*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2119429119, 2022 04 12.*

##### RESUMO

Charge density waves (CDWs) have been observed in nearly all families of copper-oxide superconductors. But the behavior of these phases across different families has been perplexing. In La-based cuprates, the CDW wavevector is an increasing function of doping, exhibiting the so-called Yamada behavior, while in Y- and Bi-based materials the behavior is the opposite. Here, we report a combined resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSXS) and neutron scattering study of charge and spin density waves in isotopically enriched La1.8−xEu0.2SrxCuO4 over a range of doping 0.07≤x≤0.20. We find that the CDW amplitude is temperature independent and develops well above experimentally accessible temperatures. Further, the CDW wavevector shows a nonmonotonic temperature dependence, exhibiting Yamada behavior at low temperature with a sudden change occurring near the spin ordering temperature. We describe these observations using a LandauGinzburg theory for an incommensurate CDW in a metallic system with a finite charge compressibility and spin-CDW coupling. Extrapolating to high temperature, where the CDW amplitude is small and spin order is absent, our analysis predicts a decreasing wavevector with doping, similar to Y and Bi cuprates. Our study suggests that CDW order in all families of cuprates forms by a common mechanism.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(2): 027602, 2021 Jul 09.*

##### RESUMO

How superconductivity interacts with charge or nematic order is one of the great unresolved issues at the center of research in quantum materials. Ba_{1-x}Sr_{x}Ni_{2}As_{2} (BSNA) is a charge ordered pnictide superconductor recently shown to exhibit a sixfold enhancement of superconductivity due to nematic fluctuations near a quantum phase transition (at x_{c}=0.7) [1]. The superconductivity is, however, anomalous, with the resistive transition for 0.4

*Phys Rev Lett ; 120(11): 117202, 2018 Mar 16.*

##### RESUMO

Frustrated quantum magnets are a central theme in condensed matter physics due to the richness of their phase diagrams. They support a panoply of phases including various ordered states and topological phases. Yet, this problem has defied a solution for a long time due to the lack of controlled approximations which make it difficult to distinguish between competing phases. Here we report the discovery of a special quantum macroscopically degenerate point in the XXZ model on the spin-1/2 kagome quantum antiferromagnet for the ratio of Ising to antiferromagnetic transverse coupling J_{z}/J=-1/2. This point is proximate to many competing phases explaining the source of the complexity of the phase diagram. We identify five phases near this point including both spin-liquid and broken-symmetry phases and give evidence that the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is close to a transition between two phases.

*Science ; 358(6368): 1314-1317, 2017 12 08.*

##### RESUMO

Bose condensation has shaped our understanding of macroscopic quantum phenomena, having been realized in superconductors, atomic gases, and liquid helium. Excitons are bosons that have been predicted to condense into either a superfluid or an insulating electronic crystal. Using the recently developed technique of momentum-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (M-EELS), we studied electronic collective modes in the transition metal dichalcogenide semimetal 1T-TiSe2 Near the phase-transition temperature (190 kelvin), the energy of the electronic mode fell to zero at nonzero momentum, indicating dynamical slowing of plasma fluctuations and crystallization of the valence electrons into an exciton condensate. Our study provides compelling evidence for exciton condensation in a three-dimensional solid and establishes M-EELS as a versatile technique sensitive to valence band excitations in quantum materials.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(10): 106405, 2017 Mar 10.*

##### RESUMO

We report a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy study of the charge density wave (CDW) order in 1T-TiSe_{2} and Cu_{0.08}TiSe_{2}. In pristine 1T-TiSe_{2} we observe a long-range coherent commensurate CDW (CCDW) order. In contrast, Cu_{0.08}TiSe_{2} displays an incommensurate CDW (ICDW) phase with localized CCDW domains separated by domain walls. Density of states measurements indicate that the domain walls host an extra population of fermions near the Fermi level which may play a role in the emergence of superconductivity in this system. Fourier transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies suggest that the dominant mechanism for CDW formation in the ICDW phase may be electron-phonon coupling.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 114(1): 016805, 2015 Jan 09.*

##### RESUMO

We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 113(25): 256405, 2014 Dec 19.*

##### RESUMO

We show that the pair-density-wave (PDW) superconducting state emergent in extended Heisenberg-Hubbard models in two-leg ladders is topological in the presence of an Ising spin symmetry and supports a Majorana zero mode (MZM) at an open boundary and at a junction with a uniform d-wave one-dimensional superconductor. Similarly to a conventional finite-momentum paired state, the order parameter of the PDW state is a charge-2e field with finite momentum. However, the order parameter here is a quartic electron operator and conventional mean-field theory cannot be applied to study this state. We use bosonization to show that the 1D PDW state has a MZM at a boundary. This superconducting state is an exotic topological phase supporting Majorana fermions with finite-momentum pairing fields and charge-4e superconductivity.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 107(7): 075502, 2011 Aug 12.*

##### RESUMO

We consider the viscoelastic response of the electronic degrees of freedom in 2D and 3D topological insulators (TI's). Our primary focus is on the 2D Chern insulator which exhibits a bulk dissipationless viscosity analogous to the quantum Hall viscosity predicted in integer and fractional quantum Hall states. We show that the dissipationless viscosity is the response of a TI to torsional deformations of the underlying lattice geometry. The viscoelastic response also indicates that crystal dislocations in Chern insulators will carry momentum density. We briefly discuss generalizations to 3D which imply that time-reversal invariant TI's will exhibit a quantum Hall viscosity on their surfaces.

*Science ; 330(6005): 805-8, 2010 Nov 05.*

##### RESUMO

Electrons in graphene behave like Dirac fermions, permitting phenomena from high-energy physics to be studied in a solid-state setting. A key question is whether or not these fermions are critically influenced by Coulomb correlations. We performed inelastic x-ray scattering experiments on crystals of graphite and applied reconstruction algorithms to image the dynamical screening of charge in a freestanding graphene sheet. We found that the polarizability of the Dirac fermions is amplified by excitonic effects, improving screening of interactions between quasiparticles. The strength of interactions is characterized by a scale-dependent, effective fine-structure constant, α(g)* (k,ω), the value of which approaches 0.14 ± 0.092 ~ 1/7 at low energy and large distances. This value is substantially smaller than the nominal α(g) = 2.2, suggesting that, on the whole, graphene is more weakly interacting than previously believed.

*Adv Mater ; 22(10): 1148-55, 2010 Mar 12.*

##### RESUMO

This Progress Report presents temperature-, magnetic-field-, and pressure-dependent Raman measurements of strongly correlated materials such as the charge-ordering manganese perovskites, the multiferroic material TbMnO(3), and the charge-density wave (CDW) materials 1T-TiSe(2) and Cu(x)TiSe(2). These studies illustrate the rich array of phases and properties that can be accessed with field and pressure tuning in these materials, and demonstrate the efficacy of using magnetic-field- and pressure-dependent scattering methods to elucidate the microscopic changes associated with highly tunable behavior in complex materials.

##### Assuntos

Magnetismo , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Manganês/química , Óxidos/química , Fenômenos Físicos , Pressão , Teoria Quântica , Titânio/química*Phys Rev Lett ; 105(14): 146403, 2010 Oct 01.*

##### RESUMO

We show, using density-matrix renormalization-group calculations complemented by field-theoretic arguments, that the spin-gapped phase of the one dimensional Kondo-Heisenberg model exhibits quasi-long-range superconducting correlations only at a nonzero momentum. The local correlations in this phase resemble those of the pair-density-wave state which was recently proposed to describe the phenomenology of the striped ordered high-temperature superconductor La(2-x)Ba(x)CuO4, in which the spin, charge, and superconducting orders are strongly intertwined.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 103(4): 046811, 2009 Jul 24.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate the stability of a quadratic band-crossing point (QBCP) in 2D fermionic systems. At the noninteracting level, we show that a QBCP exists and is topologically stable for a Berry flux +/-2pi if the point symmetry group has either fourfold or sixfold rotational symmetries. This putative topologically stable free-fermion QBCP is marginally unstable to arbitrarily weak short-range repulsive interactions. We consider both spinless and spin-1/2 fermions. Four possible ordered states result: a quantum anomalous Hall phase, a quantum spin Hall phase, a nematic phase, and a nematic-spin-nematic phase.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 103(20): 205301, 2009 Nov 13.*

##### RESUMO

It is shown that a homogeneous two-component Fermi gas with (long-range) dipolar and short-range isotropic interactions has a ferronematic phase for suitable values of the dipolar and short-range coupling constants. The ferronematic phase is characterized by having a nonzero magnetization and long-range orientational uniaxial order. The Fermi surface of the spin-up (-down) component is elongated (compressed) along the direction of the magnetization.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 101(8): 086403, 2008 Aug 22.*

##### RESUMO

We determine the local density of states of one-dimensional incommensurate charge-density wave states in the presence of a strong impurity potential, which is modeled by a boundary. We find that the charge-density wave gets pinned at the impurity, which results in a singularity in the Fourier transform of the local density of states at momentum 2k_{F}. At energies above the spin gap we observe dispersing features associated with the spin and charge degrees of freedom, respectively. In the presence of an impurity magnetic field we observe the formation of a bound state localized at the impurity. All of our results carry over to the case of 1D Mott insulators by exchanging the roles of spin and charge degrees of freedom. We discuss the implications of our result for scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on spin-gap systems such as two-leg ladder cuprates.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 100(2): 026408, 2008 Jan 18.*

##### RESUMO

We explain, in a consistent manner, the set of seemingly conflicting experiments on the finite temperature Mott critical point, and demonstrate that the Mott transition is in the Ising universality class. We show that, even though the thermodynamic behavior of the system near such critical point is described by an Ising order parameter, the global conductivity can depend on other singular observables and, in particular, on the energy density. Finally, we show that in the presence of weak disorder the dimensionality of the system has crucial effects on the size of the critical region that is probed experimentally.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 97(5): 050404, 2006 Aug 04.*

##### RESUMO

The entanglement entropy of a pure quantum state of a bipartite system A union or logical sumB is defined as the von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over one of the two parts. In one dimension, the entanglement of critical ground states diverges logarithmically in the subsystem size, with a universal coefficient that for conformally invariant critical points is related to the central charge of the conformal field theory. We find that the entanglement entropy of a standard class of z=2 conformal quantum critical points in two spatial dimensions, in addition to a nonuniversal "area law" contribution linear in the size of the AB boundary, generically has a universal logarithmically divergent correction, which is completely determined by the geometry of the partition and by the central charge of the field theory that describes the critical wave function.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 95(17): 176402, 2005 Oct 21.*

##### RESUMO

The elementary excitations of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) fluids are vortices with fractional statistics. Yet, this fundamental prediction has remained an open experimental challenge. Here we show that the cross-current noise in a three-terminal tunneling experiment of a two dimensional electron gas in the FQH regime can be used to detect directly the statistical angle of the excitations of these topological quantum fluids. We show that the noise also reveals signatures of exclusion statistics and of fractional charge. The vortices of Laughlin states should exhibit a bunching effect, while for higher states in the Jain sequences they should exhibit an "antibunching" effect.