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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536243

RESUMO

In the past 20 years, we have witnessed tremendous advances in our ability to diagnose and treat genetic diseases of the kidney caused by complement dysregulation. Staggering progress was realized toward a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings and pathophysiology of many forms of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and C3-dominant glomerulopathies that are driven by complement system abnormalities. Many of these seminal discoveries paved the way for the design and characterization of several innovative therapies, some of which have already radically improved patients' outcomes. This review offers a broad overview of the exciting developments that have occurred in the recent past, with a particular focus on single-gene (or Mendelian), complement-driven aHUS and C3-dominant glomerulopathies that should be of interest to both nephrologists and kidney researchers. The discussion is restricted to genes with robust associations with both aHUS and C3-dominant glomerulopathies (complement factor H, complement component 3, complement factor H-related proteins) or only aHUS (complement factor B, complement factor I, and membrane cofactor protein). Key questions and challenges are highlighted, along with potential avenues for future directions.

2.
Blood ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270832

RESUMO

The optimal duration of eculizumab treatment in patients with atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) remains poorly defined. We conducted a prospective national multicentric open-label study in order to assess eculizumab discontinuation in children and adults with aHUS. Fifty-five patients (including 19 children) discontinued eculizumab (mean duration of treatment, 16.5 months). Twenty-eight (51%) patients had complement gene rare variants, mostly in MCP (n= 12, 22%), CFH (n= 6, 11%) and CFI (n=6, 10%) genes. At eculizumab discontinuation, 17 (30%) and 4 (7%) patients had chronic kidney disease stage 3 and 4, respectively. During follow-up, 13 (23%) patients (6 children and 7 adults) experienced aHUS relapse. In multivariable analysis, female gender and the presence of a rare complement gene variant were associated with an increased risk of aHUS relapse, whereas requirement for dialysis during previous episodes of acute aHUS was not. In addition, an increased soluble C5b-9 plasma level at eculizumab discontinuation was associated with a higher risk of aHUS relapse in all patients and in the subset of carriers of complement gene rare variants, in log rank test and in multivariable analysis. Among the 13 relapsing patients, who were all restarted on eculizumab, 11 regained their baseline renal function and two had a worsening of their pre-existing chronic kidney disease, including one patient who progressed to end-stage renal disease. A strategy of eculizumab discontinuation in aHUS patients based on complement genetics is reasonable and safe. It improves the management and quality of life of a sizeable proportion of aHUS patients while reducing the cost of treatment. Trail registration number: NCT02574403.

4.
Chest ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes direct lung damage, overwhelming endothelial activation, and inflammatory reaction, leading to acute respiratory failure and multi-organ dysfunction. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating targeted therapies to hinder this exaggerated inflammatory response. Critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have shown heterogeneous severity trajectories, suggesting that response to therapies is likely to vary across patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are critically ill COVID-19 patients biologically and immunologically dissociable based on profiling of currently evaluated therapeutic targets? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We did a single-center, prospective study in an ICU department in France. Ninety-six critically ill adult patients admitted with a documented SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. We conducted principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering on a vast array of immunologic variables measured on the day of ICU admission. RESULTS: We found that patients were distributed in three clusters bearing distinct immunologic features and associated with different ICU outcomes. Cluster 1 had a "humoral immunodeficiency" phenotype with predominant B-lymphocyte defect, relative hypogammaglobulinemia, and moderate inflammation. Cluster 2 had a "hyperinflammatory" phenotype, with high cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF⍺]) associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte defects. Cluster 3 had a "complement-dependent" phenotype with terminal complement activation markers (elevated C3 and sC5b-9). INTERPRETATION: Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibiting cytokine release marks, complement activation, or B-lymphocyte defects are distinct from each other. Such immunologic variability argues in favor of targeting different mediators in different groups of patients and could serve as a basis for patient identification and clinical trial eligibility.

5.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137339

RESUMO

Rhabdomyolysis is a life-threatening condition caused by skeletal muscle damage with acute kidney injury being the main complication dramatically worsening the prognosis. Specific treatment for rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury is lacking and the mechanisms of the injury are unclear. To clarify this, we studied intra-kidney complement activation (C3d and C5b-9 deposits) in tubules and vessels of patients and mice with rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury. The lectin complement pathway was found to be activated in the kidney; likely via an abnormal pattern of Fut2-dependent cell fucosylation, recognized by the pattern recognition molecule collectin-11 and this proceeded in a C4-independent, bypass manner. Concomitantly, myoglobin-derived heme activated the alternative pathway. Complement deposition and acute kidney injury were attenuated by pre-treatment with the heme scavenger hemopexin. This indicates that complement was activated in a unique double-trigger mechanism, via the alternative and lectin pathways. The direct pathological role of complement was demonstrated by the preservation of kidney function in C3 knockout mice after the induction of rhabdomyolysis. The transcriptomic signature for rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury included a strong inflammatory and apoptotic component, which were C3/complement-dependent, as they were normalized in C3 knockout mice. The intra-kidney macrophage population expressed a complement-sensitive phenotype, overexpressing CD11b and C5aR1. Thus, our results demonstrate a direct pathological role of heme and complement in rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury. Hence, heme scavenging and complement inhibition represent promising therapeutic strategies.

6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 28: 100590, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173853

RESUMO

Background: Complement pathway inhibition may provide benefit for severe acute respiratory illnesses caused by viral infections such as COVID-19. We present results from a nonrandomized proof-of-concept study of complement C5 inhibitor eculizumab for treatment of severe COVID-19. Methods: All patients (N = 80) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 admitted to our intensive care unit between March 10 and May 5, 2020 were included. Forty-five patients were treated with standard care and 35 with standard care plus eculizumab through expanded-access emergency treatment. The prespecified primary outcome was day-15 survival. Clinical laboratory values and biomarkers, complement levels, and treatment-emergent serious adverse events (TESAEs) were also assessed. Findings: At day 15, estimated survival was 82.9% (95% CI: 70.4%‒95.3%) with eculizumab and 62.2% (48.1%‒76.4%) without eculizumab (log-rank test, P = 0.04). Patients treated with eculizumab experienced a significantly more rapid decrease in lactate, blood urea nitrogen, total and conjugated bilirubin levels and a significantly more rapid increase in platelet count, prothrombin time, and in the ratio of arterial oxygen tension over fraction of inspired oxygen versus patients treated without eculizumab. Eculizumab-associated changes in complement levels, laboratory values, and biomarkers were consistent with terminal complement inhibition, reduced hypoxia, and decreased inflammation. TESAEs of special interest occurring in >5% of patients treated with/without eculizumab were ventilator-associated pneumonia (51%/24%), bacteremia (11%/2%), gastroduodenal hemorrhage (14%/16%), and hemolysis (3%/18%). Interpretation: Findings from this proof-of-concept study suggest eculizumab may improve survival and reduce hypoxia in patients with severe COVID-19. Randomized studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of this treatment approach are needed. Funding: Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir: ANR-18-RHUS60004.

7.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 405, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We here report on the first observation of a C3 mutation that is related to atypical hemolytic and uremic syndrome (aHUS), which occurred in a pancreatic islet transplant patient. Immunosuppressive treatments, such as calcineurin inhibitors, have been linked to undesirable effects like nephrotoxicity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old man with brittle diabetes, who was included in the TRIMECO trial, became insulin-independent 2 months after pancreatic islet transplantation. About 15 months after islet transplantation, the patient exhibited acute kidney injury due to aHUS. Despite plasma exchange and eculizumab treatment, the patient developed end-stage renal disease. A genetic workup identified a missense variant (p.R592Q) in the C3 gene. In vitro, this C3 variant had defective Factor I proteolytic activity with membrane proteins as cofactor proteins, which was thus classified as pathogenic. About 1 year after the aHUS episode, kidney transplantation was carried out under the protection of the specific anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab. The patient had normal kidney function, with preserved pancreatic islet function 4 years later. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic islet transplantation could have triggered this aHUS episode, but this link needs to be clarified. Although prophylactic eculizumab maintains kidney allograft function, its efficacy still needs to be studied in larger populations.

8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849636

RESUMO

Intravascular hemolysis of any cause can induce acute kidney injury (AKI). Hemolysis-derived product heme activates the innate immune complement system and contributes to renal damage. Therefore, we explored the role of the master complement regulator Factor H (FH) in the kidney's resistance to hemolysis-mediated AKI. Acute systemic hemolysis was induced in mice lacking liver expression of FH (hepatoFH-/-, ~20% residual FH) and in WT controls, by phenylhydrazine injection. The impaired complement regulation in hepatoFH-/- mice resulted in a delayed but aggravated phenotype of hemolysis-related kidney injuries. Plasma urea as well as markers for tubular (NGAL, Kim-1) and vascular aggression peaked at day 1 in WT mice and normalized at day 2, while they increased more in hepatoFH-/- compared to the WT and still persisted at day 4. These were accompanied by exacerbated tubular dilatation and the appearance of tubular casts in the kidneys of hemolytic hepatoFH-/- mice. Complement activation in hemolytic mice occurred in the circulation and C3b/iC3b was deposited in glomeruli in both strains. Both genotypes presented with positive staining of FH in the glomeruli, but hepatoFH-/- mice had reduced staining in the tubular compartment. Despite the clear phenotype of tubular injury, no complement activation was detected in the tubulointerstitium of the phenylhydrazin-injected mice irrespective of the genotype. Nevertheless, phenylhydrazin triggered overexpression of C5aR1 in tubules, predominantly in hepatoFH-/- mice. Moreover, C5b-9 was deposited only in the glomeruli of the hemolytic hepatoFH-/- mice. Therefore, we hypothesize that C5a, generated in the glomeruli, could be filtered into the tubulointerstitium to activate C5aR1 expressed by tubular cells injured by hemolysis-derived products and will aggravate the tissue injury. Plasma-derived FH is critical for the tubular protection, since pre-treatment of the hemolytic hepatoFH-/- mice with purified FH attenuated the tubular injury. Worsening of acute tubular necrosis in the hepatoFH-/- mice was trigger-dependent, as it was also observed in LPS-induced septic AKI model but not in chemotherapy-induced AKI upon cisplatin injection. In conclusion, plasma FH plays a key role in protecting the kidneys, especially the tubules, against hemolysis-mediated injury. Thus, FH-based molecules might be explored as promising therapeutic agents in a context of AKI.

9.
Blood ; 136(19): 2103-2117, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808006

RESUMO

Pregnancy and postpartum are high-risk periods for different forms of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). However, the management of pregnancy-associated TMA remains ill defined. This report, by an international multidisciplinary working group of obstetricians, nephrologists, hematologists, intensivists, neonatologists, and complement biologists, summarizes the current knowledge of these potentially severe disorders and proposes a practical clinical approach to diagnose and manage an episode of pregnancy-associated TMA. This approach takes into account the timing of TMA in pregnancy or postpartum, coexisting symptoms, first-line laboratory workup, and probability-based assessment of possible causes of pregnancy-associated TMA. Its aims are: to rule thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in or out, with urgency, using ADAMTS13 activity testing; to consider alternative disorders with features of TMA (preeclampsia/eclampsia; hemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelets syndrome; antiphospholipid syndrome); or, ultimately, to diagnose complement-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS; a diagnosis of exclusion). Although they are rare, diagnosing TTP and aHUS associated with pregnancy, and postpartum, is paramount as both require urgent specific treatment.

10.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 269, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical investigation is a favorite application of Ockham's razor, in virtue of which when presented with competing hypotheses, the solution with the fewest assumptions should be privileged. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) encompasses diseases with distinct pathological mechanisms, such as HUS due to shiga-like toxin-producing bacteria (STEC-HUS) and atypical HUS, linked to defects in the alternate complement pathway. Other etiologies such as Parvovirus B19 infection are exceptional. All these causes are rare to such extent that we usually consider them mutually exclusive. We report here two cases of HUS that could be traced to multiple causes. CASES PRESENTATION: Case 1 presented as vomiting and diarrhea. All biological characteristics of HUS were present. STEC was found in stool (by PCR and culture). After initial remission, a recurrence occurred and patient was started on Eculizumab. Genetic analysis revealed the heterozygous presence of a CFHR1/CFH hybrid gene. The issue was favorable under treatment. In case 2, HUS presented as fever, vomiting and purpura of the lower limbs. Skin lesions and erythroblastopenia led to suspect Parvovirus B19 primo-infection, which was confirmed by peripheral blood and medullar PCR. Concurrently, stool culture and PCR revealed the presence of STEC. Evolution showed spontaneous recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Both cases defy Ockham's razor in the sense that multiple causes could be traced to a single outcome; furthermore, they invite us to reflect on the physiopathology of HUS as they question the classical distinction between STEC-HUS and atypical HUS. We propose a two-hit mechanism model leading to HUS. Indeed, in case 1, HUS unfolded as a result of the synergistic interaction between an infectious trigger and a genetic predisposition. In case 2 however, it is the simultaneous occurrence of two infectious triggers that led to HUS. In dissent from Ockham's razor, an exceptional disease such as HUS may stem from the sequential occurrence or co-occurrence of several rare conditions.

11.
Kidney Int ; 98(5): 1135-1148, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622830

RESUMO

In recent years, a substantial body of experimental and clinical work has been devoted to C3 glomerulopathy and Ig-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Despite the rapid accumulation of data, several uncertainties about these 2 rare forms of nephropathies persist. They concern their pathophysiology, classification, clinical course, relevance of biomarkers and of pathology findings, and assessment of the efficacy of the available therapies. The present review discusses the impact of these uncertainties on the clinical management of patients.

14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(4): 829-840, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of the leading cause of pediatric acute nephritis, acute postinfectious GN, including mechanisms of the pathognomonic transient complement activation, remains uncertain. It shares clinicopathologic features with C3 glomerulopathy, a complement-mediated glomerulopathy that, unlike acute postinfectious GN, has a poor prognosis. METHODS: This retrospective study investigated mechanisms of complement activation in 34 children with acute postinfectious GN and low C3 level at onset. We screened a panel of anticomplement protein autoantibodies, carried out related functional characterization, and compared results with those of 60 children from the National French Registry who had C3 glomerulopathy and persistent hypocomplementemia. RESULTS: All children with acute postinfectious GN had activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system. At onset, autoantibodies targeting factor B (a component of the alternative pathway C3 convertase) were found in a significantly higher proportion of children with the disorder versus children with hypocomplementemic C3 glomerulopathy (31 of 34 [91%] versus 4 of 28 [14%], respectively). In acute postinfectious GN, anti-factor B autoantibodies were transient and correlated with plasma C3 and soluble C5b-9 levels. We demonstrated that anti-factor B antibodies enhance alternative pathway convertase activity in vitro, confirming their pathogenic effect. We also identified crucial antibody binding sites on factor B, including one correlated to disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings elucidate the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying acute postinfectious GN by identifying anti-factor B autoantibodies as contributing factors in alternative complement pathway activation. At onset of a nephritic syndrome with low C3 level, screening for anti-factor B antibodies might help guide indications for kidney biopsy to avoid misdiagnosed chronic glomerulopathy, such as C3 glomerulopathy, and to help determine therapy.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Ativação do Complemento/fisiologia , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Fator B do Complemento/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite/sangue , Glomerulonefrite/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fator Nefrítico do Complemento 3/metabolismo , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(4): e1166, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different types of in silico approaches can be used to predict the phenotypic consequence of missense variants. Such algorithms are often categorized as sequence based or structure based, when they necessitate 3D structural information. In addition, many other in silico tools, not dedicated to the analysis of variants, can be used to gain additional insights about the possible mechanisms at play. METHODS: Here we applied different computational approaches to a set of 20 known missense variants present on different proteins (CYP, complement factor B, antithrombin and blood coagulation factor VIII). The tools that were used include fast computational approaches and web servers such as PolyPhen-2, PopMusic, DUET, MaestroWeb, SAAFEC, Missense3D, VarSite, FlexPred, PredyFlexy, Clustal Omega, meta-PPISP, FTMap, ClusPro, pyDock, PPM, RING, Cytoscape, and ChannelsDB. RESULTS: We observe some conflicting results among the methods but, most of the time, the combination of several engines helped to clarify the potential impacts of the amino acid substitutions. CONCLUSION: Combining different computational approaches including some that were not developed to investigate missense variants help to predict the possible impact of the amino acid substitutions. Yet, when the modified residues are involved in a salt-bridge, the tools tend to fail, even when the analysis is performed in 3D. Thus, interactive structural analysis with molecular graphics packages such as Chimera or PyMol or others are still needed to clarify automatic prediction.

16.
Am J Hematol ; 95(5): 456-464, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990387

RESUMO

The complement system is an innate immune defense cascade that can cause tissue damage when inappropriately activated. Evidence for complement over activation has been reported in small cohorts of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the mechanism governing complement activation in SCD has not been elucidated. Here, we observe that the plasma concentration of sC5b-9, a reliable marker for terminal complement activation, is increased at steady state in 61% of untreated SCD patients. We show that greater complement activation in vitro is promoted by SCD erythrocytes compared to normal ones, although no significant differences were observed in the regulatory proteins CD35, CD55, and CD59 in whole blood. Complement activation is positively correlated with the percentage of dense sickle cells (DRBCs). The expression levels of CD35, CD55, and CD59 are reduced in DRBCs, suggesting inefficient regulation when cell density increases. Moreover, the surface expression of the complement regulator CD46 on granulocytes was inversely correlated with the plasma sC5b-9. We also show increased complement deposition in cultured human endothelial cells incubated with SCD serum, which is diminished by the addition of the heme scavenger hemopexin. Treatment of SCD patients with hydroxyurea produces substantial reductions in complement activation, measured by sC5b-9 concentration and upregulation of CD46, as well as decreased complement activation on RBCs in vitro. In conclusion, complement over activation is a common pathogenic event in SCD that is associated with formation of DRBCs and hemolysis. And, it affects red cells, leukocytes and endothelial cells. This complement over activation is partly alleviated by hydroxyurea therapy.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Contagem de Células/métodos , Ativação do Complemento/genética , Hemólise/fisiologia , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(9): 1538-1546, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the severe complications of preeclampsia (PE), acute kidney injury (AKI) is problematic if features of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) are present. Although a haemolysis enzyme liver low-platelets syndrome is considerably more frequent, it is vital to rule out a flare of atypical haemolytic and uraemic syndrome (aHUS). Our objective was to improve differential diagnosis procedures in post-partum AKI. METHODS: A total of 105 cases of post-partum AKI, admitted to nine different regional French intensive care units from 2011 to 2015, were analysed. Analysis included initial and final diagnosis, renal features, haemostasis and TMA parameters, with particular focus on the dynamics of each component within the first days following delivery. A classification and regression tree (CART) was used to construct a diagnostic algorithm. RESULTS: AKI was attributed to severe PE (n = 40), post-partum haemorrhage (n = 33, including 13 renal cortical necrosis) and 'primary' TMA (n = 14, including 10 aHUS and 4 thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura). Congruence between initial and final diagnosis was low (63%). The dynamics of haemoglobin, haptoglobin and liver enzymes were poorly discriminant. In contrast, the dynamic pattern of platelets was statistically different between primary TMA-related AKI and other groups. CART analysis independently highlighted the usefulness of platelet trajectory in the diagnostic algorithm. Limitations of this study include that only the most severe cases were included in this retrospective study, and the circumstantial complexity is high. CONCLUSION: Trajectory of platelet count between admission and Day 3 helps to guide therapeutic decisions in cases of TMA-associated post-partum AKI. Our study also strongly suggests that during the post-partum period, there may be a risk of transient, slowly recovering TMA in cases of severe endothelial injury in women without a genetic mutation known to induce aHUS.

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