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1.
Nat Aging ; 1: 598-615, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888528

RESUMO

While many diseases of aging have been linked to the immunological system, immune metrics capable of identifying the most at-risk individuals are lacking. From the blood immunome of 1,001 individuals aged 8-96 years, we developed a deep-learning method based on patterns of systemic age-related inflammation. The resulting inflammatory clock of aging (iAge) tracked with multimorbidity, immunosenescence, frailty and cardiovascular aging, and is also associated with exceptional longevity in centenarians. The strongest contributor to iAge was the chemokine CXCL9, which was involved in cardiac aging, adverse cardiac remodeling and poor vascular function. Furthermore, aging endothelial cells in human and mice show loss of function, cellular senescence and hallmark phenotypes of arterial stiffness, all of which are reversed by silencing CXCL9. In conclusion, we identify a key role of CXCL9 in age-related chronic inflammation and derive a metric for multimorbidity that can be utilized for the early detection of age-related clinical phenotypes.

2.
Geroscience ; 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921659

RESUMO

Many physiological processes in the human body follow a 24-h circadian rhythm controlled by the circadian clock system. Light, sensed by retina, is the predominant "zeitgeber" able to synchronize the circadian rhythms to the light-dark cycles. Circadian rhythm dysfunction and sleep disorders have been associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we aimed at investigating the genetic variability of clock genes in AD patients compared to healthy controls from Italy. We also included a group of Italian centenarians, considered as super-controls in association studies given their extreme phenotype of successful aging. We analyzed the exon sequences of eighty-four genes related to circadian rhythms, and the most significant variants identified in this first discovery phase were further assessed in a larger independent cohort of AD patients by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The results identified a significant association between the rs3027178 polymorphism in the PER1 circadian gene with AD, the G allele being protective for AD. Interestingly, rs3027178 showed similar genotypic frequencies among AD patients and centenarians. These results collectively underline the relevance of circadian dysfunction in the predisposition to AD and contribute to the discussion on the role of the relationship between the genetics of age-related diseases and of longevity.

3.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794520

RESUMO

Self-rated health (SRH) is associated with higher risk of death. Since low plasma levels of fat-soluble vitamins are related to mortality, we aimed to assess whether plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D and E were associated with SRH in the MARK-AGE study. We included 3158 participants (52 % female) aged between 35 and 75 years. Cross-sectional data were collected via questionnaires. An enzyme immunoassay quantified 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HPLC determined α-tocopherol and retinol plasma concentrations. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D and retinol concentrations differed significantly (P < 0·001) between SRH categories and were lower in the combined fair/poor category v. the excellent, very good and good categories (25-hydroxvitamin D: 40·8 v. 51·9, 49·3, 46·7 nmol/l, respectively; retinol: 1·67 v. 1·75, 1·74, 1·70 µmol/l, respectively). Both vitamin D and retinol status were independently associated with fair/poor SRH in multiple regression analyses: adjusted OR (95 % CI) for the vitamin D insufficiency, deficiency and severe deficiency categories were 1·33 (1·06-1·68), 1·50 (1·17-1·93) and 1·83 (1·34-2·50), respectively; P = 0·015, P = 0·001 and P < 0·001, and for the second/third/fourth retinol quartiles: 1·44 (1·18-1·75), 1·57 (1·28-1·93) and 1·49 (1·20-1·84); all P < 0·001. No significant associations were reported for α-tocopherol quartiles. Lower vitamin A and D status emerged as independent markers for fair/poor SRH. Further insights into the long-term implications of these modifiable nutrients on health status are warranted.

4.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 713: 109061, 2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662556

RESUMO

A redox steady state is important in maintaining vital cellular functions and is therefore homeostatically controlled by a number of antioxidative agents, the most important of which are enzymes. Oxidative Stress (OS) is associated with (or/and caused by) excessive production of damaging reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), which play a role in many pathologies. Because OS is a risk factor for many diseases, much effort (and money) is devoted to early diagnosis and treatment of OS. The desired benefit of the "identify (OS) and treat (by low molecular weight antioxidants, LMWA)" approach is to enable selective treatment of patients under OS. The present work aims at gaining understanding of the benefit of the antioxidants based on interrelationship between the concentration of different OS biomarkers and LMWA. Both the concentrations of a variety of biomarkers and of LMWA were previously determined and some analyses have been published by the MARK-AGE team. For the sake of simplicity, we assume that the concentration of an OS biomarker is a linear function of the concentration of a LMWA (if the association is due to causal relationship). A negative slope of this dependence (and sign of the correlation coefficient) can be intuitively expected for an antioxidant, a positive slope indicates that the LMWA is pro-oxidative, whereas extrapolation of the OS biomarker to [LMWA] = 0 is an approximation of the concentration of the OS biomarker in the absence of the LMWA. Using this strategy, we studied the effects of 12 LMWA (including tocopherols, carotenoids and ascorbic acid) on the OS status, as observed with 8 biomarkers of oxidative damage (including malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, 3-nitrotyrosine). The results of this communication show that in a cross-sectional study the LMWA contribute little to the redox state and that different "antioxidants" are very different, so that single LMWA treatment of OS is not scientifically justified assuming our simple model. In view of the difficulty of quantitating the OS and the very different effects of various LMWA, the use of the "identify and treat" approach is questionable.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/química , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Oxirredução
5.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101502, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700008

RESUMO

Estimators of biological age (BA) - defined as the hypothetical underlying age of an organism - have attracted more and more attention in the last years, especially after the advent of new algorithms based on machine learning and genetic markers. While different aging clocks reportedly predict mortality in the general population, very little is known on their overlap. Here we review the evidence reported so far to support the existence of a partial overlap among different BA acceleration estimators, both from an epidemiological and a genetic perspective. On the epidemiological side, we review evidence supporting shared and independent influence on mortality risk of different aging clocks - including telomere length, brain, blood and epigenetic aging - and provide an overview of how an important exposure like diet may affect the different aging systems. On the genetic side, we apply linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses to support the existence of partly shared genomic overlap among these aging clocks. Through multivariate analysis of published genetic associations with these clocks, we also identified the most associated variants, genes, and pathways, which may affect common mechanisms underlying biological aging of different systems within the body. Based on our analyses, the most implicated pathways were involved in inflammation, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting them as potential molecular targets for future anti-aging interventions. Overall, this review is meant as a contribution to the knowledge on the overlap of aging clocks, trying to clarify their shared biological basis and epidemiological implications.

6.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 7(1): 78, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493736

RESUMO

A prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease (PD) may precede motor manifestations by decades. PD patients' siblings are at higher risk for PD, but the prevalence and distribution of prodromal symptoms are unknown. The study objectives were (1) to assess motor and non-motor features estimating prodromal PD probability in PD siblings recruited within the European PROPAG-AGEING project; (2) to compare motor and non-motor symptoms to the well-established DeNoPa cohort. 340 PD siblings from three sites (Bologna, Seville, Kassel/Goettingen) underwent clinical and neurological evaluations of PD markers. The German part of the cohort was compared with German de novo PD patients (dnPDs) and healthy controls (CTRs) from DeNoPa. Fifteen (4.4%) siblings presented with subtle signs of motor impairment, with MDS-UPDRS-III scores not clinically different from CTRs. Symptoms of orthostatic hypotension were present in 47 siblings (13.8%), no different to CTRs (p = 0.072). No differences were found for olfaction and overall cognition; German-siblings performed worse than CTRs in visuospatial-executive and language tasks. 3/147 siblings had video-polysomnography-confirmed REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), none was positive on the RBD Screening Questionnaire. 173/300 siblings had <1% probability of having prodromal PD; 100 between 1 and 10%, 26 siblings between 10 and 80%, one fulfilled the criteria for prodromal PD. According to the current analysis, we cannot confirm the increased risk of PD siblings for prodromal PD. Siblings showed a heterogeneous distribution of prodromal PD markers and probability. Additional parameters, including strong disease markers, should be investigated to verify if these results depend on validity and sensitivity of prodromal PD criteria, or if siblings' risk is not elevated.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 707515, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381434

RESUMO

The presence of circulating microbiome in blood has been reported in both physiological and pathological conditions, although its origins, identities and function remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the presence of blood microbiome by quantitative real-time PCRs targeting the 16S rRNA gene. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the circulating microbiome has been analyzed in such a large sample of individuals since the study was carried out on 1285 Randomly recruited Age-Stratified Individuals from the General population (RASIG). The samples came from several different European countries recruited within the EU Project MARK-AGE in which a series of clinical biochemical parameters were determined. The results obtained reveal an association between microbial DNA copy number and geographic origin. By contrast, no gender and age-related difference emerged, thus demonstrating the role of the environment in influencing the above levels independent of age and gender at least until the age of 75. In addition, a significant positive association was found with Free Fatty Acids (FFA) levels, leukocyte count, insulin, and glucose levels. Since these factors play an essential role in both health and disease conditions, their association with the extent of the blood microbiome leads us to consider the blood microbiome as a potential biomarker of human health.

10.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 198: 111547, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329656

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis may starts early in life and each artery has peculiar characteristics likely affecting atherogenesis. The primary objective of the work was to underpin the microRNA (miR)-profiling differences in human normal femoral, abdominal aortic, and carotid arteries. The secondary aim was to investigate if those identified miRs, differently expressed in normal conditions, may also have a role in atherosclerotic arteries at adult ages. MiR-profiles were performed on normal tissues, revealing that aorta and carotid arteries are more similar than femoral arteries. MiRs emerging from profiling comparisons, i.e., miR-155-5p, -27a-5p, and -139-5p, were subjected to validation by RT-qPCR in normal arteries and also in pathological/atheroma counterparts, considering all the available 20 artery specimens. The three miRs were confirmed to be differentially expressed in normal femoral vs aorta/carotid arteries. Differential expression of those miRs was also observed in atherosclerotic arteries, together with some miR-target proteins, such as vimentin, CD44, E-cadherin and an additional marker SLUG. The different expression of miRs and targets/markers suggests that aorta/carotid and femoral arteries differently activate molecular drivers of pathological condition, thus conditioning the morphology of atheroma in adult life and likely suggesting the future use of artery-specific treatment to counteract atherosclerosis.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312912

RESUMO

AIMS: Perilipins are conserved proteins that decorate intracellular lipid droplets and are essential for lipid metabolism. To date, there is limited knowledge on their expression in human brain or their involvement in brain aging and neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to characterise the expression levels of perilipins (Plin1-Plin5) in different cerebral areas from subjects of different age, with or without signs of neurodegeneration. METHODS: We performed real-time RT-PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy analyses in autoptic brain samples of frontal and temporal cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus from subjects ranging from 33 to 104 years of age, with or without histological signs of neurodegeneration. To test the possible relationship between Plins and inflammation, correlation analysis with IL-6 expression was also performed. RESULTS: Plin2, Plin3 and Plin5, but not Plin1 and Plin4, are expressed in the considered brain areas with different intensities. Plin2 appears to be expressed more in grey matter, particularly in neurons in all the areas analysed, whereas Plin3 and Plin5 appear to be expressed more in white matter. Plin3 seems to be expressed more in astrocytes. Only Plin2 expression is higher in old subjects and patients with early tauopathy or Alzheimer's disease and is associated with IL-6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Perilipins are expressed in human brain but only Plin2 appears to be modulated with age and neurodegeneration and linked to an inflammatory state. We propose that the accumulation of lipid droplets decorated with Plin2 occurs during brain aging and that this accumulation may be an early marker and initial step of inflammation and neurodegeneration.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(15): 19108-19126, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320466

RESUMO

Insomnia is currently considered one of the potential triggers of accelerated aging. The frequency of registered sleep-wake cycle complaints increases with age and correlates with the quality of life of elderly people. Nevertheless, whether insomnia is actually an age-associated process or whether it acts as an independent stress-factor that activates pathological processes, remains controversial. In this study, we analyzed the effects of long-term sleep deprivation modeling on the locomotor and orienting-exploratory activity, spatial learning abilities and working memory of C57BL/6 female mice of different ages. We also evaluated the modeled stress influence on morphological changes in brain tissue, the functional activity of the mitochondrial apparatus of nerve cells, and the level of DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels of the transcription factor HIF-1α (Hif1) and age-associated molecular marker PLIN2. Our findings point to the age-related adaptive capacity of female mice to the long-term sleep deprivation influence. For young (1.5 months) mice, the modeled sleep deprivation acts as a stress factor leading to weight loss against the background of increased food intake, the activation of animals' locomotor and exploratory activity, their mnestic functions, and molecular and cellular adaptive processes ensuring animal resistance both to stress and risk of accelerated aging development. Sleep deprivation in adult (7-9 months) mice is accompanied by an increase in body weight against the background of active food intake, increased locomotor and exploratory activity, gross disturbances in mnestic functions, and decreased adaptive capacity of brain cells, that potentially increasing the risk of pathological reactions and neurodegenerative processes.

13.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 198: 111543, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265327

RESUMO

Human longevity may be found in single individuals as well as in the population as a whole ("population longevity"). Longevity Blue Zones (LBZs), which are areas with an unusually high number of oldest old, have been identified in Sardinia and the Greek island of Ikaria. We compared the lifestyle, health status and some genetic markers of the LBZ populations with those of reference populations from Italy and Greece; the data were extracted from the GEHA database. In the LBZs, the proportion of individuals who never married or were married and still living with their spouse was significantly greater. Nonagenarians males and females with a high self‒perception of optimism and/or a high score for self-rated health were also found in larger proportions in LBZs. Among the variables with lower frequency were the proportion of the widowed, the percentage of subjects who had suffered a stroke and the frequency of Apoε4 and Apoε2 and the TT genotype of FOXO3A gene. Compared to behavioral and health indicators, the impact of genetic factors might be relatively less important in the LBZs. Nevertheless, further research is needed to identify potential epigenetic traits that might play a predominant role due to the interaction between genetics and the human and physical environments.

14.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 197: 111514, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098514

RESUMO

Centenarians experience successful ageing, although they still present high heterogeneity in their health status. The frailty index is a biomarker of biological age, able to capture such heterogeneity, even at extreme old age. At the same time, other biomarkers (e.g., epigenetic clocks) may be informative the biological age of the individual and potentially describe the ageing status in centenarians. In this article, we explore the relationship between epigenetic clocks and frailty index in a cohort of Italian centenarians. No association was reported, suggesting that these two approaches may describe different aspects of the same ageing process.

15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(11): 4748-4764, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132815

RESUMO

DLX5 and DLX6 are two closely related transcription factors involved in brain development and in GABAergic differentiation. The DLX5/6 locus is regulated by FoxP2, a gene involved in language evolution and has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and mental retardation. Targeted inactivation of Dlx5/6 in mouse GABAergic neurons (Dlx5/6VgatCre mice) results in behavioral and metabolic phenotypes notably increasing lifespan by 33%. Here, we show that Dlx5/6VgatCre mice present a hyper-vocalization and hyper-socialization phenotype. While only 7% of control mice emitted more than 700 vocalizations/10 min, 30% and 56% of heterozygous or homozygous Dlx5/6VgatCre mice emitted more than 700 and up to 1,400 calls/10 min with a higher proportion of complex and modulated calls. Hyper-vocalizing animals were more sociable: the time spent in dynamic interactions with an unknown visitor was more than doubled compared to low-vocalizing individuals. The characters affected by Dlx5/6 in the mouse (sociability, vocalization, skull, and brain shape…) overlap those affected in the "domestication syndrome". We therefore explored the possibility that DLX5/6 played a role in human evolution and "self-domestication" comparing DLX5/6 genomic regions from Neanderthal and modern humans. We identified an introgressed Neanderthal haplotype (DLX5/6-N-Haplotype) present in 12.6% of European individuals that covers DLX5/6 coding and regulatory sequences. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype includes the binding site for GTF2I, a gene associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome, a hyper-sociability and hyper-vocalization neurodevelopmental disorder. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype is significantly underrepresented in semi-supercentenarians (>105 years of age), a well-established human model of healthy aging and longevity, suggesting their involvement in the coevolution of longevity, sociability, and speech.

16.
Aging Cell ; 20(7): e13409, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160893

RESUMO

Blood circulating microRNAs (c-miRs) are potential biomarkers to trace aging and longevity trajectories to identify molecular targets for anti-aging therapies. Based on a cross-sectional study, a discovery phase was performed on 12 donors divided into four groups: young, old, healthy, and unhealthy centenarians. The identification of healthy and unhealthy phenotype was based on cognitive performance and capabilities to perform daily activities. Small RNA sequencing identified 79 differentially expressed c-miRs when comparing young, old, healthy centenarians, and unhealthy centenarians. Two miRs, that is, miR-19a-3p and miR-19b-3p, were found increased at old age but decreased at extreme age, as confirmed by RT-qPCR in 49 donors of validation phase. The significant decrease of those miR levels in healthy compared to unhealthy centenarians appears to be due to the presence of isomiRs, not detectable with RT-qPCR, but only with a high-resolution technique such as deep sequencing. Bioinformatically, three main common targets of miR-19a/b-3p were identified, that is, SMAD4, PTEN, and BCL2L11, converging into the FoxO signaling pathway, known to have a significant role in aging mechanisms. For the first time, this study shows the age-related increase of plasma miR-19a/b-3p in old subjects but a decrease in centenarians. This decrease is more pronounced in healthy centenarians and was confirmed by the modified pattern of isomiRs comparing healthy and unhealthy centenarians. Thus, our study paves the way for functional studies using c-miRs and isomiRs as additional parameter to track the onset of aging and age-related diseases using new potential biomarkers.

17.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 973-982, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of muscle mass is a key determinant of the diagnosis of sarcopenia. We introduce for the first time an ultrasound imaging method for diagnosing sarcopenia based on changes in muscle geometric proportions. METHODS: Vastus lateralis muscle fascicle length (Lf) and thickness (Tm) were measured at 35% distal femur length by ultrasonography in a population of 279 individuals classified as moderately active elderly (MAE), sedentary elderly (SE) (n = 109), mobility impaired elderly (MIE) (n = 43), and in adult young controls (YC) (n = 60). The ratio of Lf/Tm was calculated to obtain an ultrasound index of the loss of muscle mass associated with sarcopenia (USI). In a subsample of elderly male individuals (n = 76) in which corresponding DXA measurements were available (MAE, n = 52 and SE, n = 24), DXA-derived skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular limb mass/height2 ) was compared with corresponding USI values. RESULTS: For both young and older participants, USI values were found to be independent of sex, height and body mass. USI values were 3.70 ± 0.52 for YC, 4.50 ± 0.72 for the MAE, 5.05 ± 1.11 for the SE and 6.31 ± 1.38 for the MIE, all significantly different between each other (P < 0.0001). Based on the USI Z-scores, with reference to the YC population, the 219 elderly participants were stratified according to their muscle sarcopenic status. Individuals with USI values within a range of 3.70 < USI ≥ 4.23 were classified as non-sarcopenic (prevalence 23.7%), those with USI values within 4.23 < USI ≥ 4.76 were classified as pre-sarcopenic (prevalence 23.7%), those with USI values within 4.76 < USI ≥ 5.29 were classified as moderately sarcopenic (prevalence 15.1%), those with USI values within range 5.29 < USI ≥ 5.82 were classified as sarcopenic (prevalence 27.9%), and those with USI values >5.82 were classified as severely sarcopenic (prevalence 9.6%). The DXA-derived SMI was found to be significantly correlated with USI (r = 0.61, P < 0.0001). Notably, the USI cut-off value for moderate sarcopenia (4.76 a.u.) was found to coincide with the DXA cut-off value of sarcopenia (7.26 kg/m2 ). CONCLUSIONS: We propose a novel, practical, and inexpensive imaging marker of the loss of muscle mass associated with sarcopenia, called the ultrasound sarcopenic index (USI), based on changes in muscle geometric proportions. These changes provide a useful 'signature of sarcopenia' and allow the stratification of individuals according to the presence and severity of muscle sarcopenia. We are convinced that the USI will be a useful clinical tool for confirming the diagnosis of sarcopenia, of which the assessment of muscle mass is a key-component.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Músculo Quadríceps , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
18.
Elife ; 102021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941312

RESUMO

Extreme longevity is the paradigm of healthy aging as individuals who reached the extreme decades of human life avoided or largely postponed all major age-related diseases. In this study, we sequenced at high coverage (90X) the whole genome of 81 semi-supercentenarians and supercentenarians [105+/110+] (mean age: 106.6 ± 1.6) and of 36 healthy unrelated geographically matched controls (mean age 68.0 ± 5.9) recruited in Italy. The results showed that 105+/110+ are characterized by a peculiar genetic background associated with efficient DNA repair mechanisms, as evidenced by both germline data (common and rare variants) and somatic mutations patterns (lower mutation load if compared to younger healthy controls). Results were replicated in a second independent cohort of 333 Italian centenarians and 358 geographically matched controls. The genetics of 105+/110+ identified DNA repair and clonal haematopoiesis as crucial players for healthy aging and for the protection from cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Reparo do DNA , Longevidade/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Patrimônio Genético , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
19.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(12): 2097-2106, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983441

RESUMO

The analysis of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) along with their major serum carriers, albumin (Alb) and ceruloplasmin (Cp), could provide information on the capacity of humans to maintain homeostasis of metals (metallostasis). However, their relationship with aging, sex, body mass index, as well as with nutritional and inflammatory markers was never investigated in a large-scale study. Here, we report results from the European large-scale cross-sectional study MARK-AGE in which Cu, Zn, Alb, Cp, as well as nutritional and inflammatory parameters were determined in 2424 age-stratified participants (35-75 years), including the general population (RASIG), nonagenarian offspring (GO), a well-studied genetic model of longevity, and spouses of GO (SGO). In RASIG, Cu to Zn ratio and Cp to Alb ratio were higher in women than in men. Both ratios increased with aging because Cu and Cp increased and Alb and Zn decreased. Cu, Zn, Alb, and Cp were found associated with several inflammatory as well as nutritional biomarkers. GO showed higher Zn levels and higher Zn to Alb ratio compared to RASIG, but we did not observe significant differences with SGO, likely as a consequence of the low sample size of SGO and the shared environment. Our results show that aging, sex, body mass index, and GO status are characterized by different levels of Cu, Zn, and their serum carrier proteins. These data and their relationship with inflammatory biomarkers support the concept that loss of metallostasis is a characteristic of inflammaging.

20.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 639428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790779

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by specific alterations of brain DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns. Age and sex, two major risk factors for AD, are also known to largely affect the epigenetic profiles in brain, but their contribution to AD-associated DNAm changes has been poorly investigated. In this study we considered publicly available DNAm datasets of four brain regions (temporal, frontal, entorhinal cortex, and cerebellum) from healthy adult subjects and AD patients, and performed a meta-analysis to identify sex-, age-, and AD-associated epigenetic profiles. In one of these datasets it was also possible to distinguish 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) profiles. We showed that DNAm differences between males and females tend to be shared between the four brain regions, while aging differently affects cortical regions compared to cerebellum. We found that the proportion of sex-dependent probes whose methylation is modified also during aging is higher than expected, but that differences between males and females tend to be maintained, with only a few probes showing age-by-sex interaction. We did not find significant overlaps between AD- and sex-associated probes, nor disease-by-sex interaction effects. On the contrary, we found that AD-related epigenetic modifications are significantly enriched in probes whose DNAm varies with age and that there is a high concordance between the direction of changes (hyper or hypo-methylation) in aging and AD, supporting accelerated epigenetic aging in the disease. In summary, our results suggest that age-associated DNAm patterns concur to the epigenetic deregulation observed in AD, providing new insights on how advanced age enables neurodegeneration.

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