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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e839, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most common inherited peripheral neuropathy is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), with a prevalence of 1/2500. Other symptoms can be associated to the condition, such as hearing loss. Currently, no global hearing impairment assessment has been determined, and the physiopathology is not well known. METHODS: The aim of the study was to analyze among a French series of 3,412 patients with inherited peripheral neuropathy (IPN), the ones who also suffer from hearing loss, to establish phenotype-genotype correlations. An NGS strategy for IPN one side and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) on the other side, were performed. RESULTS: Hearing loss (HL) was present in only 44 patients (1.30%). The clinical data of 27 patients were usable. Demyelinating neuropathy was diagnosed in 15 cases and axonal neuropathy in 12 cases. HL varied from mild to profound. Five cases of auditory neuropathy were noticed. Diagnosis was made for 60% of these patients. Seven novel pathogenic variants were discovered in five different genes: PRPS1; MPZ; SH3TC2; NEFL; and ABHD12. Two patients with PMP22 variant, had also an additional variant in COCH and MYH14 respectively. No pathogenic variant was found at the DFNB1 locus. Genotype-phenotype correlations do exist, especially with SH3TC2, PRPS1, ABHD12, NEFL, and TRPV4. CONCLUSION: Involvement of PMP22 is not enough to explain hearing loss in patients suffering from IPN. HL can be due to cochlear impairment and/or auditory nerve dysfunction. HL is certainly underdiagnosed, and should be evaluated in every patient suffering from IPN.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.

3.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 590-601, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subtelomeres are variable regions between telomeres and chromosomal-specific regions. One of the most studied pathologies linked to subtelomeric imbalance is facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD). In most cases, this disease involves shortening of an array of D4Z4 macrosatellite elements at the 4q35 locus. The disease also segregates with a specific A-type haplotype containing a degenerated polyadenylation signal distal to the last repeat followed by a repetitive array of ß-satellite elements. This classification applies to most patients with FSHD. A subset of patients called FSHD2 escapes this definition and carries a mutation in the SMCHD1 gene. We also recently described patients carrying a complex rearrangement consisting of a cis-duplication of the distal 4q35 locus identified by molecular combing. METHODS: Using this high-resolution technology, we further investigated the organisation of the 4q35 region linked to the disease and the 10q26 locus presenting with 98% of homology in controls and patients. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a broad variability in size of the different elements composing these loci highlighting the complexity of these subtelomeres and the difficulty for genomic assembly. Out of the 1029 DNA samples analysed in our centre in the last 7 years, we also identified 54 cases clinically diagnosed with FSHD carrying complex genotypes. This includes mosaic patients, patients with deletions of the proximal 4q region and 23 cases with an atypical chromosome 10 pattern, infrequently found in the control population and never reported before. CONCLUSION: Overall, this work underlines the complexity of these loci challenging the diagnosis and genetic counselling for this disease.

4.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 363-374, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838450

RESUMO

Neural tube defect disorders are developmental diseases that originate from an incomplete closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis. Despite high prevalence-1 out of 3000 live births-their etiology is not yet established and both environmental and genetic factors have been proposed, with a heritability rate of about 60%. Studies in mouse models as well as in human have further suggested a multifactorial pattern of inheritance for neural tube defect disorders. Here, we report results obtained from clinical diagnosis and NGS analysis of a cohort composed of 52 patients. Using a candidate gene panel approach, we identified variants in known genes of planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, although with higher prevalence than previously reported. Our study also reveals variants in novel genes such as FREM2 and DISP1. Altogether, these results confirm the implication of the PCP genes and involve the FRAS/FREM2 complex and Sonic Hedgehog signaling as novel components in the appearance of NTDs.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/patologia , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma
5.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1667-1671, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783266

RESUMO

The article has been corrected to account for one patient being investigated through genome sequencing rather than exome sequencing as originally published; thus amendments to the Abstract and Methods have been made as well as addition of the relevant authors and acknowledgment.

6.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 29(2): 114-126, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598237

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is a rare autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive motor and respiratory decline during the first year of life. Early and late-onset cases have recently been reported, although not meeting the established diagnostic criteria, these cases have been genotyped. We thus conducted a national multicenter observational retrospective study to determine the prognosis of children with SMARD1 according to their phenotype. We recorded all known French pediatric cases with mutations identified on the immunoglobulin µ-binding protein 2 gene and the presence of respiratory symptoms. Thirty centers provided 22 observations. A diaphragmatic palsy was diagnosed 1.5 months (p = 0.02) after first respiratory symptoms, and hypotonia preceded areflexia by 4 months (p = 0.02). Early onset of symptoms leading to specialist consultation before the age of 3 months was associated with a significantly worse prognosis (p < 0.01). Among the 6 patients who were still alive, all were tracheostomized. Only one case survived beyond 2 years without artificial ventilation. The remaining patients died at a median age of 7 months. Our results may help pediatricians to provide medical information to parents and improve the decision-making process of setting up life support.

7.
Neurology ; 92(8): e852-e865, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To genotypically and phenotypically characterize a large pediatric myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) cohort to provide a solid frame of data for future evidence-based health management. METHODS: Among the 2,697 patients with genetically confirmed DM1 included in the French DM-Scope registry, children were enrolled between January 2010 and February 2016 from 24 centers. Comprehensive cross-sectional analysis of most relevant qualitative and quantitative variables was performed. RESULTS: We studied 314 children (52% females, with 55% congenital, 31% infantile, 14% juvenile form). The age at inclusion was inversely correlated with the CTG repeat length. The paternal transmission rate was higher than expected, especially in the congenital form (13%). A continuum of highly prevalent neurodevelopmental alterations was observed, including cognitive slowing (83%), attention deficit (64%), written language (64%), and spoken language (63%) disorders. Five percent exhibited autism spectrum disorders. Overall, musculoskeletal impairment was mild. Despite low prevalence, cardiorespiratory impairment could be life-threatening, and frequently occurred early in the first decade (25.9%). Gastrointestinal symptoms (27%) and cataracts (7%) were more frequent than expected, while endocrine or metabolic disorders were scarce. CONCLUSIONS: The pedDM-Scope study details the main genotype and phenotype characteristics of the 3 DM1 pediatric subgroups. It highlights striking profiles that could be useful in health care management (including transition into adulthood) and health policy planning.

8.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline WWOX pathogenic variants have been associated with disorder of sex differentiation (DSD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and WWOX-related epileptic encephalopathy (WOREE syndrome). We review clinical and molecular data on WWOX-related disorders, further describing WOREE syndrome and phenotype/genotype correlations. METHODS: We report clinical and molecular findings in 20 additional patients from 18 unrelated families with WOREE syndrome and biallelic pathogenic variants in the WWOX gene. Different molecular screening approaches were used (quantitative polymerase chain reaction/multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification [qPCR/MLPA], array comparative genomic hybridization [array-CGH], Sanger sequencing, epilepsy gene panel, exome sequencing). RESULTS: Two copy-number variations (CNVs) or two single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) were found respectively in four and nine families, with compound heterozygosity for one SNV and one CNV in five families. Eight novel missense pathogenic variants have been described. By aggregating our patients with all cases reported in the literature, 37 patients from 27 families with WOREE syndrome are known. This review suggests WOREE syndrome is a very severe epileptic encephalopathy characterized by absence of language development and acquisition of walking, early-onset drug-resistant seizures, ophthalmological involvement, and a high likelihood of premature death. The most severe clinical presentation seems to be associated with null genotypes. CONCLUSION: Germline pathogenic variants in WWOX are clearly associated with a severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. We report here the largest cohort of individuals with WOREE syndrome.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(7): 2436-2446, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659920

RESUMO

Context: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) (mainly secondary to 11p15 molecular disruption) and Temple syndrome (TS) (secondary to 14q32.2 molecular disruption) are imprinting disorders with phenotypic (prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, early feeding difficulties) and molecular overlap. Objective: To describe the clinical overlap between SRS and TS and extensively study the molecular aspects of TS. Patients: We retrospectively collected data on 28 patients with disruption of the 14q32.2 imprinted region, identified in our center, and performed extensive molecular analysis. Results: Seventeen (60.7%) patients showed loss of methylation of the MEG3/DLK1 intergenic differentially methylated region by epimutation. Eight (28.6%) patients had maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 and three (10.7%) had a paternal deletion in 14q32.2. Most patients (72.7%) had a Netchine-Harbison SRS clinical scoring system ≥4/6, and consistent with a clinical diagnosis of SRS. The mean age at puberty onset was 7.2 years in girls and 9.6 years in boys; 37.5% had premature pubarche. The body mass index of all patients increased before pubarche and/or the onset of puberty. Multilocus analysis identified multiple methylation defects in 58.8% of patients. We identified four potentially damaging genetic variants in genes encoding proteins involved in the establishment or maintenance of DNA methylation. Conclusions: Most patients with 14q32.2 disruption fulfill the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of SRS. These clinical data suggest similar management of patients with TS and SRS, with special attention to their young age at the onset of puberty and early increase of body mass index.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(7): 1610-1613, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704304

RESUMO

Ciliopathies comprise a group of clinically heterogeneous and overlapping disorders with a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from prenatal lethality to adult-onset disorders. Pathogenic variants in more than 100 ciliary protein-encoding genes have been described, most notably those involved in intraflagellar transport (IFT) which comprises two protein complexes, responsible for retrograde (IFT-A) and anterograde transport (IFT-B). Here we describe a fetus with an unclassified severe ciliopathy phenotype including short ribs, polydactyly, bilateral renal agenesis, and imperforate anus, with compound heterozygosity for c.118_125del, p.(Thr40Glyfs*11) and a c.352 +1G > T in IFT27, which encodes a small GTPase component of the IFT-B complex. We conclude that bilateral renal agenesis is a rare feature of this severe ciliopathy and this report highlights the phenotypic overlap of Pallister-Hall syndrome and ciliopathies. The phenotype in patients with IFT27 gene variants is wide ranging from Bardet-Biedl syndrome to a lethal phenotype.

12.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 422-429, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Segmentation defects of the vertebrae (SDV) are non-specific features found in various syndromes. The molecular bases of SDV are not fully elucidated due to the wide range of phenotypes and classification issues. The genes involved are in the Notch signalling pathway, which is a key system in somitogenesis. Here we report on mutations identified in a diagnosis cohort of SDV. We focused on spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) and the phenotype of these patients in order to establish a diagnostic strategy when confronted with SDV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used DNA samples from a cohort of 73 patients and performed targeted sequencing of the five known SCD-causing genes (DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6) in the first 48 patients and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 28 relevant patients. RESULTS: Ten diagnoses, including four biallelic variants in TBX6, two biallelic variants in LFNG and DLL3, and one in MESP2 and HES7, were made with the gene panel, and two diagnoses, including biallelic variants in FLNB and one variant in MEOX1, were made by WES. The diagnostic yield of the gene panel was 10/73 (13.7%) in the global cohort but 8/10 (80%) in the subgroup meeting the SCD criteria; the diagnostic yield of WES was 2/28 (8%). CONCLUSION: After negative array CGH, targeted sequencing of the five known SCD genes should only be performed in patients who meet the diagnostic criteria of SCD. The low proportion of candidate genes identified by WES in our cohort suggests the need to consider more complex genetic architectures in cases of SDV.

13.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 175(4): 417-430, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178447

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome (CS) is a genetic disorder whose first description included Coloboma, Heart disease, Atresia of choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies and deafness, most often caused by a genetic mutation in the CHD7 gene. Two features were then added: semicircular canal anomalies and arhinencephaly/olfactory bulb agenesis, with classification of typical, partial, or atypical forms on the basis of major and minor clinical criteria. The detection rate of a pathogenic variant in the CHD7 gene varies from 67% to 90%. To try to have an overview of this heterogenous clinical condition and specify a genotype-phenotype relation, we conducted a national study of phenotype and genotype in 119 patients with CS. Selected clinical diagnostic criteria were from Verloes (2005), updated by Blake & Prasad (). Besides obtaining a detailed clinical description, when possible, patients underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, audiometry, temporal bone CT scan, gonadotropin analysis, and olfactory-bulb MRI. All patients underwent CHD7 sequencing and MLPA analysis. We found a pathogenic CHD7 variant in 83% of typical CS cases and 58% of atypical cases. Pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene were classified by the expected impact on the protein. In all, 90% of patients had a typical form of CS and 10% an atypical form. The most frequent features were deafness/semicircular canal hypoplasia (94%), pituitary defect/hypogonadism (89%), external ear anomalies (87%), square-shaped face (81%), and arhinencephaly/anosmia (80%). Coloboma (73%), heart defects (65%), and choanal atresia (43%) were less frequent.


Assuntos
Síndrome CHARGE/diagnóstico , Síndrome CHARGE/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Nervos Cranianos/anormalidades , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , França , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(8): 930-934, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612834

RESUMO

Sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) is a group of conditions in which individuals have an abnormal number of sex chromosomes. SCA, such as Klinefelter's syndrome, XYY syndrome, and Triple X syndrome are associated with a large range of neurological outcome. Another genetic event such as another cytogenetic abnormality may explain a part of this variable expressivity. In this study, we have recruited fourteen patients with intellectual disability or developmental delay carrying SCA associated with a copy-number variant (CNV). In our cohort (four patients 47,XXY, four patients 47,XXX, and six patients 47,XYY), seven patients were carrying a pathogenic CNV, two a likely pathogenic CNV and five a variant of uncertain significance. Our analysis suggests that CNV might be considered as an additional independent genetic factor for intellectual disability and developmental delay for patients with SCA and neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Trissomia/genética , Cariótipo XYY/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenótipo , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Cariótipo XYY/diagnóstico
15.
Brain ; 140(6): 1579-1594, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444220

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias have a marked heterogeneous genetic background, with mutations in 34 genes identified so far. This large amount of implicated genes accounts for heterogeneous clinical presentations, making genotype-phenotype correlations a major challenge in the field. While polyglutamine ataxias, linked to CAG repeat expansions in genes such as ATXN1, ATXN2, ATXN3, ATXN7, CACNA1A and TBP, have been extensively characterized in large cohorts, there is a need for comprehensive assessment of frequency and phenotype of more 'conventional' ataxias. After exclusion of CAG/polyglutamine expansions in spinocerebellar ataxia genes in 412 index cases with dominantly inherited cerebellar ataxias, we aimed to establish the relative frequencies of mutations in other genes, with an approach combining panel sequencing and TaqMan® polymerase chain reaction assay. We found relevant genetic variants in 59 patients (14.3%). The most frequently mutated were channel genes [CACNA1A (n = 16), KCND3 (n = 4), KCNC3 (n = 2) and KCNA1 (n = 2)]. Deletions in ITPR1 (n = 11) were followed by biallelic variants in SPG7 (n = 9). Variants in AFG3L2 (n = 7) came next in frequency, and variants were rarely found in STBN2 (n = 2), ELOVL5, FGF14, STUB1 and TTBK2 (n = 1 each). Interestingly, possible risk factor variants were detected in SPG7 and POLG. Clinical comparisons showed that ataxias due to channelopathies had a significantly earlier age at onset with an average of 24.6 years, versus 40.9 years for polyglutamine expansion spinocerebellar ataxias and 37.8 years for SPG7-related forms (P = 0.001). In contrast, disease duration was significantly longer in the former (20.5 years versus 9.3 and 13.7, P=0.001), though for similar functional stages, indicating slower progression of the disease. Of interest, intellectual deficiency was more frequent in channel spinocerebellar ataxias, while cognitive impairment in adulthood was similar among the three groups. Similar differences were found among a single gene group, comparing 23 patients with CACNA1A expansions (spinocerebellar ataxia 6) to 22 patients with CACNA1A point mutations, which had lower average age at onset (25.2 versus 47.3 years) with longer disease duration (18.7 versus 10.9), but lower severity indexes (0.39 versus 0.44), indicating slower progression of the disease. In conclusion, we identified relevant genetic variations in up to 15% of cases after exclusion of polyglutamine expansion spinocerebellar ataxias, and confirmed CACNA1A and SPG7 as major ataxia genes. We could delineate firm genotype-phenotype correlations that are important for genetic counselling and of possible prognostic value.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/fisiopatologia , Canalopatias/genética , Canalopatias/fisiopatologia , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(7): 395-398, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28455154

RESUMO

Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare multiple congenital disorder caused by activating germline mutations in HRAS gene and is characterized by coarse facial features, severe feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, mild to severe intellectual disability, severe postnatal growth retardation, cardiac abnormalities or cancer predisposition. Phenotypic spectrum associated with HRAS mutations is broad, ranging from attenuated CS phenotype to neonatal and lethal forms with limited genotype-phenotype correlations. Congenital myopathy with neuromuscular spindle excess has been rarely described in the literature. We report a new severe fetal case of CS with distal arthrogryposis due to neuromuscular spindle excess, confirmed by the detection of the p.Gly12Val mutation in HRAS gene. This case emphasizes the fact that HRAS is the only gene responsible for neuromuscular spindle excess, underlines a correlation between p.Gly12Val mutation and severe CS phenotype and points out the importance of a muscle biopsy performed according to the suitable procedure in neuromuscular disorders for any fetal arthrogryposis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Costello/genética , Doenças Fetais/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adulto , Síndrome de Costello/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Costello/patologia , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Fetais/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(3)2017 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287497

RESUMO

Progress in epidemiological, molecular and clinical genetics with the development of new techniques has improved knowledge on genetic syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this article is to show the diversity of genetic disorders associated with ASD (based on an extensive review of single-gene disorders, copy number variants, and other chromosomal disorders), and consequently to propose a hierarchical diagnostic strategy with a stepwise evaluation, helping general practitioners/pediatricians and child psychiatrists to collaborate with geneticists and neuropediatricians, in order to search for genetic disorders associated with ASD. The first step is a clinical investigation involving: (i) a child psychiatric and psychological evaluation confirming autism diagnosis from different observational sources and assessing autism severity; (ii) a neuropediatric evaluation examining neurological symptoms and developmental milestones; and (iii) a genetic evaluation searching for dysmorphic features and malformations. The second step involves laboratory and if necessary neuroimaging and EEG studies oriented by clinical results based on clinical genetic and neuropediatric examinations. The identification of genetic disorders associated with ASD has practical implications for diagnostic strategies, early detection or prevention of co-morbidity, specific treatment and follow up, and genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
18.
Joint Bone Spine ; 84(1): 87-90, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27369646

RESUMO

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis is a rare X-linked disorder. It is often lethal in male patients, and is considered X-linked dominant since affected females exhibit clinical signs, although milder than males. We describe here an adult male patient, with clinical and radiological signs similar to those described in female patients. Diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of an AMER1 mutation. The presence of long bones striation and the clinical phenotype of the patient also led to the diagnosis of non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome, probably explaining the non-lethal and even rather minor phenotype compared to the rare affected males already described.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Síndrome de Klinefelter/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Klinefelter/genética , Osteosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteosclerose/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Síndrome de Klinefelter/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Osteosclerose/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Radiografia/métodos , Doenças Raras , Medição de Risco
19.
Prenat Diagn ; 36(5): 397-406, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26850935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is generally detected by abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings in the third trimester of pregnancy and then confirmed by molecular genetic testing of fetal genomic DNA obtained by aspiration of amniotic fluid. This invasive procedure presents a small but significant risk for both the fetus and mother. Therefore, non-invasive procedures using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma have been developed for the detection of the fetal achondroplasia mutations. METHODS: To determine whether the fetus carries the de novo mis-sense genetic mutation at nucleotide 1138 in FGFR3 gene involved in >99% of achondroplasia cases, we developed two independent methods: digital-droplet PCR combined with minisequencing, which are very sensitive methods allowing detection of rare alleles. RESULTS: We collected 26 plasmatic samples from women carrying fetus at risk of achondroplasia and diagnosed to date a total of five affected fetuses in maternal blood. The sensitivity and specificity of our test are respectively 100% [95% confidence interval, 56.6-100%] and 100% [95% confidence interval, 84.5-100%]. CONCLUSIONS: This novel, original strategy for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia is suitable for implementation in routine clinical testing and allows considering extending the applications of these technologies in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of many other monogenic diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/diagnóstico , DNA/sangue , Testes para Triagem do Soro Materno , Acondroplasia/sangue , Acondroplasia/genética , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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