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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(9): 1929-1937, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Linaclotide improves abdominal pain and constipation in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). Patients report additional bothersome abdominal symptoms of bloating and discomfort. The intention of this study was to evaluate linaclotide's efficacy in relieving IBS-C-related abdominal symptoms (bloating, discomfort, and pain) using a novel multi-item Abdominal Score (AS). METHODS: Patients with IBS-C with abdominal pain ≥3 (0-10 scale) were randomized to linaclotide 290 µg or placebo daily for 12 weeks. The AS, derived from the Diary for IBS Symptoms-Constipation, is the average of abdominal bloating, discomfort, and pain at their worst (0 = none, 10 = worst possible). The primary end point was overall change from baseline (CFB) in AS. Secondary end points included CFB in 12-week AS evaluated using cumulative distribution function and 6-week/12-week AS responder (AS improvement ≥2 points for ≥6-week/12-week). RESULTS: Overall, 614 patients (mean age 46.7 years; 81% female) were randomized. All prespecified end points showed significant benefit of linaclotide vs placebo. The mean overall CFB AS reduction for linaclotide was -1.9 vs -1.2 for placebo (P < 0.0001); the 6-week/12-week AS responder rate was 40.5% for linaclotide vs 23.4% for placebo (odds ratio = 2.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.12; P < 0.0001]). Diarrhea was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event (linaclotide = 4.6%, placebo = 1.6%). DISCUSSION: Linaclotide significantly reduced multiple abdominal symptoms important to patients with IBS-C (bloating, discomfort, and pain) compared with placebo, as measured by a novel multi-item AS. The AS, derived from the Diary for IBS Symptoms-Constipation, should be considered for use in future IBS-C clinical studies to measure clinically meaningful improvements beyond traditional end points.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(2): 354-361, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065589

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immediate-release (IR) formulation of linaclotide 290 µg improves abdominal pain and constipation (APC) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation. Delayed-release (DR) formulations were developed on the premise that targeting the ileum (delayed-release formulation 1 [DR1]) or ileocecal junction and cecum (MD-7246, formerly DR2) would modulate linaclotide's secretory effects while preserving pain relief effects. METHODS: This phase 2b study randomized patients with IBS with constipation to placebo or 1 of 7 once-daily linaclotide doses (DR1 30, 100, or 300 µg; MD-7246 30, 100, or 300 µg; or IR 290 µg) for 12 weeks. Key efficacy endpoints were change from baseline in abdominal pain and complete spontaneous bowel movement frequency, and 6/12-week combined APC+1 responder rate. RESULTS: Overall, 532 patients were randomized; mean age was 45.1 years, and most were women (83.3%) and White (64.7%). All linaclotide DR1 and MD-7246 groups experienced greater improvements in abdominal pain from baseline and vs placebo throughout treatment. Linaclotide DR1 and IR led to numerically greater improvements from baseline in complete spontaneous bowel movement frequency and higher APC+1 responder rates compared with placebo; MD-7246 results were similar to placebo. Diarrhea was the most common adverse event with DR1 and IR; rates were similar between MD-7246 and placebo. DISCUSSION: Altering the site of drug delivery in the intestine might uncouple linaclotide's pain relief from secretory effects. Persistent, modest abdominal pain improvement with limited impact on bowel symptom parameters, as seen across MD-7246 doses, warrants further study of MD-7246 as a novel treatment for abdominal pain, regardless of IBS subtype.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dor Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Defecação , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Pain ; 161(5): 1027-1036, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310620

RESUMO

Constipation is the most common adverse event (AE) of opioid therapy. This multicenter, phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in treating opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with chronic noncancer pain syndromes (NCT02270983). Adults with OIC (<3 spontaneous bowel movements [SBMs]/week) related to chronic noncancer pain were randomized 1:1:1 to receive linaclotide 145 µg, linaclotide 290 µg, or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in 8-week SBM frequency rate (SBMs/week). Secondary efficacy endpoints included 6/8-week SBM 3 + 1 responders, time to first SBM, and changes from baseline in 8-week stool consistency, abdominal bloating, and straining. Additional endpoints included treatment satisfaction and adequate relief responders. In total, 254 patients were randomized: 87, 88, and 79 received linaclotide 145 µg, linaclotide 290 µg, and placebo, respectively. The mean changes from baseline in SBMs/week during the treatment period were 2.9 and 3.5 in the linaclotide 145 and 290 µg groups (P < 0.01 for both doses), respectively, vs 1.6 in the placebo group. Diarrhea, the most common AE, was generally mild, resulting in 1.1%, 5.7%, and 1.3% of patients discontinuing in the linaclotide 145 µg, linaclotide 290 µg, and placebo groups, respectively. No serious AEs related to diarrhea were reported in any treatment group. Compared with placebo, linaclotide-treated patients had significant improvements in stool consistency, straining, abdominal bloating, and treatment satisfaction scores (P < 0.05). Linaclotide significantly improved OIC symptoms and was well tolerated in patients with chronic noncancer pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Constipação Induzida por Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Peptídeos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 13(4): 397-406, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linaclotide is approved for treating irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C; 290 µg QD) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC; 145 µg or 72 µg QD). These analyses aimed to assess linaclotide safety in a large, pooled Phase 3 population. METHODS: In six randomized controlled trials (RCTs), patients received linaclotide (72 µg, 145 µg, 290 µg) or placebo daily for 12-26 weeks; in two long-term safety (LTS) studies, patients received open-label linaclotide for ≤78 additional weeks. Laboratory values, vital signs, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 3853 patients received ≥1 dose of linaclotide. The most common TEAE was diarrhea (majority [90.5% in RCTs] mild/moderate). Linaclotide patients experienced 1.1 diarrhea TEAE per patient-year in the RCTs (0.2 in placebo), and 0.3 in the LTS studies. In RCTs, 6.9% linaclotide and 3.0% placebo patients discontinued due to any adverse event (AE); 4.0% linaclotide and 0.3% placebo patients discontinued due to diarrhea. In LTS studies, 9.4% patients discontinued due to any AE, and 3.8% due to diarrhea. Serious AEs (SAEs) were rare and similar across treatment groups; there were no SAEs of diarrhea. CONCLUSION: These pooled analyses of patients treated for ≤104 weeks confirm linaclotide's overall safety.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(1): 105-114, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Linaclotide is a guanylate cyclase-C agonist approved in the United States, Canada, and Mexico at a once-daily 145-µg dose for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC); a once-daily 72-µg dose for CIC recently received FDA approval. The trial objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 72-µg linaclotide dose in CIC patients. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized patients with CIC (Rome III criteria) to once-daily linaclotide 72 µg or 145 µg, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint, 12-week complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) overall responder, required patients to have ≥3 CSBMs and an increase of ≥1 CSBM per week from baseline in the same week for ≥9 of 12 weeks of the treatment period. Secondary endpoints included 12-week change from baseline in bowel (SBM and CSBM frequency, stool consistency, straining) and abdominal (bloating, discomfort) symptoms, monthly CSBM responders, and 12-week CSBM responders among patients who averaged >1 SBM/week at baseline. Sustained response (12-week CSBM overall responders who met weekly criteria for 3 of the 4 final weeks (weeks 9-12) of treatment) was evaluated as an additional endpoint. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population included 1,223 patients (mean age=46 years, female=77%, white=71%). The primary endpoint was met by 13.4% of linaclotide 72-µg patients vs. 4.7% of placebo patients (P<0.0001, odds ratio=3.0; statistically significant controlling for multiplicity). Sustained response was achieved by 12.4% of linaclotide 72-µg patients vs. 4.2% of placebo patients (nominal P<0.0001). Linaclotide 72-µg patients met 9-of-10 secondary endpoints vs. placebo (P<0.05; abdominal discomfort, P=0.1028). Patients treated with linaclotide 145 µg also improved CIC symptoms for the primary (12.4%) and sustained responder endpoint parameters (11.4%) and for all 10 of the secondary endpoint parameters including abdominal discomfort (P<0.05). Diarrhea, the most common AE, was mild in most instances and resulted in discontinuation of 0, 2.4%, and 3.2% of patients in the placebo, linaclotide 72-µg, and linaclotide 145-µg groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily linaclotide 72 µg significantly improved CIC symptoms in both men and women with a low rate of discontinuation due to diarrhea over 12 weeks of treatment.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Defecação , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0134349, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal bloating is a common and bothersome symptom of chronic idiopathic constipation. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation and concomitant moderate-to-severe abdominal bloating. METHODS: This Phase 3b, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial randomized patients to oral linaclotide (145 or 290 µg) or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Eligible patients met Rome II criteria for chronic constipation upon entry with an average abdominal bloating score ≥5 (self-assessment: 0 10-point numerical rating scale) during the 14-day baseline period. Patients reported abdominal symptoms (including bloating) and bowel symptoms daily; adverse events were monitored. The primary responder endpoint required patients to have ≥3 complete spontaneous bowel movements/week with an increase of ≥1 from baseline, for ≥9 of 12 weeks. The primary endpoint compared linaclotide 145 µg vs. placebo. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population included 483 patients (mean age=47.3 years, female=91.5%, white=67.7%). The primary endpoint was met by 15.7% of linaclotide 145 µg patients vs. 7.6% of placebo patients (P<0.05). Both linaclotide doses significantly improved abdominal bloating vs. placebo (P<0.05 for all secondary endpoints, controlling for multiplicity). Approximately one-third of linaclotide patients (each group) had ≥50% mean decrease from baseline in abdominal bloating vs. 18% of placebo patients (P<0.01). Diarrhea was reported in 6% and 17% of linaclotide 145 and 290 µg patients, respectively, and 2% of placebo patients. AEs resulted in premature discontinuation of 5% and 9% of linaclotide 145 µg and 290 µg patients, respectively, and 6% of placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily linaclotide (145 and 290 µg) significantly improved bowel and abdominal symptoms in chronic idiopathic constipation patients with moderate-to-severe baseline abdominal bloating; in particular, linaclotide significantly improved abdominal bloating compared to placebo, an important finding given the lack of agents available to treat abdominal bloating in chronic idiopathic constipation patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01642914.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 107(11): 1714-24; quiz p.1725, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22986440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Linaclotide is a minimally absorbed guanylate cyclase-C agonist. The objective of this trial was to determine the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). METHODS: This phase 3, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial randomized IBS-C patients to placebo or 290 µ g oral linaclotide once daily in a 12-week treatment period, followed by a 4-week randomized withdrawal (RW) period. There were four primary end points, the Food and Drug Administration ' s (FDA ' s) primary end point for IBS-C (responder: improvement of ≥ 30 % in average daily worst abdominal pain score and increase by ≥ 1 complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) from baseline (same week) for at least 50 % of weeks assessed) and three other primary end points, based on improvements in abdominal pain and CSBMs for 9 / 12 weeks. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored. RESULTS: The trial evaluated 800 patients (mean age = 43.5 years, female = 90.5 % , white = 76.9 % ). The FDA end point was met by 136 / 405 linaclotide-treated patients (33.6 % ), compared with 83 / 395 placebo-treated patients (21.0 % ) ( P < 0.0001) (number needed to treat: 8.0, 95 % confidence interval: 5.4, 15.5). A greater percentage of linaclotide patients, compared with placebo patients, reported for at least 6 / 12 treatment period weeks, a reduction of ≥ 30 % in abdominal pain (50.1 vs. 37.5 % , P = 0.0003) and an increase of ≥ 1 CSBM from baseline (48.6 vs. 29.6 % , P < 0.0001). A greater percentage of linaclotide patients vs. placebo patients were also responders for the other three primary end points ( P < 0.05). Significantly greater improvements were seen in linaclotide vs. placebo patients for all secondary end points ( P < 0.001). During the RW period, patients remaining on linaclotide showed sustained improvement; patients re-randomized from linaclotide to placebo showed return of symptoms, but without worsening of symptoms relative to baseline. Diarrhea, the most common AE, resulted in discontinuation of 5.7 % of linaclotide and 0.3 % of placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Linaclotide significantly improved abdominal pain and bowel symptoms associated with IBS-C for at least 12 weeks; there was no worsening of symptoms compared with baseline following cessation of linaclotide during the RW period.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Método Duplo-Cego , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Placebos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
N Engl J Med ; 365(6): 527-36, 2011 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21830967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linaclotide is a minimally absorbed peptide agonist of the guanylate cyclase C receptor. In two trials, we aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in patients with chronic constipation. METHODS: We conducted two randomized, 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, dual-dose trials (Trials 303 and 01) involving 1276 patients with chronic constipation. Patients received either placebo or linaclotide, 145 µg or 290 µg, once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was three or more complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) per week and an increase of one or more CSBMs from baseline during at least 9 of the 12 weeks. Adverse events were also monitored. RESULTS: For Trials 303 and 01, respectively, the primary end point was reached by 21.2% and 16.0% of the patients who received 145 µg of linaclotide and by 19.4% and 21.3% of the patients who received 290 µg of linaclotide, as compared with 3.3% and 6.0% of those who received placebo (P<0.01 for all comparisons of linaclotide with placebo). Improvements in all secondary end points were significantly greater in both linaclotide groups than in the placebo groups. The incidence of adverse events was similar among all study groups, with the exception of diarrhea, which led to discontinuation of treatment in 4.2% of patients in both linaclotide groups. CONCLUSIONS: In these two 12-week trials, linaclotide significantly reduced bowel and abdominal symptoms in patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the potential long-term risks and benefits of linaclotide in chronic constipation. (Funded by Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and Forest Research Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00765882 and NCT00730015.).


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Guanilato Ciclase , Humanos , Laxantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Acoplados a Guanilato Ciclase/agonistas , Suspensão de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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