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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232868, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153458

RESUMO

Abstract The "piaussu", Megaleporinus macrocephalus is an anostomatid fish species native to the basin of the Paraguay River, in the Pantanal biome of western Brazil. However, this species has now been recorded in a number of other drainages, including those of the upper Paraná, Uruguay, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri, and Paraíba do Sulrivers. This study presents two new records of the occurrence of M. macrocephalus, in the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the state of Maranhão, in the Brazilian Northeast. The piaussu is a large-bodied fish of commercial interest that is widely raised on fish farms, and its occurrence in the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers is likely the result of individuals escaping from fish tanks when they overflow during the rainy season. Morphological analyses and sequences of the Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene confirmed the taxonomic identification of the specimens as M. macrocephalus. The COI sequences were 99.66% similar to those of M. macrocephalus deposited in the BOLDSystems database. These records extend the known distribution of M. macrocephalus to the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the Brazilian Northeast, highlighting a new case of introduction of exotic fish species into Brazilian river basins.


Resumo Megaleporinus macrocephalus é uma espécie de peixe anostomatídeo nativa da bacia do rio Paraguai, no bioma Pantanal do oeste do Brasil. No entanto, essa espécie já foi registrada em várias outras drenagens, incluindo as dos rios Alto Paraná, Uruguai, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri e Paraíba do Sul. Este estudo apresenta dois novos registros da ocorrência de M. macrocephalus, nas bacias dos rios Itapecuru e Mearim, no estado do Maranhão, no nordeste brasileiro. O piaussu é um peixe de grande porte, de interesse comercial, amplamente criado em pisciculturas, e sua ocorrência nos rios Itapecuru e Mearim é provavelmente o resultado de indivíduos que escapam dos tanques quando transbordam durante a estação chuvosa. Análises morfológicas e sequências do gene da subunidade I do citocromo oxidase (COI) confirmaram a identificação taxonômica dos espécimes como M. macrocephalus. As sequências de COI foram 99,66% semelhantes às de M. macrocephalus depositadas no banco de dados BOLDSystems. Esses registros estendem a conhecida distribuição de M. macrocephalus às bacias dos rios Itapecuru e Mearim, no nordeste brasileiro, destacando um novo caso de introdução de espécies exóticas de peixes nas bacias hidrográficas brasileiras.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 917-927, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153455

RESUMO

Abstract The trahira or wolf fish - Hoplias malabaricus- is a valid species, although recent cytogenetic and molecular studies have indicated the existence of a species complex. In this context, the present study analyzed the mitochondrial COI marker to determine the levels of genetic diversity of specimens from the Brazilian state of Maranhão, and verify the occurrence of distinct lineages within the study area. Samples were collected from the basins of the Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru, and Parnaíba rivers. A 630-bp fragment was obtained from 211 specimens, with 484 conserved and 108 variable sites, and 60 haplotypes (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). The phylogenetic analyses indicated the existence of three distinct lineages of H. malabaricus from Maranhão. Genetic distances of 1.5-8.2% were found between all the populations analyzed, while the variation between haplogroups ranged from 2.1% to 7.7%. The AMOVA indicated that most of the molecular variation was found among groups, with high FST values. The high levels of genetic variability found in the present study are supported by the available cytogenetic data. These findings reinforce the need for the development of effective programs of conservation and management independently for each river basin, in order to preserve the genetic variability found in this taxon.


Resumo A traíra - Hoplias malabaricus- é uma espécie válida, embora recentes estudos citogenéticos e moleculares tenham indicado a existência de um complexo de espécies. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisou o marcador mitocondrial COI para determinar os níveis de diversidade genética dos espécimes do estado do Maranhão e verificar a ocorrência de linhagens distintas dentro da área de estudo. As amostras foram coletadas nas bacias dos rios Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru e Parnaíba. As análises filogenéticas indicaram a existência de três linhagens distintas nas populações do Maranhão. Obteve-se um fragmento de 630 pb de 211 espécimes, com 484 sítios conservados, 108 variáveis e 60 haplótipos (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). As análises filogenéticas indicaram a ocorrência de três linhagens distintas de H. malabaricus do Maranhão. Distâncias genéticas de 1.5 a 8.2% foram encontradas entre todas as populações analisadas, enquanto a variação entre os haplogrupos variou de 2.1% a 7.7%. A AMOVA indicou que a maior variação molecular foi entre os grupos, com altos valores de FST. Os altos níveis de variabilidade genética encontrados no presente estudo são suportados pelos dados citogenéticos disponíveis. Essas descobertas reforçam a necessidade de desenvolver programas de conservação e manejo independentemente para cada bacia hidrográfica, a fim de preservar a variabilidade genética encontrada neste táxon.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e232868, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681896

RESUMO

The "piaussu", Megaleporinus macrocephalus is an anostomatid fish species native to the basin of the Paraguay River, in the Pantanal biome of western Brazil. However, this species has now been recorded in a number of other drainages, including those of the upper Paraná, Uruguay, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri, and Paraíba do Sulrivers. This study presents two new records of the occurrence of M. macrocephalus, in the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the state of Maranhão, in the Brazilian Northeast. The piaussu is a large-bodied fish of commercial interest that is widely raised on fish farms, and its occurrence in the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers is likely the result of individuals escaping from fish tanks when they overflow during the rainy season. Morphological analyses and sequences of the Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene confirmed the taxonomic identification of the specimens as M. macrocephalus. The COI sequences were 99.66% similar to those of M. macrocephalus deposited in the BOLDSystems database. These records extend the known distribution of M. macrocephalus to the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the Brazilian Northeast, highlighting a new case of introduction of exotic fish species into Brazilian river basins.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Rios , Animais , Brasil , Caraciformes/genética , Humanos , Paraguai , Uruguai
4.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053129

RESUMO

The trahira or wolf fish - Hoplias malabaricus- is a valid species, although recent cytogenetic and molecular studies have indicated the existence of a species complex. In this context, the present study analyzed the mitochondrial COI marker to determine the levels of genetic diversity of specimens from the Brazilian state of Maranhão, and verify the occurrence of distinct lineages within the study area. Samples were collected from the basins of the Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru, and Parnaíba rivers. A 630-bp fragment was obtained from 211 specimens, with 484 conserved and 108 variable sites, and 60 haplotypes (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). The phylogenetic analyses indicated the existence of three distinct lineages of H. malabaricus from Maranhão. Genetic distances of 1.5-8.2% were found between all the populations analyzed, while the variation between haplogroups ranged from 2.1% to 7.7%. The AMOVA indicated that most of the molecular variation was found among groups, with high FST values. The high levels of genetic variability found in the present study are supported by the available cytogenetic data. These findings reinforce the need for the development of effective programs of conservation and management independently for each river basin, in order to preserve the genetic variability found in this taxon.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 405-409, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132374

RESUMO

Abstract Based on morphological and molecular data, we present the first record of Cynomops planirostris for the State of Maranhão. The specimen was collected in the Inhamum Municipal Environmental Protection Area in Maranhão, Brazil and characterized morphologically as an adult male with scrotal testicles, dorsal pelage reddish chestnut, with ventral pelage slightly lighter in color, forearm length 34.70-34.80mm dental formula i:1/1, c:1/1, pm:1/2, m:3/3 = 26. The sequence of the Cytochrome Oxidase I subunit (COI) molecular marker confirmed the morphological diagnosis of the specimen as C. planirostris with significant similarities. The combined analysis of both morphological and molecular confirmed the occurrence of C. planirostris in the Brazilian state of Maranhão, in the Cerrado biome and records extends the known geographic distribution of the species by 411.30 km.


Resumo Com base em dados morfológicos e moleculares apresenta-se o primeiro registro de Cynomops planirostris para o Estado do Maranhão. O espécime foi coletado na Área de Proteção Ambiental Municipal do Inhamum, no Maranhão, Brasil e caracterizado morfologicamente como um macho adulto com testículos escrotal, coloração da pelagem dorsal castanho avermelhado, pelagem ventral levemente mais clara, comprimento do antebraço variando de 34,70-34,80mm, fórmula dentária: i:1/1, c:1/1, pm:1/2, m:3/3=26. A sequência do marcador molecular Citocromo Oxidase subunidade I (COI) confirmou a diagnose morfológica do espécime com C. planirostris com significante similaridade. A combinação dos dados morfológicos e moleculares confirmou a ocorrência da espécie C. planirostris para o estado brasileiro do Maranhão, no bioma Cerrado e registra a distribuição geográfica da espécie em 411.30 Km.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 80(2): 405-409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389486

RESUMO

Based on morphological and molecular data, we present the first record of Cynomops planirostris for the State of Maranhão. The specimen was collected in the Inhamum Municipal Environmental Protection Area in Maranhão, Brazil and characterized morphologically as an adult male with scrotal testicles, dorsal pelage reddish chestnut, with ventral pelage slightly lighter in color, forearm length 34.70-34.80mm dental formula i:1/1, c:1/1, pm:1/2, m:3/3 = 26. The sequence of the Cytochrome Oxidase I subunit (COI) molecular marker confirmed the morphological diagnosis of the specimen as C. planirostris with significant similarities. The combined analysis of both morphological and molecular confirmed the occurrence of C. planirostris in the Brazilian state of Maranhão, in the Cerrado biome and records extends the known geographic distribution of the species by 411.30 km.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Masculino
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 594-602, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001493

RESUMO

Abstract Didelphis albiventris are found throughout Northeast and Central Brazil to central-southern Uruguay and it was subject of few studies in a population level. Given this, the present study investigated the genetic variability of the species using the mitochondrial molecular marker cytochrome oxidase c subunit I. We analyzed samples from the different biomes within three Brazilian regions: Northeast (Caatinga , Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest), Southeast (Cerrado , Atlantic Forest, Cerrado/Atlantic Forest, and Cerrado/Caatinga ecotones) and South (Pampa and Atlantic Forest). Software BAPs retrieved five distinct demes: dm 1, dm 2, and dm 5 that occurs in South, Northeast and Southeast regions respectively and the dm 3 and dm 4 are wide distributed in Northeast and Southeast. Population analysis performed with AMOVA, haplotype network and Mantel test estimated the veracity of the demes. The FST shows structuring for the five demes, with dm 1 (South region) isolated from the others, however the other analysis showed the Northeast/Southeast demes (dm 2-5) united, diagnosing gene flow between them, mainly at the transitional zones, in areas as far away as areas with similar latitude interval (Southeast vs South) that was not detected gene flow. In the haplotype network, the mutational steps was conclusive in split dm1 from dm 2-5 with 15 mutational steps and the Mantel test was moderated, which is explained by genetic similarity despite the great geographic distances (Northeast/Southeast). Thus, our analysis recognized two different lineages (South and Northeast/Southeast) and indicate that the biomes were not decisive in their isolation. The sharing of demes at the transitional zones and in areas with high latitudinal intervals reflects a recent ancestral polymorphism for D. albiventris. The plasticity in the occupation of the space by this species contributes in its wide dispersion capability, that is, geographical distribution. Our results revealed important implications for the management of D. albiventris in these transitional zones areas where demes were shared.


Resumo Didelphis albiventris é encontrada em todo o Nordeste e região central do Brasil até o centro-sul do Uruguai e foi alvo de poucos estudos em nível populacional. Dessa forma, o presente estudo, investiga a variabilidade genética da espécie usando o marcador molecular citocromo c oxidase subunidade I. Analisou-se amostras de diferentes biomas de três regiões brasileiras: Nordeste (Caatinga, Cerrado e Floresta Atlântica), Sudeste (Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, ecótonos Cerrado/Floresta Atlântica e Cerrado/Caatinga) e Sul (Pampa e Floresta Atlântica). O software BAPs recuperou cinco demes distintos: dm 1, dm 2 e dm 5, que ocorrem nas regiões Sul, Nordeste e Sudeste, respectivamente, e os dm 3 e dm 4, que são amplamente distribuído no Nordeste e Sudeste. Análises populacionais realizadas com AMOVA, rede de haplótipo e teste de Mantel estimaram a veracidade das demes. O FST mostrou estruturação para as cinco demes, com dm 1 (região Sul) isolada das demais, entretanto as outras análises mostraram as demes Nordeste/Sudeste (dm 2-5) unidos, diagnosticando fluxo gênico entre elas, principalmente em zonas de transição, em áreas tão distante quanto áreas com similar intervalo de latitude (Sudeste e Sul), onde não foram detectado fluxo gênico. Na rede de haplótipo, os passos mutacionais foram conclusivos em separar dm 1 do dm 2-5 com 15 passos mutacionais, e o teste de Mantel foi moderado, o que é explicado pela similaridade genética apesar da grande distância geográfica (Nordeste/Sudeste). Assim, duas linhagens diferentes (Sul e Sudeste/Nordeste) foram encontradas, indicando que os biomas não foram decisivos em seus isolamentos. Os compartilhamentos das demes, em zonas de transição e em áreas com elevados intervalos de latitude, refletem um polimorfismo ancestral recente para D. albiventris. A plasticidade na ocupação do espaço por esta espécie contribui em sua ampla capacidade de dispersão, ou seja, distribuição geográfica. Nossos resultados revelam importantes implicações para o manejo de D. albiventris nessas áreas de zonas de transição, onde as demes são compartilhadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Variação Genética , Didelphis/genética , Brasil , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise
8.
Braz J Biol ; 79(4): 594-602, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379237

RESUMO

Didelphis albiventris are found throughout Northeast and Central Brazil to central-southern Uruguay and it was subject of few studies in a population level. Given this, the present study investigated the genetic variability of the species using the mitochondrial molecular marker cytochrome oxidase c subunit I. We analyzed samples from the different biomes within three Brazilian regions: Northeast (Caatinga , Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest), Southeast (Cerrado , Atlantic Forest, Cerrado/Atlantic Forest, and Cerrado/Caatinga ecotones) and South (Pampa and Atlantic Forest). Software BAPs retrieved five distinct demes: dm 1, dm 2, and dm 5 that occurs in South, Northeast and Southeast regions respectively and the dm 3 and dm 4 are wide distributed in Northeast and Southeast. Population analysis performed with AMOVA, haplotype network and Mantel test estimated the veracity of the demes. The FST shows structuring for the five demes, with dm 1 (South region) isolated from the others, however the other analysis showed the Northeast/Southeast demes (dm 2-5) united, diagnosing gene flow between them, mainly at the transitional zones, in areas as far away as areas with similar latitude interval (Southeast vs South) that was not detected gene flow. In the haplotype network, the mutational steps was conclusive in split dm1 from dm 2-5 with 15 mutational steps and the Mantel test was moderated, which is explained by genetic similarity despite the great geographic distances (Northeast/Southeast). Thus, our analysis recognized two different lineages (South and Northeast/Southeast) and indicate that the biomes were not decisive in their isolation. The sharing of demes at the transitional zones and in areas with high latitudinal intervals reflects a recent ancestral polymorphism for D. albiventris. The plasticity in the occupation of the space by this species contributes in its wide dispersion capability, that is, geographical distribution. Our results revealed important implications for the management of D. albiventris in these transitional zones areas where demes were shared.


Assuntos
Didelphis/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Brasil , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise
9.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(3)2016 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27706636

RESUMO

DNA barcoding is a useful complementary tool for use in traditional taxonomic studies due to its ability to detect cryptic species, and may be particularly efficient in the identification of fish species. The fish fauna of the Itapecuru River represents an important fishery resource in the Brazilian State of Maranhão, although it is currently suffering increasing degradation as a result of anthropogenic impacts. Therefore, DNA barcoding was used in the present study to identify fish species and establish a database of the rich freshwater fish fauna of Maranhão. A total of 440 specimens were analyzed, corresponding to 64 species belonging to 59 genera, 31 families, and 10 orders. Overall, 92.19% of these species could be identified by DNA barcoding, and were characterized by low levels (average 0.80%) of intra-specific divergence. However, five species (Anableps anableps, Gymnotus carapo, Sciades couma, Pseudauchenipterus nodosus, and Leporinus piau) presented values of mean genetic divergence above 3%, indicating the existence of cryptic diversity in these fishes. The DNA barcoding approach permitted the analysis of a large number of specimens and facilitated the discrimination and identification of closely related fish species in the Itapecuru Basin.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Genoma , Filogenia , Animais , Brasil , DNA/genética , Peixes/classificação , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Rios
10.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(1): 304-13, 2015 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25729963

RESUMO

The present study reviews the phylogeny of the genus Marmosops and expands the geographic range of Marmosops pinheiroi to the Brazilian State of Maranhão. Five specimens of M. pinheiroi were collected from the Inhamum Municipal Environmental Protection Area in Caxias, Maranhão. Total DNA was extracted and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in an ABI PRISM 3500. Additional sequences of Marmosops were obtained from GenBank for specimens from southeastern and northeast Brazil and the northern Amazon Forest. The results of the analysis indicated that M. incanus and M. paulensis form a well-supported clade, and that M. pinheiroi, M. pakaraimae, and M. parvidens are sister groups, with 71% support. The M. pinheiroi specimens from different regions grouped with high bootstrap values (99 and 100%). Interspecific genetic divergence varied from 8.3 to 21.5%, while intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.2 to 6.3% in M. pinheiroi, 0.3 to 2.9% in M. parvidens, and 0.4 to 6.9% in M. incanus. Given the taxonomic complexity of the genus, the results of the present study offer important insights into the taxonomic status of M. pinheiroi, as well as extend its known distribution 670 km south and east to the Brazilian State of Maranhão.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Gambás/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Brasil , Variação Genética , Geografia , Gambás/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Braz J Biol ; 71(2): 375-80, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21755154

RESUMO

The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22%) of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes/classificação , Rios , Animais , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica
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