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1.
Inorg Chem ; 59(11): 7435-7443, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428400

RESUMO

A family of neutral bis-cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes based on phenanthridine (phent) derivates as cyclometalating ligands and picolinate as an ancillary ligand are described. The influence of extended conjugation, rigidity, and hydrophobicity as well as the electronic nature of the substituents were investigated in relation to the photoluminescence, PL, and electrochemiluminescence, ECL, properties. A significant increase of ECL in aqueous media is observed upon extension of the aromatic system or by substituting the phenyl with a dibenzofurane moiety, in compounds 2 and 3, respectively. Under real immunoassay conditions, these complexes achieve up to 4-fold higher ECL efficiency than the commercial ruthenium standard. These values, among the highest reported in the literature under these conditions, confirm the potential of iridium complexes as alternative labels in commercial instruments.

2.
Chemistry ; 26(6): 1396-1405, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737953

RESUMO

The dissociation of hierarchically formed dimeric triple lithium bridged triscatecholate titanium(IV) helicates with hydrocarbyl esters as side groups is systematically investigated in DMSO. Primary alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl as well as benzyl esters are studied in order to minimize steric effects close to the helicate core. The 1 H NMR dimerization constants for the monomer-dimer equilibrium show some solvent dependent influence of the side chains on the dimer stability. In the dimer, the ability of the hydrocarbyl ester groups to aggregate minimizes their contacts with the solvent molecules. Due to this, most solvophobic alkyl groups show the highest dimerization tendency followed by alkenyls, alkynyls and finally benzyls. Furthermore, trends within the different groups of compounds can be observed. For example, the dimer is destabilized by internal double or triple bonds due to π-π repulsion. A strong indication for solvent supported London dispersion interaction between the ester side groups is found by observation of an even/odd alternation of dimerization constants within the series of n-alkyls, n-Ω-alkenyls or n-Ω-alkynyls. This corresponds to the interaction of the parent hydrocarbons, as documented by an even/odd melting point alternation.

3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 134: 119-132, 2017 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410493

RESUMO

Novel analogues of oxadiazole-substituted naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene-4,9-diones were synthesized in which the tricyclic quinone skeleton was systematically replaced with simpler moieties, such as structures with fewer rings and open-chain forms, while the oxadiazole ring was maintained. In addition, variants of the original 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring were explored. Overall, the complete three-ring quinone was essential for potent suppression of human keratinocyte hyperproliferation, whereas analogous anthraquinones were inactive. Also, the oxadiazole ring per se was not sufficient to elicit activity. However, rearrangement of the heteroatom positions in the oxadiazole ring resulted in highly potent inhibitors with compound 24b being the most potent analogue of this series showing an IC50 in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, experiments in isolated enzymatic assays as well as in the keratinocyte-based hyperproliferation assay did not support a major role of redox cycling in the mode of action of the compounds.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidiazóis/química , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Tiofenos/química , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Quinonas/química , Quinonas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Superóxidos/metabolismo
4.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 13: 33-42, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179946

RESUMO

Diastereoselective radical coupling was achieved with chiral auxiliaries. The radicals were generated by anodic decarboxylation of five malonic acid derivatives. These were prepared from benzyl malonates and four menthol auxiliaries. Coelectrolyses with 3,3-dimethylbutanoic acid in methanol at platinum electrodes in an undivided cell afforded hetero-coupling products in 22-69% yield with a diastereoselectivity ranging from 5 to 65% de. Electrolyses without a coacid led to diastereomeric homo-coupling products in 21-50% yield with ratios of diastereomers being 1.17:2.00:0.81 to 7.03:2.00. The stereochemistry of the new stereogenic centers was confirmed by X-ray structure analysis and 13C NMR data.

5.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 72(Pt 5): 683-6, 2016 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27308018

RESUMO

In the title compound, C25H27NO4S, which crystallized as a racemate, the relative configuration of the adjacent OH and CH3 groups on the azepine ring is trans. The seven-membered azepin ring has a chair-like conformation. The planar aromatic rings of the benzyl and tosyl-ate moiety are inclined to the planar 3-benzazepine ring by 78.39 (15) and 77.03 (14)°, respectively, and to each another by 13.82 (15)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming double-stranded chains along the a-axis direction. The chains are linked via C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture.

6.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 72(Pt 5): 687-91, 2016 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27308019

RESUMO

The title compounds, C22H29NO2 (3) and C22H29NO2 (4) [systematic names: (1S*,2R*)-7-meth-oxy-2-methyl-3-(4-phenyl-but-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ol and (1R*,2R*)-7-meth-oxy-2-methyl-3-(4-phenyl-but-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ol, are diastereomers with the relative configuration of the adjacent hydroxyl and methyl groups at the seven-membered azepine ring being trans in (3) and cis in (4). In the crystals the orientation of these groups is -anti-periplanar (3) and +syn-clinal (4). In both cases, the crystals studied proved to be of a racemic mixture, with relative configurations (R*,S*)-3 and (R*,R*)-4. In both compounds, the seven-membered azepine ring has a chair-like conformation, and the 4-phenyl-butyl side chain adopts a extended conformation in (R*,S*)-3, but a twisted conformation in (R*,R*)-4. In the crystal of (S*,R*)-3, mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ac plane. In the crystal of (R*,R*)-4, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the c-axis direction. The chains are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ac plane.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 55(12): 5845-52, 2016 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232266

RESUMO

Neutral green-emitting four-coordinate Cu(I) complexes with general formula POPCu(NN), where POP = bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether and NN = substituted 2-pyridine-1,2,4-triazole ligands, were synthesized. The crystal structures of (POPCuMeCN)(+)(PF6)(-) (1), POPCuPhPtp (2a, PhPtp = 2-(5-phenyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-yl)-pyridine), and POPCu(3,5-2FPhPtp) (2d, 3,5-2FPhPtp = 2-(5-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The electronic and photophysical properties of the complexes were examined by UV-vis, steady-state, and time-resolved spectroscopy. At room temperature, weak emission was observed in solution, while in the solid state, all complexes exhibit intense green emission with quantum yield up to 0.54. The electronic and photophysical properties were further supported by calculation performed at the (time-dependent) density functional theory level. One of the complexes was also tested as dopant in electroluminescent devices.

8.
Chemistry ; 22(15): 5376-83, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26929105

RESUMO

The preparation of a series of planar chiral, ferrocenyl-substituted hydrosilanes as precursors of ferrocene-stabilized silicon cations is described. These molecules also feature stereogenicity at the silicon atom. The generation and (29)Si NMR spectroscopic characterization of the corresponding silicon cations is reported, and problems arising from interactions of the electron-deficient silicon atom and adjacent C(sp(3))-H bonds or aromatic π donors are discussed. These issues are overcome by tethering another substituent at the silicon atom to the ferrocene backbone. The resulting annulation also imparts conformational rigidity and steric hindrance in such a way that the central chirality at the silicon atom is set with complete diastereocontrol. These chiral Lewis acid catalysts were then tested in difficult Diels-Alder reactions, but no enantioinduction was seen.

9.
J Org Chem ; 81(7): 2849-63, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26987891

RESUMO

1,3,5-Triazapentadienes usually show U- or twisted S-shaped conformations along the N-C-N-C-N skeleton due to dominating n/π* interactions. If, however, the 1,3,5-triazapentadiene unit is part of a ring, its W conformation might be restricted to the plane. Here, we describe the synthesis of 13 new 1,3,5-triazapentadienes 10-12, which are sterically restrained by incorporation into six- or seven-membered ring systems, by addition of a lithiated primary amine or hydrazine 5 to a dinitrile 7, 8, or 9 with the two cyano groups in 1,3 or 1,4 distance. These novel compounds show very strong tendency for aggregation due to hydrogen bonding, especially to form homodimers as seen from X-ray data in the solid state. Additional hydrogen bonding generates also linear chains in the crystal. Several of the new compounds show fluorescence in solution. Quantum chemical DFT calculations were used for evaluation of the dimerization energies and for interpretation of the photophysical properties.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(7): 1409-12, 2016 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26627185

RESUMO

The reaction of the neutral diphosphanide [((Cl)Im(Dipp))P-P(Cl)(Dipp)] (6) ((Cl)Im(Dipp) = 4,5-dichloro-1,3-bis(Dipp)-imidazol-2-yl; Dipp = 2,6-di-iso-propylphenyl) with methyl triflate (MeOTf) leads to the formation of cationic diphosphane [((Cl)Im(Dipp))(Me)P-P(Cl)(Dipp)](+) (8+) in a stereoselective methylation. In contrast, reacting with the Lewis acid GaCl3 yields cationic diphosphene [((Cl)Im(Dipp))P=P(Dipp)](+) (7+), which is explained by a low P-Cl bond dissociation energy. The significantly polarized P=P double bond in 7+ allows for its utilization as an acceptor for nucleophiles - the reaction with Cl(-) regenerates diphosphanide and the reaction with PMe3 gives cation [((Cl)Im(Dipp))P-P(PMe3)(Dipp)] (9+). In depth DFT investigation provides detailed insights into the bonding situation of the reported compounds.

11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 25(22): 5326-30, 2015 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26411794

RESUMO

All diastereoisomeric decahydroquinoxalines representing conformationally restricted analogs of κ agonists U-50,488 and GR-89,696 have been prepared. Cis/trans configured compound 7 is by far the highest binding diastereoisomer with a Ki of 0.35 nM. Racemates 4, 6, and 7 were separated into enantiomers. (+)-(4aR,5S,8aS)-Configured enantiomer 7b was identified as a high affinity (Ki=0.25 nM) κ ligand with high selectivity over µ and δ receptors. It acts as full agonist with an EC50 value of 2.0 nM in the [(35)S]GTPγS assay, while enantiomer 7a showed an EC50 value of 1000 nM.


Assuntos
(trans)-Isômero de 3,4-dicloro-N-metil-N-(2-(1-pirrolidinil)-ciclo-hexil)-benzenoacetamida/química , Piperazinas/química , Pirrolidinas/química , Quinoxalinas/síntese química , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides kappa/agonistas , (trans)-Isômero de 3,4-dicloro-N-metil-N-(2-(1-pirrolidinil)-ciclo-hexil)-benzenoacetamida/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/química , Estereoisomerismo
12.
J Org Chem ; 80(12): 6062-75, 2015 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26031425

RESUMO

The series of differently substituted ketenimines 1 was hydroluminated using di-iso-butyl aluminum hydride. For the sterically congested ketenimine 1a, preferred hydroalumination of the C═N-bond was proven by X-ray crystallography (compound 5a). In situ treatment of the hydroaluminated ketenimines 5 with various heterocumulenes like carbodiimides, isocycanates, isothiocyanates and ketenimines as electrophiles and subsequent hydrolytic workup resulted in novel enamine derived amide species in case of N-attack (sterically less hindered ketenimines) under formation of a new C-N-bond or in 1,3-diimines by C-C-bond-formation in case of bulky substituents at the ketenimine-nitrogen atom. Furthermore, domino reactions with more than 1 equiv of the electrophile or by subsequent addition of two different electrophiles are possible and lead to polyfunctional amide derivatives of the biuret type which are otherwise not easily accessible.

13.
Org Biomol Chem ; 13(26): 7265-81, 2015 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26055189

RESUMO

The enantiomerically and diastereomerically pure tricyclic oxazolidine cis-10 was prepared in a five step synthesis starting with 1-bromo-2-iodobenzene. Me3SiCN and allylSiMe3 reacted with cis-10 in the presence of TiCl4 to form the nitrile (3S)-11 and the allyl derivative (3S)-12 with high diastereoselectivity. The hydrogenolytic removal of the chiral auxiliary failed, since the endocyclic benzyl-N-bond was cleaved simultaneously. Therefore the N-(hydroxyethyl)amide of (3S)-12 was transformed into the enamide 27, which was hydrolyzed to afford the secondary amide 28. The enamide strategy to remove the chiral auxiliary from (3S)-11 led to complete racemization due to fast deprotonation in α-position of the cyano moiety. Two pairs of enantiomers 30a-b/ent-30a-b with prototypical σ substituents at the N-atom were prepared. The low σ1 affinity of the tetrahydro-2-benzazepines (ent-30b, Ki = 407 nM) is attributed to the short distance between the two lipophilic aromatic moieties.


Assuntos
Benzazepinas/química , Benzazepinas/síntese química , Benzazepinas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Receptores sigma/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
14.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 348(8): 589-94, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010372

RESUMO

Conformationally constrained perhydroquinoxalines 4 show high κ receptor affinity, selectivity over related receptors and full agonistic activity. Since the κ affinity can be correlated with the dihedral angle of the ethylenediamine pharmacophore (4a: 55°/71°), the dihedral angles of the postulated cyclopentane derivative 5a (73°/84°) and indane derivative 6a (77°/81°) were calculated. The first step of the synthesis represents a double Henry reaction of 1,4-dialdehydes 8 and 10 with nitromethane, leading predominantly to the trans,trans-configured nitrodiols 9 and 11. X-ray crystal structure analyses of 9 and 11 led to dihedral angles O2 N−C−C−OH of 73.4 and 88.3°, respectively, which reflect the calculated dihedral angles of the hypothesized final products 5a and 6a.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/química , Analgésicos Opioides/síntese química , Desenho de Fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/síntese química , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Metano/análogos & derivados , Metano/química , Estrutura Molecular , Nitroparafinas/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Receptores Opioides kappa/agonistas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Dalton Trans ; 44(20): 9659-71, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25924222

RESUMO

A series of novel benzene centered mono-, bis- and tris-1,3,5-triazapentadiene ligands was synthesized and investigated with respect to their reactivity towards triphenylborane. The resulting blue-fluorescent boron complexes with a six-membered ring chelate structure show excellent thermal and chemical stability. All title compounds were completely characterized including X-ray diffraction studies for and . Whereas the absorption spectra of all three classes of compounds are similar, the fluorescence spectra show distinct differences. Thus, the emission spectra of show Stokes shifts of 4100-6700 cm(-1) with low quantum yields both in solution and in the solid state. However, the more bulky compounds show markedly larger molar extinction coefficients and smaller bathochromic shifts compared to . For all compounds, we observe significantly more intense red-shifted fluorescence in the solid state compared to that in dichloromethane solutions. For the interpretation of the absorption properties TD-DFT studies were performed based on DFT geometry optimizations.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 44(15): 6944-60, 2015 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25781410

RESUMO

We have synthesized a series of luminescent trigonal [CuX(dtbphen)] (X = I (), Br (), Cl (), CN (), dtbphen = 2,9-di-tert-butylphenanthroline) and tetrahedral [Cu2(µ-I)2(L)2] (L = phenanthroline (), 2,9-dimethylphenanthroline ()) copper diimine complexes. Bearing in mind the chemical simplicity of this class of long-known Cu(i) phenanthroline compounds, it is surprising that they exhibit non-trivial photophysical properties, which have not been fully recognized. They display broad XMLCT absorption between ca. 450-600 nm, and the broad emission between ca. 550-850 nm in the solid state occurring with lifetimes on the µs timescale indicates phosphorescence, although the energetic overlap between excitation and emission suggests thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) from S1. In line with the latter assumption, low temperature measurements of in the solid state show an energetic separation of emission and excitation. However, a counter-intuitive decrease of emission intensity and simultaneous increase of the emission lifetime at low temperatures are observed for , which indicates two triplet states also being involved. Our DFT and TD-DFT calculations show that emission from the lowest excited triplet state T1 is of (3)LMXCT nature, separated by only ca. 0.16 eV from S1. Low temperature photophysical measurements at 77 K in a glassy matrix of in 2-Me-THF and of in the solid state are in agreement with the theoretical results, revealing in addition that π-interactions in the solid state also greatly influence the photophysical properties, making a clear conclusion towards TADF ambiguous. This study suggests that other related simple and long-known Cu(i) systems may exhibit a similar, more complex excited state behavior than previously appreciated, involving several emitting states and important intermolecular interactions.

17.
Chemistry ; 20(37): 11883-93, 2014 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25123406

RESUMO

In this study the scope of the 1,1-carboboration reaction was extended to the preparation of mixed heterole-based conjugated π-systems. Two arylbis(alkynyl)phosphane starting materials 2 were synthesized bearing two thiophene isomers at the alkyne units and the bulky tipp-substituent (tipp=2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl) at the phosphorous atom. The bis(thienylethynyl)phosphanes 2 were converted into the corresponding 2,5-thienyl-substituted 3-borylphospholes 4 in a double 1,1-carboboration reaction sequence employing the strongly electrophilic B(C6 F5 )3 reagent under mild reaction conditions. Subsequent Suzuki-Miyaura type cross-coupling yielded the corresponding 3-phenylphospholes 7 in a one-pot procedure from phosphanes 2 in high yields. Phospholes 7 were converted into the respective phosphole oxides 8. A photophysical characterization of derivatives 7 and 8 was carried out. The results presented here demonstrate the suitability of the 1,1-carboboration reaction for the preparation of phosphole-/thiophene-based, light-emitting systems.

18.
Chem Asian J ; 9(8): 2178-86, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24976259

RESUMO

A study on the key parameters involved in the anion-binding process and catalytic activity of the new family of CH-bond-based, anion-binding bis-triazole catalysts BisTri was carried out. The effects of substitution at the side arms and the central backbone structure of the catalyst were investigated. Electron-deficient 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl groups at the side arms led to the most strongly bound structures. The evaluation of differently shaped anions showed remarkable binding selectivity of the BisTri derivatives for the chloride anion. Examination of various nucleophiles in a model catalytic alkylation reaction suggested a more complex mechanism than the expected SN 1, in which the nucleophiles also participate partially in activation of the electrophile. DFT calculations were performed to investigate the relationship between the catalyst conformation and the binding affinity. Finally, in silico design and identification of a new, more efficient BisTri catalyst was accomplished.

19.
Org Biomol Chem ; 12(29): 5407-26, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24934693

RESUMO

A large set of tetrahydro-2-benzazepines with an α-hydroxy or α-(aryl)alkoxy substituted benzyl moiety in the 5-position was prepared according to the recently reported C6C1 + C3N synthetic strategy. The Heck reaction of 2-iodobenzaldehyde acetal 4 and the subsequent Stetter reaction led to the ketone 7, which was reduced diastereoselectively to form the like-configured alcohol 8. The diastereomeric unlike-configured alcohol 9 was obtained by a Mitsunobu inversion of 8. Alkylation and reductive cyclization of the diastereomeric alcohols 8 and 9 provided like- and unlike-configured 2-benzazepines 13 and 23, which allowed the introduction of various substituents at the N-atom. Analysis of the relationship between the structure and the σ1 affinity revealed that large substituents such as the butyl, benzyl or 4-phenylbutyl moiety at the benzazepine N-atom resulted in high affinity ligands. A p-methoxybenzyl ether is less tolerated by the σ1 receptor than a methyl ether or an alcohol. The unlike-configured alcohols 25d and 27d show slightly higher σ1 affinity than their like-configured diastereomers 15d and 17d. With respect to the σ1 affinity, σ1/σ2 selectivity and lipophilic ligand efficiency, like- and unlike-configured alcohols 15d and 25d represent the most promising σ1 ligands of this series. Interactions of the novel 2-benzazepines with various binding sites of the NMDA receptor were not observed.


Assuntos
Benzazepinas/síntese química , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Conformação Molecular , Animais , Benzazepinas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cobaias , Ratos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Receptores sigma/metabolismo
20.
Chemistry ; 20(22): 6650-8, 2014 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24782405

RESUMO

Compounds 1 a-f-H2 form "monomeric" triscatecholate titanium(IV) complexes [Ti(1 a-f)3](2-), which in the presence of Li cations are in equilibrium with the triple lithium-bridged "dimers" [Li3(Ti(1 a-f)3)2](-). The equilibrium strongly depends on the donor ability of the solvent. Usually, in solvents with high donor ability, the stereochemically labile monomer is preferred, whereas in nondonor solvents, the dimer is the major species. In the latter, the stereochemistry at the complex units is "locked". The configuration at the titanium(IV) triscatecholates is influenced by addition of chiral ammonium countercations. In this case, the induced stereochemical information at the monomer is transferred to the dimer. Alternatively, the configuration at the metal complexes can be controlled by enantiomerically pure ester side chains. Due to the different orientation of the ester groups in the monomer or dimer, opposite configurations of the triscatecholates were observed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy for [Ti(1 c-e)3](2-) or [Li3(Ti(1 c-e)3)2](-). A surprising exception was found for the dimer [Li3(Ti(1 f)3)2](-). Herein, the dimer is the dominating species in weak donor (methanol), as well as strong donor (DMSO), solvents. This is due to the bulkiness of the ester substituent destabilizing the monomer. Due to the size of the substituent in [Li3(Ti(1 f)3)2](-) the esters have to adopt an unusual conformation in the dimer resulting in a stereocontrol of the small methyl group. Following this, opposite stereocontrol mechanisms were observed for the central metal-complex units of [Li3(Ti(1 c-e)3)2](-) or [Li3(Ti(1 f)3)2](-).

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