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1.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 21(1): 138-141, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657764

RESUMO

We describe a case of a 55-year-old woman with migratory osteoporosis (MO) which initially presented as pain with bone marrow edema (BME) evident in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the left ankle and was managed with non-weight-bearing (NWB). The patient was already treated with per os risedronate for postmenopausal osteoporosis. After significant initial improvement, pain and BME relapsed in the left ankle and additionally expanded to insult the foot, while 3 months later the left hip was also affected. Since the combination of NWB, analgesics and risedronate had failed to control the disease, a single infusion of 5mg zoledronic acid (ZA) was administered. One month later the pain in all affected sites was disappeared and BME resolved as shown by MRI performed 3.5 months following ZA infusion. The patient, eventually, returned to her daily routine. This case underlines the effectiveness of ZA in MO and the need for more aggressive treatment in this disease.

2.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(5): 895-902, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661331

RESUMO

To assess non-compliance and potential changes in seasonal flu vaccination coverage before and during the Covid-19 pandemic in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). Consecutive patients with ARDs followed-up in 2 tertiary hospitals were telephone-interviewed (December 12-30, 2020) regarding seasonal flu vaccination during the 2019/20 and 2020/21 time periods. Self-reported disease flares that occurred after flu vaccination, as well as reasons for non-vaccination were recorded. One thousand fifteen patients were included. The rate of flu vaccination increased from 76% before to 83% during the COVID-19 pandemic (p = 0.0001). The rate of self-reported disease flares was < 1% among vaccinated patients. Reasons for not vaccination in both periods, respectively, included: 'was not recommended by their rheumatologists' (35.0vs.12.2%, p < 0.0001), 'did not feel that they would have any benefit' (36.9 vs. 32.6%), felt unsafe to do so (27.5 vs. 30.2%), or other reasons (18.9 vs. 23.8%). By multivariate analysis, age [OR = 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.04)] vs. [1.04 (95% CI 1.02-1.05)] and treatment with biologics [OR = 1.66 (95% CI 1.22-2.24) vs. [1.68 (95% CI 1.19-2.38)] were independent factors associated with vaccination in both periods. These findings, although are temporally encouraging, emphasize the need for continuous campaigns aiming at increasing patients' and physicians' awareness about the benefits of vaccination.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rituximab (RTX) use in the treatment of RA can be complicated by decrease in IgG, IgM or IgA levels (hypogammaglobulinemia-HGG). The aim of this study was to define the frequency of HGG in RA patients treated with RTX and to identify associations between its occurrence and patients' characteristics, disease outcomes and serious infections rate. METHODS: RA patients treated with RTX in two rheumatology centers from January 2007 to January 2020 were retrospectively examined. Demographical, clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded at baseline and at last visit. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients (84.3% females) with a mean age of 63.2 years were enrolled. They had baseline DAS28(CRP) of 5.2 (1.1) and received a median (range) of 8 (2-20) RTX cycles. A total of 43.4%, 24.1% and 31.3% developed 'any HGG', 'low IgG' and 'low IgM', respectively. Lower baseline IgG and IgM levels were predictors of 'low IgG' and 'low IgM' occurrence, respectively. Patients who developed 'low IgM' exhibited lower DAS28(CRP) and increased rates of remission and low disease activity compared with those with normal IgM levels. Patients who maintained normal IgG were receiving methotrexate more frequently. No differences were observed in serious infections rate among subgroups. CONCLUSION: HGG occurred in 43% of RTX-treated patients. Patients who developed low IgG or low IgM had lower baseline levels than those who did not. Concomitant DMARD and corticosteroid therapy was not associated with HGG. Low IgM, but not low IgG, development was associated with better disease outcomes. HGG was not associated with an increased incidence of serious infections.

5.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; : 1-9, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150792

RESUMO

Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is associated with a heightened cancer risk compared to the general population. Several pathways including immune system upregulation, cumulative inflammation, environmental factors, and genetic predisposition contribute to the development of both cancer and autoimmunity. Areas covered: This paper provides an overview of studies investigating the relationship between SSc and various types of cancer with a special focus on the identification of patients at higher risk for malignancy development. The demographic, serological, clinical, and disease-related characteristics of SSc individuals who are diagnosed with cancer over the course of their disease are discussed to provide a practical guidance for relevant screening strategies. Expert opinion: Several studies have identified subgroups of SSc patients at higher cancer risk based on the immunological profile (anti-RNAPol III positivity), diffuse disease type, and older age at SSc onset. Additionally, a close temporal association between SSc and cancer onset in certain antibody subsets raises the question as to whether more aggressive screening strategies should be considered. Currently, there are no published studies investigating the cost-effectiveness, efficacy, and safety of a targeted cancer-detection program. Screening procedures should at least follow recommendations for the general population with a special focus on patients at higher risk and specific cancer types.

6.
Mediterr J Rheumatol ; 31(Suppl 2): 288-294, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196007

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with emotional distress and significant disruptions in health-care services. These are key players in the development of nocebo phenomena. We aimed to investigate nocebo-prone behaviour in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) amid the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown. Methods: Consecutive patients were telephone-interviewed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece. Clinical and socioeconomic characteristics (eg, level of education) were recorded. For nocebo behaviour, a four-item validated questionnaire (Q-No, cut-off score>15), was used. Results were compared with pre-COVID-19 Q-No scores collected from patients followed-up in our department. Results: Nocebo behaviour was detected in 51/500 (10.2%) individuals. In patients with nocebo behaviour, use of anti-hypertensives was less common (17.6% vs 31.8%, p=0.04), but a higher level of education was more common (58.8% vs 35.9%, p=0.002), compared with patients with Q-No score ≤15; the latter retained statistical significance in multivariate regression analysis (p=0.009, OR [95%CI]: 2.29, [1.23-4.25]). Total Q-No scores were higher in the COVID-19-period compared to the pre-COVID-19 era [median (range); 12 (4-20) vs 11 (4-20), p=0.02]. Among 78 patients with available Q-No questionnaires in the pre-COVID-19 era, 11 (14.1%) displayed nocebo behaviour, which increased to 16 (20.5%) amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Interim development of nocebo behaviour was also associated with higher educational level (p=0.049, OR: 3.65, 95%CI: 1.005-13.268). Conclusion: A considerable proportion of ARD patients manifested nocebo-prone behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic, which was more common among those with high educational level.

7.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(Supplement_4): iv79-iv89, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053192

RESUMO

There have been major advances in the management of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) with the introduction of effective biologic agents targeting TNF and IL-17A. Clinicians now have more choice but, despite treatment recommendations, are still faced with significant uncertainty when deciding on the optimal treatment strategy for an individual patient in clinical practice. Management of axSpA typically requires both non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. NSAIDs remain the first line drug therapies for axSpA with proven efficacy for symptomatic management but uncertainty remains regarding their optimal long-term use relating to radiographic progression and safety in axSpA. To-date there are no head-to-head trials of biologics in axSpA. Clinicians need to consider other factors, including extra-articular manifestations, comorbidities, safety and radiographic progression when deciding on which biologic to recommend for an individual patient. This article will explore the evidence relating to these factors and highlight areas of unmet need.

8.
RMD Open ; 6(3)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depression and anxiety are not uncommon in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is increasingly recognised that they are associated with high disease activity and worse disease outcomes. We aimed to examine the frequency of depression and anxiety in an early RA inception cohort and to explore associations with disease-related measures. METHODS: The Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis inception cohort recruited newly diagnosed RA patients followed-up 6-monthly. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Associations with demographic characteristics and disease-related measures were examined at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. RESULTS: 848 RA patients were included. The prevalence of anxiety and depression at baseline was 19.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Depression and anxiety scores correlated with DAS28 at all time-points (all p<0.0001). In multivariable linear regression, anxiety score at baseline was associated with younger age and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score. Anxiety scores at 6 months and 12 months were associated with low body mass index (BMI), baseline anxiety score and current patient global score and HAQ. Depression score at baseline was associated with younger age, being single and HAQ, while depression scores at 6 months and 12 months were associated with male gender (only at 6 months), baseline anxiety and depression scores and current patient global score, HAQ and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. CONCLUSION: Depression and anxiety are associated with disease activity, worse functional status and other variables in early RA. There is a close relationship between CRP and depression but not anxiety.

9.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(12): 102694, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121641

RESUMO

Aortic involvement is relatively common in the context of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). It includes IgG4-aortitis, and IgG4-(chronic) periaortitis (IgG4-CP). The latter overlaps with IgG4-retroperitoneal fibrosis (IgG4-RPF). Aortic wall thickening which characterizes these entities along with the presence of periaortic tissue in IgG4-CP, are often accompanied by aortic aneurysms, which belong to the group of the so-called inflammatory aneurysms. Both the thoracic and abdominal aorta can be affected. Aortitis appears to involve more often the former, while the opposite is the case for IgG4-CP. There is a lack of definitions and different classification criteria have been used to describe these entities. This report provides an overview on the current evidence of aortic involvement in IgG4-RD. It discusses the clinical, epidemiologic, serologic and histopathologic characteristics, as well as the imaging techniques used for their diagnosis and the therapeutic options and treatment outcomes. The differential diagnosis and underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are also discussed.

11.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 12: 1759720X20930116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612710

RESUMO

Patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) have an increased risk for tuberculosis (TB). The use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) and glucocorticoids in these patients has been associated with an increased prevalence of latent TB reactivation. Over the last few years, several biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs), other than TNFi (e.g. rituximab, abatacept, tocilizumab, secukinumab) and targeted synthetic DMARDs (tsDMARDs) [e.g. apremilast, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors] have been used for the treatment of patients with ARD. For many of these drugs, especially the newer ones like JAK inhibitors or antibodies against interleukin (IL)-23, most data stem from randomized clinical trials and few are available from real life clinical experience. We sought to review the current evidence for TB risk in patients with ARD treated with tsDMARDs or bDMARDs, other than TNFi. It seems that some of these drugs are associated with a lower TB risk, indirectly compared with TNFi treatment. In fact, it appears that rituximab, apremilast and inhibitors of IL-17 and IL-23 might be safer, while more data are needed for JAK inhibitors. As seen in TNFi, risk for TB is more pronounced in TB-endemic areas. Screening for latent TB must precede initiation of any tsDMARDs or bDMARDs. The growing use of non-TNFi agents has raised the need for more real-life studies that would compare the risk for TB between TNFi and other treatment modalities for ARD. Knowledge about the TB-safety profile of these drugs could help in the decision of drug choice in patients with confirmed latent TB infection or in TB endemic areas.

13.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710295

RESUMO

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) can affect almost every tissue/organ. Vascular involvement in the setting of IgG4-RD is increasingly being recognized with most of the cases pertaining patients with aortitis and/or periaortitis with or without aneurysm formation. However, it is now evident that other vessels like iliac arteries, coronary arteries, carotids, and others can also be affected being often underdiagnosed. Vascular involvement is expressed as vessel wall thickening, while aneurysm formation is also occasionally seen. Although histopathological findings are the cornerstone in the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, imaging modalities like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are similarly important when vascular involvement occurs, helping in the mapping of the disease and in identifying other, more accessible to biopsy, affected organs. Inflammation markers like erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein have also been described in IgG4-RD patients with vascular involvement. Herein, we present a case of a middle-aged man with long-term high inflammation markers who eventually diagnosed with IgG4-RD after an ascending aorta aneurysm operation, while a subsequent comprehensive magnetic resonance angiography revealed also involvement of the abdominal aorta and the left subclavian and left common carotid. Moreover, we sought to review the current literature about medium- and large-vessel involvement, beyond the aorta, in patients with IgG4-RD.

14.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(9): 2195-2196, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594181
19.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(2): 337-343, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898763

RESUMO

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a disorder with various clinical manifestations. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is well recognized, with hypertrophic pachymeningitis and hypophysitis being the most common manifestations. Spinal cord involvement is an extremely rare manifestation. We present the first case of an IgG4-RD patient with spinal cord parenchymal disease and concurrent hypophysitis. We review also the current literature about CNS parenchymal involvement in the context of IgG4-RD. A young female presented with clinical symptoms of myelitis. Cervical spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) displayed features of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). Brain MRI showed a small number of high-intensity lesions in the deep white matter and enlargement of hypophysis with homogeneous gadolinium enhancement (asymptomatic hypophysitis). Diagnostic workup revealed elevated IgG4 serum levels (146 mg/dL). Our patient fulfilled the organ-specific diagnostic criteria of IgG4-hypophysitis. Treatment with intravenous glucocorticoids led to rapid clinical response, and to the substantial resolution of imaging findings. Azathioprine was used as a maintenance treatment. One relapse occurred 2 years after the initial diagnosis and patient was re-treated with glucocorticoids. Three years after relapse, patient is in remission with azathioprine. We present the first case of myelitis with radiological features of LETM associated with increased IgG4 serum levels and the simultaneous presence of asymptomatic IgG4-related hypophysitis.

20.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(3): 957-961, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836935

RESUMO

Extra-articular manifestations are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with lung involvement being one of the commonest. Apart from interstitial lung disease which is a well-recognized manifestation, it seems that lung cancer has also increased frequency in RA. In fact, recent meta-analyses have suggested that in RA compared with the general population, lymphomas and lung malignancy are more frequent. For the latter, male gender, seropositivity for rheumatoid factor and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA), as well as older age, has been suggested, among others, as risk factors. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increased frequency of lung cancer in RA. These include smoking and/or interstitial lung as common risk factors for both RA and lung cancer and chronic inflammation predisposing to malignant diseases. Numerous questions remain to be answered. For example, are there any risk factors (e.g., positivity for rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies) that would predict the development of lung cancer in these patients? Are there any screening procedures appropriate for early diagnosis and therefore better outcome? Data from large registries are needed to better define the profile of these patients.

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