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1.
Andrologia ; : e14286, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693544

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the seminal sample of men during the acute phase of COVID-19. A prospective study was performed with inclusion of twenty-two men diagnosed with COVID-19 through RT-PCR from pharyngeal smear samples and who were in the acute phase of infection. These men were evaluated regarding medical history and physical examination. Furthermore, seminal samples of each men were collected 7, 14 and 21 days after the infection was confirmed. The sample were used for seminal analysis, as well as for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR technique. In addition, cell culture was performed with subsequent repetition of the analysis of viral presence. None of the semen samples collected was positive for the detection of the virus that causes COVID-19. Most of the men evaluated had a mild condition and the loss of smell was the most frequent symptom. There were no significant changes in seminal parameters within the period of study. Based on our pilot data, patients with a mild form of COVID-19 in the acute stage of the disease are unlikely to have SARS-CoV-2 in semen.

2.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 43(6): 1070-1077, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674939

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Recombinant FSH administration in ovarian stimulation for IVF is a standard procedure, whereas the role of LH is controversial. MicroRNAs (mRNA) are small endogenous non-coding transcripts that are involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including foliculogenesis and gonadotrophin function. The aim was to study the possible role of miRNA in ovarian follicular development in groups having different ovarian stimulation protocols. Are there different miRNA expression profiles in cumulus cells of infertile women undergoing IVF? What are the regulated pathways? DESIGN: This prospective observational study included 13 patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: younger than 38 years of age; a tubal infertility factor; a male factor; or idiopathic infertility. This is a pilot study in which the patients were aleatory enrolled into two groups: seven in FSH group (recombinant FSH, 225 IU) and six in FSH plus LH group (recombinant FSH, 150 IU + recombinant LH, 75 IU). The granulosa cells obtained from the follicular ovarian retrieval were analysed using polyerase chain reaction. Results were analysed using DIANA Tools, an online bioinformatics tool. RESULTS: Among the 84 microRNAs evaluated, 11 were differentially expressed between the groups, all of which were upregulated in the FSH plus LH group, compared with the FSH group. Differentially expressed miRNA profiles are related to oestrogen signalling, oocyte meiosis and pluripotent cells regulation. CONCLUSION: miRNA overexpression in the FSH plus LH group is consistent with the independent and fundamental role of LH in folliculogenesis, leading to a distinct molecular response between groups.

3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 495-502, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154505

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Testicular cancer is considered a rare disease affecting approximately 1% to 2% of the male population. This neoplasm has a cure rate of over 95%; as a result, a major concern is the future of fertility of carriers from this disease. There are several histological subtypes of testicular tumors; however, the Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (TGCTs), comprising both seminoma and non-seminoma tumors, are considered the main subtypes of testicular neoplasms. TGCT are characterized by being a solid tumor that mostly affects young men aged between 15 and 40 years old. While TGCT subtypes may have an invasive potential, seminoma subtype does not affect other cells rather than germ cells, while non-seminomas have more invasive properties and can achieve somatic cells; thus, having a more aggressive nature. This research intends to review the literature regarding information about sperm parameters, correlating the data found in those studies to the subfertility and infertility of patients with TCGTs. Furthermore, it will also correlate the data to the non-seminoma and seminoma histological subtypes from pre- and post-cancer therapy. PubMed databases were used. Searched keywords included: seminoma AND non-seminoma; male infertility; germ cell tumor; chemotherapy AND radiotherapy. Only articles published in English were considered. Current studies demonstrate that both TGCT subtypes promote deleterious effects on semen quality resulting in decreased sperm concentration, declined sperm total motility and an increase in the morphology alterations. However, findings suggest that the non-seminoma subtype effects are more pronounced and deleterious. More studies will be necessary to clarify the behavior of seminoma and non-seminoma tumors implicating the reproductive health of male patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Seminoma , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Espermatozoides , Análise do Sêmen
4.
Obes Surg ; 31(7): 2887-2895, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metabolic surgery is a recommended treatment for obese patients that results in BMI reduction; however, the observed impact of this therapy on male fertility is inconsistent. This research aimed to study the effects of BMI changes after metabolic surgery on seminal analysis, sex hormonal profile, sperm functional integrity, and the seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed in 15 patients for whom metabolic surgery was recommended. The patients were evaluated by the techniques proposed in this study before and after the surgical procedure for 12 months. In each analysis, the male sex hormonal profile, semen analysis, sperm functional integrity, and seminal lipid peroxidation levels were assessed. RESULTS: The surgery resulted in BMI reduction and improvement in seminal characteristics and male sex hormone profile. The semen analysis showed increases in volume, sperm progressive motility, and in sperm morphology and a decrease in immotile sperms. Sperm mitochondrial activity and sperm DNA integrity were improved, and the levels of seminal lipid peroxidation were decreased. The hormonal profile showed lower levels of estradiol and highest levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and testosterone. CONCLUSION: BMI changes resulting from this treatment and its metabolic consequences can be associated with changes in the male fertile potential, leading to an improvement in the seminal quality, male sex hormone profile, sperm functional aspects, and levels of seminal lipid peroxidation, thus decreasing the testicular oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Infertilidade Masculina , Obesidade Mórbida , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estresse Oxidativo , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 275-283, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154474

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: Sperm DNA fragmentation is a major cellular mechanism underlying varicocele-related male infertility. However, the type of DNA fragmentation - whether oxidative or of another nature - remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate single- and double-stranded sperm DNA fragmentation, and oxidative-induced sperm DNA damage in men with varicocele. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed, including 94 normozoospermic adults, of which 39 men without varicocele (controls) and 55 men with varicocele grades II or III, uni- or bilaterally. All men collected semen by masturbation. After semen analysis, the remaining volume was used for evaluation of three types of sperm DNA damage: (i) total DNA fragmentation, using an alkaline comet assay, (ii) double-stranded DNA fragmentation, using a neutral comet assay, and (iii) oxidative DNA damage, using an alkaline comet assay associated with the DNA glycosylase formamidopyrimidine enzyme. In each assay, percentage of sperm with any degree of DNA fragmentation, and with high DNA fragmentation were compared between the groups using an unpaired Student's t test or a Mann-Whitney test. Results: The varicocele group presented a higher rate of sperm with fragmented DNA (both any and high DNA fragmentation), considering single-stranded DNA fragmentation, double-stranded DNA fragmentation, or a combination of both, as well as oxidative- induced DNA fragmentation. Conclusions: Patients with varicocele have an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation levels, particularly in oxidative stress-induced sperm DNA damage.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Varicocele/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , Estudos Transversais , Estresse Oxidativo , Fragmentação do DNA
8.
Int Braz J Urol ; 47(2): 275-283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sperm DNA fragmentation is a major cellular mechanism underlying varicocele-related male infertility. However, the type of DNA fragmentation - whether oxidative or of another nature - remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate single- and double-stranded sperm DNA fragmentation, and oxidative-induced sperm DNA damage in men with varicocele. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed, including 94 normozoospermic adults, of which 39 men without varicocele (controls) and 55 men with varicocele grades II or III, uni- or bilaterally. All men collected semen by masturbation. After semen analysis, the remaining volume was used for evaluation of three types of sperm DNA damage: (i) total DNA fragmentation, using an alkaline comet assay, (ii) double-stranded DNA fragmentation, using a neutral comet assay, and (iii) oxidative DNA damage, using an alkaline comet assay associated with the DNA glycosylase formamidopyrimidine enzyme. In each assay, percentage of sperm with any degree of DNA fragmentation, and with high DNA fragmentation were compared between the groups using an unpaired Student's t test or a Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The varicocele group presented a higher rate of sperm with fragmented DNA (both any and high DNA fragmentation), considering single-stranded DNA fragmentation, double-stranded DNA fragmentation, or a combination of both, as well as oxidative-induced DNA fragmentation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with varicocele have an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation levels, particularly in oxidative stress-induced sperm DNA damage.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Varicocele , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fragmentação do DNA , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , Varicocele/genética
9.
Int Braz J Urol ; 47(3): 495-502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459453

RESUMO

Testicular cancer is considered a rare disease affecting approximately 1% to 2% of the male population. This neoplasm has a cure rate of over 95%; as a result, a major concern is the future of fertility of carriers from this disease. There are several histological subtypes of testicular tumors; however, the Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (TGCTs), comprising both seminoma and non-seminoma tumors, are considered the main subtypes of testicular neoplasms. TGCT are characterized by being a solid tumor that mostly affects young men aged between 15 and 40 years old. While TGCT subtypes may have an invasive potential, seminoma subtype does not affect other cells rather than germ cells, while non-seminomas have more invasive properties and can achieve somatic cells; thus, having a more aggressive nature. This research intends to review the literature regarding information about sperm parameters, correlating the data found in those studies to the subfertility and infertility of patients with TCGTs. Furthermore, it will also correlate the data to the non-seminoma and seminoma histological subtypes from pre- and post-cancer therapy. PubMed databases were used. Searched keywords included: seminoma AND non-seminoma; male infertility; germ cell tumor; chemotherapy AND radiotherapy. Only articles published in English were considered. Current studies demonstrate that both TGCT subtypes promote deleterious effects on semen quality resulting in decreased sperm concentration, declined sperm total motility and an increase in the morphology alterations. However, findings suggest that the non-seminoma subtype effects are more pronounced and deleterious. More studies will be necessary to clarify the behavior of seminoma and non-seminoma tumors implicating the reproductive health of male patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 23: 55-60, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the willingness to pay (WTP) of infertile couples for in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. METHOD: This was a prospective study with an anonymous questionnaire for infertile couples in an academic setting. Clinical characteristics were analyzed by a Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test, categorical variables were compared by a chi-square or Fisher exact test, and correlations were assessed using a Spearman's test. An alpha of 5% was adopted. RESULTS: Mean female and male ages were 31.5 and 35.9 years, respectively; 80.2% were married; 19.8% were in consensual union; 48.1% of women had college degrees; and 49.4% of men had a high school education. Most women (77.8%) and men (75.3%) were white, with a household income of class C. Average duration of union was 8.5 years, and average infertility was 4.7 years. Using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) evaluation and the technique of "direct questioning," the average value was determined to be R$18 720.18 (by payment scale R$22 831.17). WTP positively correlated with household income and each woman's education level. Previous parenthood or use of public health system negatively correlated with WTP. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the higher the couple's monthly income and the woman's educational level, the higher the WTP for an IVF treatment; previous parenthood determined a lower WTP for an IVF treatment, and previous use of the Brazilian Unified Health System, determined a lower WTP for an IVF treatment.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro/economia , Fertilização In Vitro/psicologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Gastos em Saúde/normas , Infertilidade/economia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Infertilidade/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Ther Adv Reprod Health ; 14: 2633494120906866, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596667

RESUMO

Methods: This is a cohort study, conducted at a university-based reproductive medicine center and private reproductive medicine center that aimed to evaluate granulosa cumulus cell gene expression in the insulin signaling pathway in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and to compare the cumulus gene expression between normal weight and obese women without clinical insulin resistance. Fifteen PCOS patients, nine normal weight patients and six obese patients presenting normal HOMA IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance), participated. Patients underwent oocyte retrieval for IVF and after the procedure, granulosa cumulus cells were removed from the oocytes for RNA extraction. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array analysis of 84 genes from insulin signaling pathway was conducted. The results were expressed as fold up- or fold down-expression in obese patients compared with normal weight patients. Any fold change ⩾3 or ⩽3 and any p ⩽ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: There were 10 genes that were overexpressed in obese compared with normal weight women, BCL2L1, BRAF, CBL, DOK1, FBP1, FRS2, MTOR, PCK2, RPS6KA1, and SORBS1, that had a fold change ⩾3 and p ⩽ 0.05. Discussion: In the obese group, the overexpressed genes are mainly responsible for the proliferation and differentiation of cumulus cells during oocyte maturation, insulin resistance, apoptosis regulation, and glucose metabolism during early embryogenesis, suggesting that in the follicular environment, insulin resistance is present even in the absence of clinical signs. Conclusion: Together, our findings and the related literature suggest that those alterations may be associated with the worse prognosis of follicular development and oocyte maturation observed in PCOS obese women.

13.
JBRA Assist Reprod ; 24(3): 347-350, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510901

RESUMO

Critical challenges for the public and private health, research, and medical communities have been posed by the COVID-19 outbreak. Some of these challenges are related to the possible adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive health, and whether other potential modes of transmission may occur, such as sexual transmission. Moreover, concerns have been raised in terms of whether the COVID-19 outbreak may have an impact on fertility worldwide. In this study, we will discuss the origins of SARS-CoV-2. We will further describe its mechanism of action, diagnosis, symptoms, and potential effects on the male reproductive system.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10234, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292458

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

16.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(5): 1003-1011, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011990

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to provide a non-invasive approach to studying mechanisms responsible for oocyte development. METHODS: To this end, follicular fluid (FF) from 62 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles was split into two groups depending on the pregnancy outcome: pregnant (n = 28) and non-pregnant (n = 34) groups. Data were acquired by the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to the data set. A ROC curve, to predict success rate, was constructed, and the lipids were attributed. RESULTS: Six ions were differentially represented in FF of pregnant and non-pregnant patients, with an area under the curve of 0.962. Phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, and triacylglycerol were hyper-represented in the pregnant group, while glucosylceramide was hyper-represented in the non-pregnant group. Enriched functions related to these lipids are steroidogenesis, cellular response, signal transduction, cell cycle, and activation of protein kinase C for the pregnant group and apoptosis inhibition for the non-pregnant group. CONCLUSION: Human FF fingerprinting can both improve the understanding concerning mechanisms responsible for oocyte development and its effect on embryo implantation potential and assist in the management of IVF cycles.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Implantação do Embrião , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Oócitos/metabolismo , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Oócitos/citologia , Oogênese , Indução da Ovulação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 903, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696858

RESUMO

Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their regulators - Tissue Inhibitors of Matrix Metalloproteinases (TIMPs) - participate in extracellular matrix remodeling, fibrosis, and semen liquefaction, as well as to inflammatory activity. Seminal plasma has been shown to contain MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and TIMPs (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). Also, a link between MMPs gene expression and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been established. In semen, ROS are associated with altered sperm function and increased DNA fragmentation. In this study, it is hypothesized that seminal MMPs and TIMPs levels are associated with sperm DNA fragmentation due to the fact that MMPs have been associated with semen quality. We also hypothesized that these proteins could predict DNA fragmentation status in sperm. Therefore, this study set out to verify if sperm DNA fragmentation levels relate to seminal levels of members of the MMP and TIMP protein families. The High sperm DNA fragmentation group presented lower seminal plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-7, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 when compared to Low sperm DNA fragmentation group. Also, samples in the high sperm DNA fragmentation group presented higher acrosome integrity and lower mitochondrial activity levels when compared to low sperm DNA fragmentation samples. In the logistic regression analysis, MMP-2, MMP-7, and TIMP-4 classified samples as low and high sperm DNA fragmentation, with an overall model fit of 74.5%. Results from this study may demonstrate a specific inflammatory mechanism in samples with high sperm DNA fragmentation. This, in turn, can lead to the development of new studies regarding this mechanism and, in the future, create an opportunity to treat these patients for sperm DNA fragmentation by treating inflammatory seminal activity.

20.
Oncotarget ; 9(60): 31664-31681, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167086

RESUMO

Breast cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide yet methods for early detection remain elusive. We describe the discovery and validation of biochemical signatures measured by mass spectrometry, performed upon blood samples from patients and controls that accurately identify (>95%) the presence of clinical breast cancer. Targeted quantitative MS/MS conducted upon 1225 individuals, including patients with breast and other cancers, normal controls as well as individuals with a variety of metabolic disorders provide a biochemical phenotype that accurately identifies the presence of breast cancer and predicts response and survival following the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The metabolic changes identified are consistent with inborn-like errors of metabolism and define a continuum from normal controls to elevated risk to invasive breast cancer. Similar results were observed in other adenocarcinomas but were not found in squamous cell cancers or hematologic neoplasms. The findings describe a new early detection platform for breast cancer and support a role for pre-existing, inborn-like errors of metabolism in the process of breast carcinogenesis that may also extend to other glandular malignancies. Statement of Significance: Findings provide a powerful tool for early detection and the assessment of prognosis in breast cancer and define a novel concept of breast carcinogenesis that characterizes malignant transformation as the clinical manifestation of underlying metabolic insufficiencies.

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