb outcomes including acute limb ischaemia and major vascular amputation. This reduction is offset by a relative increase in major bleeding, but not by an excess of fatal or critical organ bleeding. The consistency of findings of these trials supports the use of combination low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in PAD patients across a broad spectrum of disease.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 14-23, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of 2.5 mg rivaroxaban twice daily and 100 mg aspirin once daily compared with 100 mg aspirin once daily reduces major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to report the effects of the combination on overall and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: The COMPASS trial enrolled 27,395 patients of whom 18,278 were randomized to the combination (n = 9,152) or aspirin alone (n = 9,126). Deaths were adjudicated by a committee blinded to treatment allocation. Previously identified high-risk baseline features were polyvascular disease, chronic kidney disease, mild or moderate heart failure, and diabetes. RESULTS: During a median of 23 months of follow-up (maximum 47 months), 313 patients (3.4%) allocated to the combination and 378 patients (4.1%) allocated to aspirin alone died (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.96; P = 0.01). Compared with aspirin, the combination reduced CV death (160 [1.7%] vs 203 [2.2%]; HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P = 0.02) but not non-CV death. There were fewer deaths following MI, stroke, and CV procedures, as well as fewer sudden cardiac, other, and unknown causes of CV deaths and coronary heart disease deaths. Patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 or 4 high-risk features at baseline had 4.2, 4.8, 25.0, and 53.9 fewer deaths, respectively, per 1000 patients treated for 30 months. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin reduced overall and CV mortality with consistent reductions in cause specific CV mortality in patients with chronic CAD or PAD. The absolute mortality benefits are greater with increasing baseline risk. (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulant Strategies [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).


Assuntos
Aspirina , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Doença Arterial Periférica , Rivaroxabana , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronary or peripheral arterial disease, adding low dose rivaroxaban to aspirin reduces cardiovascular events and mortality. Polypharmacy and multimorbidity are frequent in such patients. AIMS: To analyze whether the benefits and risks of rivaroxaban plus aspirin varies in patients with comorbidities and receiving multiple drugs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe ischemic events (cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction) and major bleeding in participants from the randomised, double-blind COMPASS study by number of cardiovascular medications and concomitant medical conditions. We compared event rates and hazard ratios (HR) for rivaroxaban plus aspirin versus aspirin alone by the number of medications and concomitant conditions, and tested for interaction between polypharmacy or multimorbidity and the antithrombotic regimen.The risk of ischemic events was higher in patients with more concomitant drugs (HR 1.7, 95%CI 1.5-2.1 for >4 vs 0-2) and with more comorbidities (HR 2.3, 1.8-2.1 for >3 vs 0-1). Multimorbidity, but not polypharmacy, was associated with a higher risk of major bleeding. The relative efficacy, safety, and net clinical benefit of rivaroxaban were not affected by the number of drugs or comorbidities. Patients taking more concomitant medications derived the largest absolute reduction in the net clinical outcome with added rivaroxaban (1.1% vs 0.4% reduction with >4 vs 0-2 cardiovascular drugs, NNT 91 vs 250). CONCLUSION: Adding low-dose rivaroxaban to aspirin resulted in benefits irrespective of the number of concomitant drugs or comorbidities. Multiple comorbidities and/or polypharmacy should not dissuade the addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin in otherwise eligible patients.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(9): 2322-2334, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) in atrial fibrillation (AF) reduces the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SE). The impact of OAC discontinuation is less well documented. OBJECTIVE: Investigate outcomes of patients prospectively enrolled in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field-Atrial Fibrillation study who discontinued OAC. METHODS: Oral anticoagulation discontinuation was defined as cessation of treatment for ≥7 consecutive days. Adjusted outcome risks were assessed in 23 882 patients with 511 days of median follow-up after discontinuation. RESULTS: Patients who discontinued (n = 3114, 13.0%) had a higher risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]) of all-cause death (1.62 [1.25-2.09]), stroke/systemic embolism (SE) (2.21 [1.42-3.44]) and myocardial infarction (MI) (1.85 [1.09-3.13]) than patients who did not, whether OAC was restarted or not. This higher risk of outcomes after discontinuation was similar for patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) (p for interactions range = 0.145-0.778). Bleeding history (1.43 [1.14-1.80]), paroxysmal vs. persistent AF (1.15 [1.02-1.29]), emergency room care setting vs. office (1.37 [1.18-1.59]), major, clinically relevant nonmajor, and minor bleeding (10.02 [7.19-13.98], 2.70 [2.24-3.25] and 1.90 [1.61-2.23]), stroke/SE (4.09 [2.55-6.56]), MI (2.74 [1.69-4.43]), and left atrial appendage procedures (4.99 [1.82-13.70]) were predictors of discontinuation. Age (0.84 [0.81-0.88], per 10-year increase), history of stroke/transient ischemic attack (0.81 [0.71-0.93]), diabetes (0.88 [0.80-0.97]), weeks from AF onset to treatment (0.96 [0.93-0.99] per week), and permanent vs. persistent AF (0.73 [0.63-0.86]) were predictors of lower discontinuation rates. CONCLUSIONS: In GARFIELD-AF, the rate of discontinuation was 13.0%. Discontinuation for ≥7 consecutive days was associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality, stroke/SE, and MI risk. Caution should be exerted when considering any OAC discontinuation beyond 7 days.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
8.
Heart ; 107(14): 1130-1137, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with chronic coronary or peripheral artery disease enrolled in the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies trial, randomised antithrombotic treatments were stopped after a median follow-up of 23 months because of benefits of the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg two times per day and aspirin 100 mg once daily compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily. We assessed the effect of switching to non-study aspirin at the time of early stopping. METHODS: Incident composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death was estimated per 100 person-years (py) during randomised treatment (n=18 278) and after study treatment discontinuation to non-study aspirin (n=14 068). RESULTS: During randomised treatment, the combination compared with aspirin reduced the composite (2.2 vs 2.9/100 py, HR: 0.76, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.86), stroke (0.5 vs 0.8/100 py, HR: 0.58, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.76) and cardiovascular death (0.9 vs 1.2/100 py, HR: 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.96). During 1.02 years after early stopping, participants originally randomised to the combination compared with those randomised to aspirin had similar rates of the composite (2.1 vs 2.0/100 py, HR: 1.08, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.39) and cardiovascular death (1.0 vs 0.8/100 py, HR: 1.26, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.86) but higher stroke rate (0.7 vs 0.4/100 py, HR: 1.74, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.87) including a significant increase in ischaemic stroke during the first 6 months after switching to non-study aspirin. CONCLUSION: Discontinuing study rivaroxaban and aspirin to non-study aspirin was associated with the loss of cardiovascular benefits and a stroke excess. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01776424.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 337: 9-15, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957178

RESUMO

Background The COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) trial showed that rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD). We explored whether CHA2DS2-VASc or CHADS2 scores, well-validated tools for assessing risk of thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation, can identify vascular patients at highest risk of recurrent events who may derive greatest benefits of treatment. Methods Predictive accuracies of the CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 scores for MACE, were assessed in this analysis of the COMPASS trial. Kaplan-Meier estimates of cumulative risk were used to compare the effects of rivaroxaban plus aspirin (n = 9152) with aspirin alone (n = 9126) according to risk scores. Results High CHA2DS2-VASc (6-9) or CHADS2 (3-6) scores were associated with over three times greater absolute risk of MACE compared with CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1-2 or CHADS2 score of 0. The effects of rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone were consistent across CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 score categories for MACE, bleeding and net clinical benefit, with greatest reduction in MACE observed in patients treated for 30 months with highest CHADS2 score (3-6) (hazard ratio = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53-0.86, p = 0.0012, 25 events per 1000 patients prevented). Conclusion The CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 scores can be used in patients with chronic CAD and/or PAD to identify patients who are at highest risk of MACE. Those identified at highest risk by CHADS2 scores had greatest benefit from dual pathway inhibition with rivaroxaban plus aspirin. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cardiopatias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Circulation ; 143(22): 2129-2142, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor health-related quality of life (HRQL) is common in heart failure (HF), but there are few data on HRQL in HF and the association between HRQL and mortality outside Western countries. METHODS: We used the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-12 (KCCQ-12) to record HRQL in 23 291 patients with HF from 40 countries in 8 different world regions in the G-CHF study (Global Congestive Heart Failure). We compared standardized KCCQ-12 summary scores (adjusted for age, sex, and markers of HF severity) among regions (scores range from 0 to 100, with higher score indicating better HRQL). We used multivariable Cox regression with adjustment for 15 variables to assess the association between KCCQ-12 summary scores and the composite of all-cause death, HF hospitalization, and each component over a median follow-up of 1.6 years. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 65 years; 61% were men; 40% had New York Heart Association class III or IV symptoms; and 46% had left ventricular ejection fraction ≥40%. Average HRQL differed between regions (lowest in Africa [mean± SE, 39.5±0.3], highest in Western Europe [62.5±0.4]). There were 4460 (19%) deaths, 3885 (17%) HF hospitalizations, and 6949 (30%) instances of either event. Lower KCCQ-12 summary score was associated with higher risk of all outcomes; the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for each 10-unit KCCQ-12 summary score decrement was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.17-1.20) for death. Although this association was observed in all regions, it was less marked in South Asia, South America, and Africa (weakest association in South Asia: HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.03-1.14]; strongest association in Eastern Europe: HR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.21-1.42]; interaction P<0.0001). Lower HRQL predicted death in patients with New York Heart Association class I or II and III or IV symptoms (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.14-1.19] and HR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.12-1.17]; interaction P=0.13) and was a stronger predictor for the composite outcome in New York Heart Association class I or II versus class III or IV (HR 1.15 [95% CI, 1.13-1.17] versus 1.09 [95% CI, [1.07-1.11]; interaction P<0.0001). HR for death was greater in ejection fraction ≥40 versus <40% (HR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.20-1.26] and HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.13-1.17]; interaction P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: HRQL is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause death and HF hospitalization across all geographic regions, in mildly and severe symptomatic HF, and among patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03078166.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892489

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine whether the GARFIELD-AF integrated risk tool predicts mortality, non-haemorrhagic stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and major bleeding for up to two years after new onset AF and to assess how this risk tool performs compared with CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED. METHODS AND RESULTS: Potential predictors of events included demographic and clinical characteristics, choice of treatment, and lifestyle factors. A Cox proportional hazards model was identified for each outcome by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) methods. Indices were evaluated in comparison with CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED risk predictors. Models were validated internally and externally in ORBIT-AF and Danish nationwide registries. Among the 52,080 patients enrolled in GARFIELD-AF, 52,032 had follow-up data. The GARFIELD-AF risk tool outperformed CHA2DS2-VASc for all-cause mortality in all cohorts. The GARFIELD-AF risk score was superior to CHA2DS2-VASc for non-haemorrhagic stroke, and it outperformed HAS-BLED for major bleeding in internal validation and in Danish AF cohort. In very low to low risk patients (CHA2DS2-VASc 0 or 1 (men) and 1 or 2 (women)), the GARFIELD-AF risk score offered strong discriminatory value for all the endpoints when compared to CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED. The GARFIELD-AF tool also included the effect of OAC therapy, thus allowing clinicians to compare the expected outcome of different anticoagulant treatment decisions (i.e., No OAC, NOACs or VKAs). CONCLUSIONS: The GARFIELD-AF risk tool outperformed CHA2DS2-VASc at predicting death and non-haemorrhagic stroke, and it outperformed HAS-BLED for major bleeding in overall as well as in very low to low risk group patients with AF.

12.
Circulation ; 143(23): 2214-2224, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable myocardial infarction to be ruled out earlier, but the safety and efficacy of this approach is uncertain. We investigated whether an early rule-out pathway is safe and effective for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: We performed a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in the emergency departments of 7 acute care hospitals in Scotland. Consecutive patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndrome between December 2014 and December 2016 were included. Sites were randomized to implement an early rule-out pathway where myocardial infarction was excluded if high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations were <5 ng/L at presentation. During a previous validation phase, myocardial infarction was ruled out when troponin concentrations were <99th percentile at 6 to 12 hours after symptom onset. The coprimary outcome was length of stay (efficacy) and myocardial infarction or cardiac death after discharge at 30 days (safety). Patients were followed for 1 year to evaluate safety and other secondary outcomes. RESULTS: We enrolled 31 492 patients (59±17 years of age [mean±SD]; 45% women) with troponin concentrations <99th percentile at presentation. Length of stay was reduced from 10.1±4.1 to 6.8±3.9 hours (adjusted geometric mean ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.83]; P<0.001) after implementation and the proportion of patients discharged increased from 50% to 71% (adjusted odds ratio, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.45-1.75]). Noninferiority was not demonstrated for the 30-day safety outcome (upper limit of 1-sided 95% CI for adjusted risk difference, 0.70% [noninferiority margin 0.50%]; P=0.068), but the observed differences favored the early rule-out pathway (0.4% [57/14 700] versus 0.3% [56/16 792]). At 1 year, the safety outcome occurred in 2.7% (396/14 700) and 1.8% (307/16 792) of patients before and after implementation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.74-1.40]; P=0.894), and there were no differences in hospital reattendance or all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of an early rule-out pathway for myocardial infarction reduced length of stay and hospital admission. Although noninferiority for the safety outcome was not demonstrated at 30 days, there was no increase in cardiac events at 1 year. Adoption of this pathway would have major benefits for patients and health care providers. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03005158.

13.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 10(2): 207-215, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675658

RESUMO

AIMS: We estimated the 2020 European Society of Cardiology-Acute Cardio Vascular Care (ESC-ACVC) quality indicators (QI) for the management of acute myocardial infarction, from three existing registries to determine the feasibility of assessment, room for improvement, association with outcomes, and suitability for centre benchmarking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were extracted from three French nationwide registries, namely FAST-MI 2005, 2010, and 2015. Feasibility of assessment and room for improvement were estimated by the denominator (patients in whom QI could be measured) and numerator (patients who satisfied the QI, among those eligible). Associations between composite QIs (CQIs) and mortality were assessed by multivariate analysis. Centre benchmarking was based on the centres mean CQI, vs. the national mean. The 2020 QIs were measured in 12 660/13 130 patients from FAST-MI. Measurement feasibility ranged from 15% to 100% with greater potential for implementation with the 2020 QI set. The mean (±SD) value of the opportunity-based CQI was 0.72 ± 0.01 and attainment of the all-or-none CQI 8.5%. Both CQIs were associated with adjusted 1-year mortality. Centre categorization into low, intermediate, and high quality was feasible, and distinguished centres with differing mortality. CONCLUSION: Most of the 2020 QI can be measured from existing registries in all domains but not in the patient's satisfaction domain. This assessment shows potential for implementation. Both CQIs were inversely associated with one-year mortality and centre benchmarking was feasible.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio , Benchmarking , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Sistema de Registros
14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(5): 511-525, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants are administered in fixed doses irrespective of body weight, but guidelines recommend against their use in patients with extremes of body weight. OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effects of dual-pathway inhibition antithrombotic regimen (rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg/day) compared with aspirin Halone across a range of patient body mass indexes (BMIs) and body weights. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the COMPASS (Cardiovascular OutcoMes for People using Anticoagulation StrategieS) trial, which included patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. Efficacy and safety outcomes were studied in relation to BMI: (normal 18.5 ≤BMI <25 kg/m2, overweight 25 ≤BMI <30 kg/m2, obese ≥30 kg/m2) and body weight (≤70 kg, 70 < weight ≤90 kg, and >90 kg; as well as ≤120 kg vs. >120 kg). RESULTS: Among 27,395 randomized patients, 6,459 (24%) had normal BMI, 12,047 (44%) were overweight, and 8,701 (32%) were obese. The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin produced a consistent reduction in the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction, irrespective of BMI or body weight. For 18.5 ≤BMI <25 kg/m2: 3.5% vs. 5.0%; hazard ratio (HR): 0.73 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 0.58 to 0.90); 25 ≤ BMI <30 kg/m2: 4.3% vs. 5.1%; HR: 0.80 (95% CrI: 0.66 to 0.96); BMI ≥30 kg/m2: 4.2% vs. 6.1%; HR: 0.71 (95% CrI: 0.57 to 0.86). For body weight ≤70 kg: 4.1% vs. 5.3%; HR: 0.75 (95% CrI: 0.62 to 0.91); 70 < weight ≤90 kg: 4.1% vs. 5.3%; HR: 0.76 (95% CrI: 0.65 to 0.89); >90 kg: 4.2% vs. 5.7%; HR: 0.74 (95% CrI: 0.61 to 0.90). Effects on bleeding, mortality, and net clinical benefit were consistent irrespective of BMI or bodyweight. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of dual-pathway antithrombotic therapy are consistent irrespective of BMI or body weight, suggesting no need for dose adjustments in the ranges of weights and BMI of patients enrolled in the COMPASS trial. Further studies need to address this problem in relation to greater extremes of body weight. (Rivaroxaban for the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Doenças Vasculares/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia
15.
Blood Adv ; 5(4): 1081-1091, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606006

RESUMO

In atrial fibrillation (AF), lower risks of death and bleeding with non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were reported in meta-analyses of controlled trials, but whether these findings hold true in real-world practice remains uncertain. Risks of bleeding and death were assessed in 52 032 patients with newly diagnosed AF enrolled in GARFIELD-AF (Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation), a worldwide prospective registry. Baseline treatment was vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) with or without antiplatelet (AP) agents (VKA ± AP) (20 151; 39.3%), NOACs ± AP agents (14 103; 27.5%), AP agents only (10 748; 21.0%), or no antithrombotics (6219; 12.1%). One-year follow-up event rates (95% confidence interval [CI]) of minor, clinically relevant nonmajor (CRNM), and major bleedings were 2.29 (2.16-2.43), 1.10 (1.01-1.20), and 1.31 (1.21-1.41) per 100 patient-years, respectively. Bleeding risk was lower with NOACs than VKAs for any bleeding (hazard ratio (HR) [95% CI]), 0.85 [0.73-0.98]) or major bleeding (0.79 [0.60-1.04]). Compared with no bleeding, the risk of death was higher with minor bleeding (adjusted HR [aHR], 1.53 [1.07-2.19]), CRNM bleeding (aHR, 2.59 [1.80-3.73]), and major bleeding (aHR, 8.24 [6.76-10.04]). The all-cause mortality rate was lower with NOACs than with VKAs (aHR, 0.73 [0.62-0.85]). Forty-five percent (114) of all deaths occurred within 30 days, and 40% of these were from intracranial/intraspinal hemorrhage (ICH). The rates of any bleeding and all-cause death were lower with NOACs than with VKAs. Major bleeding was associated with the highest risk of death. CRNM bleeding and minor bleeding were associated with a higher risk of death compared to no bleeding. Death within 30 days after a major bleed was most frequently related to ICH. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01090362.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Vitamina K , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico
16.
Am Heart J ; 236: 4-12, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ROCKET AF demonstrated the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism (SE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined baseline characteristics and outcomes in patients enrolled in Latin America compared with the rest of the world (ROW). METHODS: ROCKET AF enrolled 14,264 patients from 45 countries. Of these, 1,878 (13.2%) were from 7 Latin American countries. The clinical characteristics and outcomes (adjusted by baseline characteristics) of these patients were compared with 12,293 patients from the ROW. Treatment outcomes of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin were also stratified by region. RESULTS: The annual rate of stroke/SE was similar in those from Latin American and ROW (P= .63), but all-cause and vascular death were significantly higher than in ROW (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.64; HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.68; P< .001). Rates of major or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding tended to be lower in Latin America (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-1.0; P= .05). Rates of stroke and/or SE were similar with rivaroxaban and warfarin in patients from Latin America and ROW (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.54-1.29 vs HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.07; interaction P= .77). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AF in Latin America had similar rates of stroke and/or SE, higher rates of vascular death, and lower rates of bleeding compared with patients in the ROW. The effect of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in Latin America was similar to the ROW. Further studies analyzing patient- and country-specific determinants of these regional differences in Latin America are warranted.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Embolia , Hemorragia , Rivaroxabana , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Varfarina , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Embolia/etnologia , Embolia/etiologia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etnologia , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
17.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 10(2): 224-233, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550362

RESUMO

AIMS: Quality indicators (QIs) are tools to improve the delivery of evidence-base medicine. In 2017, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Association for Acute Cardiovascular Care (ACVC) developed a set of QIs for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which have been evaluated at national and international levels and across different populations. However, an update of these QIs is needed in light of the accumulated experience and the changes in the supporting evidence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ESC methodology for the QI development was used to update the 2017 ACVC QIs. We identified key domains of AMI care, conducted a literature review, developed a list of candidate QIs, and used a modified Delphi method to select the final set of indicators. The same seven domains of AMI care identified by the 2017 Study Group were retained for this update. For each domain, main and secondary QIs were developed reflecting the essential and complementary aspects of care, respectively. Overall, 26 QIs are proposed in this document, compared to 20 in the 2017 set. New QIs are proposed in this document (e.g. the centre use of high-sensitivity troponin), some were retained or modified (e.g. the in-hospital risk assessment), and others were retired in accordance with the changes in evidence [e.g. the proportion of patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) treated with fondaparinux] and the feasibility assessments (e.g. the proportion of patients with NSTEMI whom risk assessment is performed using the GRACE and CRUSADE risk scores). CONCLUSION: Updated QIs for the management of AMI were developed according to contemporary knowledge and accumulated experience. These QIs may be applied to evaluate and improve the quality of AMI care.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Medição de Risco
18.
Heart ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the comparative effectiveness of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) and factor Xa inhibitors (FXaI) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) at risk of stroke in everyday practice. METHODS: Data from patients with AF and Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke, TIA, or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category (CHA2DS2-VASc) score ≥2 (excluding gender) in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation registry were analysed using an improved method of propensity weighting, overlap weights and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: All-cause mortality, non-haemorrhagic stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding over 2 years were compared in 25 551 patients, 7162 (28.0%) not treated with oral anticoagulant (OAC) and 18 389 (72.0%) treated with OAC (FXaI (41.8%), DTI (11.4%) and VKA (46.8%)). OAC treatment compared with no OAC treatment was associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.91)) and non-haemorrhagic stroke/SE (HR 0.71 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.88)) but increased risk of major bleeding (HR 1.46 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.86)). Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) use compared with no OAC treatment was associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality and non-haemorrhagic stroke/SE (HR 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.77)) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.86)) respectively, with no increase in major bleeding (HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.47)). NOAC use compared with VKA use was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality and major bleeding (rates/100 patient-years 3.6 (95% CI 3.3 to 3.9) vs 4.8 (95% CI 4.5 to 5.2) and 1.0 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.1) vs 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.6); HR 0.79 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.89) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.98) respectively), with similar risk of non-haemorrhagic stroke/SE (rates/100 patient-years 0.8 (95% CI 0.7 to 0.9) versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.1); HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.25). CONCLUSION: Important benefits in terms of mortality and major bleeding were observed with NOAC versus VKA with no difference among NOAC subtypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01090362.

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