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1.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 712-719, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341579

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) typically arise in the central nervous system (CNS) of children under 3 years of age. Despite intensive multimodal therapy (surgery, chemotherapy and, if age permits, radiotherapy), median survival is 17 months1,2. We show that ATRTs robustly express B7-H3/CD276 that does not result from the inactivating mutations in SMARCB1 (refs. 3,4), which drive oncogenesis in ATRT, but requires residual SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) activity mediated by BRG1/SMARCA4. Consistent with the embryonic origin of ATRT5,6, B7-H3 is highly expressed on the prenatal, but not postnatal, brain. B7-H3.BB.z-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells administered intracerebroventricularly or intratumorally mediate potent antitumor effects against cerebral ATRT xenografts in mice, with faster kinetics, greater potency and reduced systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to CAR T cells administered intravenously. CAR T cells administered ICV also traffic from the CNS into the periphery; following clearance of ATRT xenografts, B7-H3.BB.z-CAR T cells administered intracerebroventricularly or intravenously mediate antigen-specific protection from tumor rechallenge, both in the brain and periphery. These results identify B7-H3 as a compelling therapeutic target for this largely incurable pediatric tumor and demonstrate important advantages of locoregional compared to systemic delivery of CAR T cells for the treatment of CNS malignancies.

2.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129445

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a rare, highly malignant central nervous system cancer arising in infants and younger children, historically considered to be homogenous, monogenic and incurable. Recent use of intensified therapies has modestly improved survival for ATRT, however, a majority of patients will still succumb to their disease. While ATRTs almost universally exhibit loss of SMARCB1 (BAF47/INI1/SNF5), recent whole genome, transcriptome and epigenomic analyses of large cohorts reveal previously under-appreciated molecular heterogeneity. These discoveries provide novel insights into how SMARCB1 loss drives oncogenesis and confer specific therapeutic vulnerabilities, raising exciting prospects for molecularly stratified treatment for patients with ATRT.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(4): e28171, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) account for 3% to 5% of all thyroid cancers. In most cases, MTC is hereditary and occurs as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and 2B syndromes. There is a strong genotype-phenotype correlation associated with the respective RET mutations, making risk-adapted management possible. PROCEDURE: We report the prospectively collected data on children and adolescents of the multicenter nonrandomized German GPOH-MET registry. Children and adolescents with MTC and C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) were included. RESULTS: From 1997 to June 2019, a total of 57 patients with MTC and 17 with CCH were reported. In patients with MTC, median follow-up was five years (range, 0-19) and median age at diagnosis 10 years (range, 0-17). Overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) were 87% and 52%, respectively. In total 96.4% of patients were affected by MEN2 syndromes, which was in 37/42 MEN2A and 3/28 MEN2B (M918T mutation) inherited. EFS in MEN2A was 78%, and in MEN2B 38% (P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, lymph node (LN) status and postoperatively elevated calcitonin were significant prognostic factors for EFS. Notably, modest-risk mutation carriers presented with MTC at a rather young age, without raised calcitonin, and LN metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of children carrying de novo RET M918T mutations by means of the characteristic phenotype is crucial to detect MTC at an early stage, which will be associated with improved survival. As calcitonin levels may be false-negative and modest-risk mutation carriers present with a variable phenotype, particular attention should be paid to these children.

4.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(2): 277-286, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732806

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly malignant brain tumor predominantly occurring in infants. Mutations of the SMARCB1 gene are the characteristic genetic lesion. SMARCB1-mutant tumors in adolescents and adults are rare and may show uncommon histopathological and clinical features. Here we report seven SMARCB1-deficient intracranial tumors sharing distinct clinical, histopathological and molecular features. Median age of the four females and three males was 40 years (range 15-61 years). All tumors were located in the pineal region. Histopathologically, these tumors displayed spindled and epithelioid cells embedded in a desmoplastic stroma alternating with a variable extent of a loose myxoid matrix. All cases showed loss of nuclear SMARCB1/INI1 protein expression, expression of EMA and CD34 was frequent and the Ki67/MIB1 proliferation index was low in the majority of cases (median 3%). Three cases displayed heterozygous SMARCB1 deletions and two cases a homozygous SMARCB1 deletion. On sequencing, one tumor showed a 2 bp deletion in exon 4 (c.369_370del) and one a short duplication in exon 3 (c.237_276dup) both resulting in frameshift mutations. Most DNA methylation profiles were not classifiable using the Heidelberg Brain Tumor Classifier (version v11b4). By unsupervised t-SNE analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, however, all tumors grouped closely together and showed similarities with ATRT-MYC. After a median observation period of 48 months, three patients were alive with stable disease, whereas one patient experienced tumor progression and three patients had succumbed to disease. In conclusion, our series represents an entity with distinct clinical, histopathological and molecular features showing epigenetic similarities with ATRT-MYC. We propose the designation desmoplastic myxoid tumor (DMT), SMARCB1-mutant, for these tumors.

5.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(5): 913-936, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848709

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are known for their heterogeneity concerning pathophysiology and outcome. However, predictive factors within distinct subgroups still need to be uncovered. Using multiplex immunofluorescent staining and single-cell RNA sequencing we unraveled distinct compositions of the immunological tumor microenvironment (TME) across ATRT subgroups. CD68+ cells predominantly infiltrate ATRT-SHH and ATRT-MYC and are a negative prognostic factor for patients' survival. Within the murine ATRT-MYC and ATRT-SHH TME, Cd68+ macrophages are core to intercellular communication with tumor cells. In ATRT-MYC distinct tumor cell phenotypes express macrophage marker genes. These cells are involved in the acquisition of chemotherapy resistance in our relapse xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, the tumor cell-macrophage interaction contributes to ATRT-MYC heterogeneity and potentially to tumor recurrence.

6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 188, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until today, adult and pediatric clinical trials investigating single-agent or combinatorial HDAC inhibitors including vorinostat in solid tumors have largely failed to demonstrate efficacy. These results may in part be explained by data from preclinical models showing significant activity only at higher concentrations compared to those achieved with current dosing regimens. In the current pediatric trial, we applied an intra-patient dose escalation design. The purpose of this trial was to determine a safe dose recommendation (SDR) of single-agent vorinostat for intra-patient dose escalation, pharmacokinetic analyses (PK), and activity evaluation in children (3-18 years) with relapsed or therapy-refractory malignancies. RESULTS: A phase I intra-patient dose (de)escalation was performed until individual maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The starting dose was 180 mg/m2/day with weekly dose escalations of 50 mg/m2 until DLT/maximum dose. After MTD determination, patients seamlessly continued in phase II with disease assessments every 3 months. PK and plasma cytokine profiles were determined. Fifty of 52 patients received treatment. n = 27/50 (54%) completed the intra-patient (de)escalation and entered phase II. An SDR of 130 mg/m2/day was determined (maximum, 580 mg/m2/day). n = 46/50 (92%) patients experienced treatment-related AEs which were mostly reversible and included thrombocytopenia, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, anemia, and vomiting. n = 6/50 (12%) had treatment-related SAEs. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Higher dose levels resulted in higher Cmax. Five patients achieved prolonged disease control (> 12 months) and showed a higher Cmax (> 270 ng/mL) and MTDs. Best overall response (combining PR and SD, no CR observed) rate in phase II was 6/27 (22%) with a median PFS and OS of 5.3 and 22.4 months. Low levels of baseline cytokine expression were significantly correlated with favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: An SDR of 130 mg/m2/day for individual dose escalation was determined. Higher drug exposure was associated with responses and long-term disease stabilization with manageable toxicity. Patients with low expression of plasma cytokine levels at baseline were able to tolerate higher doses of vorinostat and benefited from treatment. Baseline cytokine profile is a promising potential predictive biomarker. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01422499. Registered 24 August 2011.

7.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to what may be defined as standard of care (including markers for stratification) for patients with Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors (ATRT). The European Rhabdoid Registry, EU-RHAB, recruits uniformly treated patients and offers standardized genetic and DNA methylation analyses. METHODS: Clinical, genetic and treatment data of 143 patients from 13 European countries were analyzed (2009 - 2017). Therapy consisted of surgery, anthracycline-based induction and either radiotherapy or high dose chemotherapy following a consensus among European experts. FISH, MLPA and sequencing were employed for assessment of somatic and germline mutations in SMARCB1. Molecular subgroups (ATRT-SHH, -TYR and -MYC) were determined using DNA-methylation arrays resulting in profiles of 84 tumors. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis of 67 girls and 76 boys was 29.5 months. 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 34.7±4.5% and 30.5±4.2%. Tumors displayed allelic partial/whole gene deletions (66%; 122/186 alleles) or single nucleotide variants (34%; 64/186 alleles) of SMARCB1. Germline mutations were detected in 26% of ATRT (30/117). The patient cohort consisted of 47% ATRT-SHH (39/84), 33% ATRT-TYR (28/84), and 20% ATRT-MYC 17/84). Age <1 year, non-TYR signature (ATRT-SHH or -MYC), metastatic or synchronous tumors, germline mutation, incomplete remission and omission of radiotherapy were negative prognostic factors in univariate analyses (p<0.05). An adjusted multivariate model identified age <1 year and a non-TYR signature as independent negative predictors of OS: high risk (<1 year + non-TYR; 5-year OS = 0%), intermediate risk (<1 year + ATRT-TYR or ≥1 year + non-TYR; 5-year OS = 32.5±8.7%) and standard risk (≥1 year + ATRT-TYR, 5-year OS = 71.5±12.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Age and molecular subgroup status are independent risk factors for survival in children with ATRT. Our model warrants validation within future clinical trials.

8.
Cell Rep ; 29(8): 2338-2354.e7, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708418

RESUMO

Extra-cranial malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) and cranial atypical teratoid RTs (ATRTs) are heterogeneous pediatric cancers driven primarily by SMARCB1 loss. To understand the genome-wide molecular relationships between MRTs and ATRTs, we analyze multi-omics data from 140 MRTs and 161 ATRTs. We detect similarities between the MYC subgroup of ATRTs (ATRT-MYC) and extra-cranial MRTs, including global DNA hypomethylation and overexpression of HOX genes and genes involved in mesenchymal development, distinguishing them from other ATRT subgroups that express neural-like features. We identify five DNA methylation subgroups associated with anatomical sites and SMARCB1 mutation patterns. Groups 1, 3, and 4 exhibit cytotoxic T cell infiltration and expression of immune checkpoint regulators, consistent with a potential role for immunotherapy in rhabdoid tumor patients.

9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(11): e27916, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342632

RESUMO

Approximately 10% of all children with cancer are affected by a monogenic cancer predisposition syndrome. This has important implications for both the child and her/his family. The assessment of hereditary cancer predisposition is a challenging task for clinicians and genetic counselors in daily routine. It includes consideration of tumor genetics, specific features of the patient, and the medical/family history. To keep up with the pace of this rapidly evolving and increasingly complex field of genetic susceptibility, we suggest a systematic approach for the evaluation of the child with cancer and her/his family by an interdisciplinary team specialized in hereditary cancer predisposition.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Anamnese , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/psicologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Linhagem , Psicologia , Medição de Risco
10.
Eur J Cancer ; 114: 27-35, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022591

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive paediatric brain tumour with fatal outcome. The Individualised Therapy For Relapsed Malignancies In Childhood (INFORM) registry study offers comprehensive molecular profiling of high-risk tumours to identify target alterations for potential precision therapy. We analysed molecular characteristics and clinical data after brainstem biopsy of all enrolled newly diagnosed DIPGs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From -February 2015 to February 2018, 21 subsequent primary DIPG cases were enrolled in the nation-wide multicentre INFORM registry study after brainstem biopsy. Whole-genome, whole-exome sequencing and DNA methylation analysis were performed, and RNA-sequencing was added in case of sufficient material. Clinical data were obtained from standardised questionnaires and the INFORM clinical data bank. RESULTS: Tumour material obtained from brainstem biopsy was sufficient for DNA analysis in all cases and RNA analysis in 16 of 21 cases. In 16 of 21 cases (76%), potential targetable alterations were identified including highly relevant MET and NTRK1 fusions as well as an EZH2 alteration not previously described in DIPG. In 5 of 21 cases, molecular information was used for initiation of targeted treatment. The majority of patients (19/21) presented with neurological deficits at diagnosis. Newly arising or worsening of neurological deficits post-biopsy occurred in nine patients. Symptoms were reversible or improved notably in eight cases. CONCLUSION: In this multicentre study setting, brainstem biopsy of DIPG was feasible and yielded sufficient material for comprehensive molecular profiling. Relevant molecular targets were identified impacting clinical management in a substantial subset. Death or severe bleeding occurred in none of the cases. One of 20 patients experienced unilateral paraesthesia possibly related to biopsy.

12.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 57(10): 1595-1607, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005947

RESUMO

Background Interpreting hematology analytes in children is challenging due to the extensive changes in hematopoiesis that accompany physiological development and lead to pronounced sex- and age-specific dynamics. Continuous percentile charts from birth to adulthood allow accurate consideration of these dynamics. However, the ethical and practical challenges unique to pediatric reference intervals have restricted the creation of such percentile charts, and limitations in current approaches to laboratory test result displays restrict their use when guiding clinical decisions. Methods We employed an improved data-driven approach to create percentile charts from laboratory data collected during patient care in 10 German centers (9,576,910 samples from 358,292 patients, 412,905-1,278,987 samples per analyte). We demonstrate visualization of hematology test results using percentile charts and z-scores (www.pedref.org/hematology) and assess the potential of percentiles and z-scores to support diagnosis of different hematological diseases. Results We created percentile charts for hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell indices, red cell count, red cell distribution width, white cell count and platelet count in girls and boys from birth to 18 years of age. Comparison of pediatricians evaluating complex clinical scenarios using percentile charts versus conventional/tabular representations shows that percentile charts can enhance physician assessment in selected example cases. Age-specific percentiles and z-scores, compared with absolute test results, improve the identification of children with blood count abnormalities and the discrimination between different hematological diseases. Conclusions The provided reference intervals enable precise assessment of pediatric hematology test results. Representation of test results using percentiles and z-scores facilitates their interpretation and demonstrates the potential of digital approaches to improve clinical decision-making.

13.
Haematologica ; 104(9): 1812-1821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705097

RESUMO

Asparagine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum asparaginase activity were monitored in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with pegylated-asparaginase. The drug was given intravenously at a dose of 2,500 IU/m2 on days 12 and 26. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained on days 33 and 45 were analyzed centrally. Since physiological levels of asparagine in the cerebrospinal fluid of children and adolescents are 4-10 µmol/L, in this study asparagine depletion was considered complete when the concentration of asparagine was ≤0.2 µmol/L, i.e. below the lower limit of quantification of the assay used. Over 24 months 736 patients (AIEOP n=245, BFM n=491) and 903 cerebrospinal fluid samples (n=686 on day 33 and n=217 on day 45) were available for analysis. Data were analyzed separately for the AIEOP and BFM cohorts and yielded superimposable results. Independently of serum asparaginase activity levels, cerebrospinal fluid asparagine levels were significantly reduced during the investigated study phase but only 28% of analyzed samples showed complete asparagine depletion while relevant levels, ≥1 µmol/L, were still detectable in around 23% of them. Complete cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion was found in around 5-6% and 33-37% of samples at serum asparaginase activity levels <100 and ≥ 1,500 IU/L, respectively. In this study cerebrospinal fluid asparagine levels were reduced during pegylated-asparaginase treatment, but complete depletion was only observed in a minority of patients. No clear threshold of serum pegylated-asparaginase activity level resulting in complete cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion was identified. The consistency of the results found in the two independent data sets strengthen the observations of this study. Details of the treatment are available in the European Clinical Trials Database at https://www.clin-icaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2007-004270-43/IT.

14.
Cancer Cell ; 35(1): 95-110.e8, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595504

RESUMO

Biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1, encoding a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is the hallmark genetic aberration of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). Here, we report how loss of SMARCB1 affects the epigenome in these tumors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) on primary tumors for a series of active and repressive histone marks, we identified the chromatin states differentially represented in ATRTs compared with other brain tumors and non-neoplastic brain. Re-expression of SMARCB1 in ATRT cell lines enabled confirmation of our genome-wide findings for the chromatin states. Additional generation of ChIP-seq data for SWI/SNF and Polycomb group proteins and the transcriptional repressor protein REST determined differential dependencies of SWI/SNF and Polycomb complexes in regulation of diverse gene sets in ATRTs.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Tumor Rabdoide/metabolismo , Proteína SMARCB1/metabolismo , Teratoma/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Epigenômica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína SMARCB1/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
J Neurooncol ; 141(1): 43-55, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446899

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly malignant brain tumor predominantly arising in infants. Mutations of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex members SMARCB1/INI1 or (rarely) SMARCA4/Brg1 are the sole recurrent genetic lesions. Epigenetic studies revealed a large number of genes predicted to be affected by differential histone modifications in ATRT, but the role of these genes in the biology of ATRT remains uncertain. We therefore aimed at exploring the role of these genes in the detrimental effects of SMARCB1-deficiency. METHODS: The functional relevance of 1083 genes predicted to be affected by epigenetic alterations in ATRT was examined in vivo using a Drosophila melanogaster model of SMARCB1-deficiency. Human orthologues of genes whose knockdown modified the phenotype in the Gal4-UAS fly model were further examined in ATRT samples and SMARCB1-deficient rhabdoid tumor cells. RESULTS: Knockdown of Snr1, the fly orthologue of SMARCB1, resulted in a lethal phenotype and epigenetic alterations in the fly model. The lethal phenotype was shifted to later stages of development upon additional siRNA knockdown of 89 of 1083 genes screened in vivo. These included TGF-beta receptor signaling pathway related genes, e.g. CG10348, the fly orthologue of transcriptional regulator PRDM16. Subsequently, PRDM16 was found to be over-expressed in ATRT samples and knockdown of PRDM16 in SMARCB1-deficient rhabdoid tumor cells reduced proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a subset of genes affected by differential histone modification in ATRT is involved in the detrimental effects of SMARCB1-deficiency and also relevant in the biology of ATRT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Epigênese Genética , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Teratoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Drosophila melanogaster , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4250, 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315159

RESUMO

Germline mutations in the ubiquitously expressed ACTB, which encodes ß-cytoplasmic actin (CYA), are almost exclusively associated with Baraitser-Winter Cerebrofrontofacial syndrome (BWCFF). Here, we report six patients with previously undescribed heterozygous variants clustered in the 3'-coding region of ACTB. Patients present with clinical features distinct from BWCFF, including mild developmental disability, microcephaly, and thrombocytopenia with platelet anisotropy. Using patient-derived fibroblasts, we demonstrate cohort specific changes to ß-CYA filament populations, which include the enhanced recruitment of thrombocytopenia-associated actin binding proteins (ABPs). These perturbed interactions are supported by in silico modeling and are validated in disease-relevant thrombocytes. Co-examination of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton constituents in patient-derived megakaryocytes and thrombocytes indicates that these ß-CYA mutations inhibit the final stages of platelet maturation by compromising microtubule organization. Our results define an ACTB-associated clinical syndrome with a distinct genotype-phenotype correlation and delineate molecular mechanisms underlying thrombocytopenia in this patient cohort.


Assuntos
Actinas/genética , Éxons/genética , Trombocitopenia/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Megacariócitos/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Trombocitopenia/metabolismo
18.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(12): 1672-1679, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010851

RESUMO

Background: Recently, 3 molecular subgroups of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) were identified, but little is known of their clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics. Methods: A total of 43 patients with known molecular subgroup status (ATRT-sonic hedgehog [SHH], n = 17; ATRT-tyrosine [TYR], n = 16; ATRT-myelocytomatosis oncogene [MYC], n = 10) were retrieved from the EU-RHAB Registry and analyzed for clinical and MRI features. Results: On MRI review, differences in preferential tumor location were confirmed, with ATRT-TYR being predominantly located infratentorially (P < 0.05). Peritumoral edema was more pronounced in ATRT-MYC compared with ATRT-SHH (P < 0.05) and ATRT-TYR (P < 0.05). Conversely, peripheral tumor cysts were found more frequently in ATRT-SHH (71%) and ATRT-TYR (94%) compared with ATRT-MYC (40%, P < 0.05). Contrast enhancement was absent in 29% of ATRT-SHH (0% of ATRT-TYR; 10% of ATRT-MYC; P < 0.05), and there was a trend toward strong contrast enhancement in ATRT-TYR and ATRT-MYC. We found the characteristic (bandlike) enhancement in 28% of ATRT as well as restricted diffusion in the majority of tumors. A midline/off-midline location in the posterior fossa was also not subgroup specific. Visible meningeal spread (M2) at diagnosis was rare throughout all subgroups. Conclusion: These exploratory findings suggest that MRI features vary across the 3 molecular subgroups of ATRT. Within future prospective trials, MRI may aid diagnosis and treatment stratification.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/diagnóstico , Teratoma/diagnóstico , Tirosina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/metabolismo , Teratoma/genética , Teratoma/metabolismo
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(8): 1083-1093, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706634

RESUMO

Germline variants that affect function are found in seven genes of the BAF chromatin-remodeling complex. They are linked to a broad range of diseases that, according to the gene affected, range from non-syndromic or syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders to low-grade tumors and malignancies. In the current meta-analysis, we evaluate genetic and clinical data from more than 400 families and 577 patients affected by BAF germline alterations. We focus on SMARCB1, including 43 unpublished patients from the EU-RHAB registry and our institution. For this gene, we further demonstrate whole gene as well as exon deletions and truncating variants to be associated with malignancy and early-onset disease. In contrast, non-truncating variants are associated with non-malignant disorders, such as Coffin-Siris syndrome or late-onset tumors like schwannoma or meningioma (p < 0.0001). SMARCB1 germline variants are distributed across the gene with variants in exons 1, 2, 8, and 9 being associated with low-grade entities, and single-nucleotide variants or indels outside of exon 9 that appear in patients with malignancies (p < 0.001). We attribute variants in specific BAF genes to certain disease entities. Finally, single-nucleotide variants and indels are sometimes detected in the healthy relatives of tumor patients, while Coffin-Siris syndrome and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome generally seem to appear de novo. Our findings add further information on the genotype-phenotype association of germline variants detected in genes of the BAF complex. Functional studies are urgently needed for a deeper understanding of BAF-related disorders and may take advantage from the comprehensive information gathered in this article.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Face/anormalidades , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Neoplasias Meníngeas/genética , Meningioma/genética , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Neurilemoma/genética , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Face/patologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/patologia , Meningioma/patologia , Micrognatismo/patologia , Pescoço/patologia , Neurilemoma/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1449-1454, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696793

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by constitutive haploinsufficiency of the ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 11 (ANKRD11) being the result of either loss-of-function gene variants or 16q24.3 microdeletions. The syndrome is characterized by a variable clinical phenotype comprising a distinct facial gestalt and variable neurological involvement. ANKRD11 is frequently affected by loss of heterozygosity in cancer. It influences the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear receptors and tumor suppressive function of tumor protein TP53. ANKRD11 thus serves as a candidate tumor suppressor gene and it has been speculated that its haploinsufficiency may lead to an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome patients. While no systematic data are available, we report here on the second KBG syndrome patient who developed a malignancy. At 17 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with a left-sided paratesticular extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor. Genetic investigations identified a somatic truncating gene variant in SMARCB1, which was not present in the germline, and a constitutional de novo 16q24.3 microdeletion leading to a loss of the entire ANKRD11 locus. Thus, KBG syndrome was diagnosed, which was in line with the clinical phenotype of the patient. At present, no specific measures for cancer surveillance can be recommended for KBG syndrome patients. However, a systematic follow-up and inclusion of KBG syndrome patients in registries (e.g., those currently established for cancer prone syndromes) will provide empiric data to support or deny an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome in the future.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Adolescente , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/etiologia , Facies , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/tratamento farmacológico , Tumor Rabdoide/cirurgia , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Anormalidades Dentárias/etiologia
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