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1.
Oral Oncol ; 117: 105302, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether palatine tonsillectomy in youth influences the risk of oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) by assessing the association between history of tonsillectomy and risk of tonsillar, base of tongue (BOT) cancer, and other head and neck cancers (HNC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: RACKAM was a case-case study comparing frequency of tonsillectomy history in individuals diagnosed with HNC from 2013 to 2018 in 15 centers across France. History of tonsillectomy was defined using combined assessment of patients' recollections and surgeons' visualizations of tonsil area. OPC subsite-specific odds ratios (OR) of tonsillectomy were calculated using multinomial logistic regression with non-oropharyngeal HNC as reference. RESULTS: 1045 patients were included in the study. Frequency of tonsillectomy was 19.5% in patients with tonsillar cancer (N = 85), 49.3% in BOT (N = 76), 33.8% in other oropharyngeal cancers (N = 202) and 38.0% in non-oropharyngeal HNC (N = 682). History of tonsillectomy was inversely associated with tonsillar cancer (adjusted OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.8), and positively associated with BOT cancer (adjusted OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.1), but was not associated with all OPC combined (adjusted OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.8-1.4). Sensitivity analyses considering only patients' or surgeons' assessments of tonsillectomy provided comparable results. CONCLUSION: We confirm the long-term protective effect of tonsillectomy performed in youth on future risk of tonsillar cancer, and our study is the second to report a concurrent increased risk of BOT cancer. Our data suggest that tonsillectomy in youth shifts the site of the first diagnosed oropharyngeal tumor and has a limited impact on overall risk of OPC.

3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(4): 225-234, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in different populations worldwide in the past 30 years. We present here an overview of international trends of thyroid cancer incidence by major histological subtypes. METHODS: We did a population-based study with data for thyroid cancer incidence collected by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) for the period 1998-2012. Data were extracted from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents plus compendium. We selected data for 25 countries that had a population of more than 2 million individuals covered by cancer registration (87 registries in total). Further criteria were that the selected registration areas had to have a proportion of unspecified thyroid cancer of less than 10% and analyses were restricted to individuals aged 20-84 years. We calculated age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised rates per 100 000 person-years for individuals aged 20 to 84 years, and assessed trends by country, sex, and major histological subtype (papillary, follicular, medullary, or anaplastic) based on absolute changes in age-standardised incidence rates between 1998-2002 and 2008-12. FINDINGS: Papillary thyroid cancer was the main contributor to overall thyroid cancer in all the studied countries, and was the only histological subtype that increased systematically in all countries, although with large variability between countries. In women, the age-standardised incidence rate of papillary thyroid cancer during 2008-12 ranged from 4·3-5·3 cases per 100 000 person-years in the Netherlands, the UK, and Denmark, to 143·3 cases per 100 000 women in South Korea. For men during the same period, the age-standardised incidence rates of papillary thyroid cancer per 100 000 person-years ranged from 1·2 cases per 100 000 in Thailand to 30·7 cases per 100 000 in South Korea. In many countries in Asia, the increase in papillary thyroid cancer rates in women was particularly pronounced after the year 2000; rates stabilised since around 2009 in the USA, Austria, Croatia, Germany, Slovenia, Spain, Lithuania, and Bulgaria. Temporal trends for follicular and medullary thyroid cancer did not show consistent patterns across countries, but slight decreases were seen for anaplastic thyroid cancer in 21 of 25 countries between 1998-2002, and 2008-12. In 2008-12, age-standardised rates for the follicular subtype ranged between 0·5 and 2·5 cases per 100 000 women (and between 0·3 and 1·5 per 100 000 men), while those for the medullary subtype were always less than 1 case per 100 000 women or men, and for anaplastic thyroid cancer less than 0·2 cases per 100 000 women or men. INTERPRETATION: In the period from 1998 to 2012, the rapid increases in thyroid cancer incidence were observed only for papillary thyroid cancer, the subtype more likely to be found in a subclinical form and therefore detected by intense scrutiny of the thyroid gland. FUNDING: French Institut National du Cancer, Italian Association for Cancer Research, Italian Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(3): 144-152, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a considerable increase in thyroid cancer incidence among adults in several countries in the past three decades, attributed primarily to overdiagnosis. We aimed to assess global patterns and trends in incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents, in view of the increased incidence among adults. METHODS: We did a population-based study of the observed incidence (in 49 countries and territories) and mortality (in 27 countries) of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years using data from the International Incidence of Childhood Cancer Volume 3 study database, the WHO mortality database, and the cancer incidence in five continents database (CI5plus; for adult data [age 20-74 years]). We analysed temporal trends in incidence rates, including absolute changes in rates, and the strength of the correlation between incidence rates in children and adolescents and in adults. We calculated the average annual number of thyroid cancer deaths and the age-standardised mortality rates for children and adolescents. FINDINGS: Age-standardised incidence rates of thyroid cancer among children and adolescents aged 0-19 years ranged from 0·4 (in Uganda and Kenya) to 13·4 (in Belarus) cancers per 1 million person-years in 2008-12. The variability in the incidence rates was mostly accounted for by the papillary tumour subtype. Incidence rates were almost always higher in girls than in boys and increased with age in both sexes. Rapid increases in incidence between 1998-2002 and 2008-12 were observed in almost all countries. Country-specific incidence rates in children and adolescents were strongly correlated (r>0·8) with rates in adults, as were the temporal changes in the respective incidence rates (r>0·6). Thyroid cancer deaths in those aged younger than 20 years were less than 0·1 per 10 million person-years in each country. INTERPRETATION: The pattern of thyroid cancer incidence in children and adolescents mirrors the pattern seen in adults, suggesting a major role for overdiagnosis, which, in turn, can lead to overtreatment, lifelong medical care, and side effects that can negatively affect quality of life. We suggest that the existing recommendation against screening for thyroid cancer in the asymptomatic adult population who are free from specific risk factors should be extended to explicitly recommend against screening for thyroid cancer in similar populations of children and adolescents. FUNDING: International Agency for Research on Cancer and the Union for International Cancer Control; French Institut National du Cancer; Italian Association of Cancer Research; and Italian Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/tendências , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Causas de Morte/tendências , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is quickly spreading worldwide, with survivors that suffer functional impairments with a consequent key role of rehabilitation in this context. To date, there is a lack of findings on the role of rehabilitation in post-acute COVID-19 patients. AIM: Thus, we aimed at describing the role of a patient-tailored rehabilitation plan on functional outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Real-practice retrospective study. SETTING: Inpatients Rehabilitation Unit. POPULATION: Post-acute COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Medical records of patients referred to an Italian COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit from March 10th, 2020 to April 30th, 2020 were collected. All patients underwent a rehabilitative (30 minutes/set, 2 times/day), aimed to improve gas exchanges, reducing dyspnoea, and improving muscle function. At the admission (T0) and at the discharge (T1), we evaluated as outcome measures: Barthel Index (BI), modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, 6-Minute Walking Test (6-MWT) and Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. We also assessed: type of respiratory supports needed, pulmonary function, coagulation and inflammation markers and length of stay (LOS) in Rehabilitation Unit. RESULTS: We included 41 post-acute COVID-19 patients (25 male and 19 female), mean aged 72.15±11.07 years. Their mean LOS in the Rehabilitation Unit was 31.97±9.06 days, as 39 successfully completed the rehabilitation treatment and 2 deceased. We found statistically significant improvement in BI (84.87±15.56 vs 43.37±26.00; p<0.0001), 6-MWT (303.37±112.18 vs 240.0±81.31 meters; p=0.028), Borg RPE scale (12.23±2.51 vs 16.03±2.28; p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that post-acute COVID-19 patients might beneficiate of a motor and respiratory rehabilitation treatment. However, further studies are advised to better understand long-term sequelae of the disease. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: This study provides evidence on the role of rehabilitation COVID-19 post-acute inpatients through a patient-tailored treatment.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 1-9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350922

RESUMO

Rwanda and Bhutan, 2 low- and middle-income countries, implemented primarily school-based national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2011 (Rwanda) and 2010 (Bhutan). We estimated vaccination effectiveness through urine-based HPV prevalence surveys in schools in 2013-2014 and 2017. In Rwanda, 912 participants from baseline surveys and 1,087 from repeat surveys were included, and in Bhutan, 973 participants from baseline surveys and 909 from repeat surveys were included. The overall effectiveness against vaccine-targeted HPV types (i.e., HPV-6/11/16/18) was 78% (95% CI 51%-90%) in Rwanda, and 88% (6%-99%) in Bhutan and against other α-9 types was 58% (21-78) in Rwanda and 63% (27-82) in Bhutan. No effect against other HPV types was detectable. Prevalence of vaccine-targeted HPV types decreased significantly, as well as that of other α-9 types, suggesting cross-protection. These findings provide direct evidence from low- and middle-income countries of the marked effectiveness of high-coverage school-based, national HPV vaccination programs.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are natural compounds with anticarcinogenic properties in cellular and animal models, but epidemiological evidence determining the associations of these compounds with thyroid cancer (TC) is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between blood concentrations of 36 polyphenols and TC risk in EPIC (the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted on 273 female cases (210 papillary, 45 follicular, and 18 not otherwise specified TC tumors) and 512 strictly matched controls. Blood polyphenol concentrations were analyzed by HPLC coupled to tandem MS after enzymatic hydrolysis. RESULTS: Using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, caffeic acid (ORlog2: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.93) and its dehydrogenated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (ORlog2: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.99), were inversely associated with differentiated TC risk. Similar results were observed for papillary TC, but not for follicular TC. Ferulic acid was also inversely associated only with papillary TC (ORlog2: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91). However, none of these relations was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. No association was observed for any of the remaining polyphenols with total differentiated, papillary, or follicular TC. CONCLUSIONS: Blood polyphenol concentrations were mostly not associated with differentiated TC risk in women, although our study raises the possibility that high blood concentrations of caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic, and ferulic acids may be related to a lower papillary TC risk.

8.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058497

RESUMO

The availability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and screening tests has raised the possibility of globally eliminating cervical cancer, which is caused by HPV. Cervical cancer is a very common malignancy worldwide, especially among deprived women. High vaccination coverage is key to the containment and eventual elimination of the infection. Public HPV vaccination programmes in Italy and Denmark were swiftly established and are among the most successful worldwide. Still, in both countries, it has been challenging to achieve and maintain the recommended coverage of > 80% in girls. In a well-studied Italian region, vaccination coverage in girls at age 15 years (World Health Organization's gold standard) reached 76% in 2015 but decreased to 69% in 2018, likely due to work overload in public immunization centres. In Denmark, doubts about safety and efficacy of the HPV vaccine generated a decline in coverage among girls age 12-17, from 80% in 2013 down to 37% in 2015, when remedial actions made it rise again. Insights from these two countries are shared to illustrate the importance of monitoring coverage in a digital vaccine registry and promptly reacting to misinformation about vaccination.

9.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(11): 888-894, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bhutan implemented a national program for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2010 involving girls aged 12 to 18 years and achieving nearly 90% coverage. OBJECTIVE: To estimate HPV vaccine effectiveness in a city in Bhutan. DESIGN: 2 cross-sectional surveys, 2011-2012 and 2018. SETTING: 2 hospitals in Thimphu, capital of Bhutan. PARTICIPANTS: Sexually active women aged 17 to 29 years: 1445 participants from the baseline survey and 1595 from the repeated survey. INTERVENTION: National HPV vaccination program. MEASUREMENTS: HPV was assessed in cervical cell samples by using general primer GP5+/GP6+-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Human papillomavirus types were stratified as vaccine types (HPV6/11/16/18) and nonvaccine types. Age- and sexual behavior-adjusted overall, total, and indirect (herd immunity) vaccine effectiveness (VE) was computed as (1 - HPV prevalence ratio) for HPV among all women and among unvaccinated women. RESULTS: Between the 2 surveys, the prevalence of HPV vaccine types decreased from 8.3% to 1.4%, whereas the prevalence of nonvaccine types increased from 25.8% to 31.4%. The overall and indirect adjusted VE against vaccine-targeted HPV types was 88% (95% CI, 80% to 92%) and 78% (CI, 61% to 88%), respectively. Among women younger than 27 years, who were targeted by the vaccination program, the overall and indirect adjusted VE was 93% (CI, 87% to 97%) and 88% (CI, 69% to 95%), respectively. No impact on nonvaccine HPV types was detectable. LIMITATION: Hospital-based recruitment; self-reported vaccination status. CONCLUSION: In Bhutan, the prevalence of vaccine-targeted HPV types has decreased sharply, providing the first evidence of the effectiveness of a high-coverage national HPV vaccination program in a lower-middle-income country. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated the probability of being cured for cancer patients. This study aims to estimate population-based indicators of cancer cure in Europe by type, sex, age and period. METHODS: 7.2 million cancer patients (42 population-based cancer registries in 17 European countries) diagnosed at ages 15-74 years in 1990-2007 with follow-up to 2008 were selected from the EUROCARE-5 dataset. Mixture-cure models were used to estimate: (i) life expectancy of fatal cases (LEF); (ii) cure fraction (CF) as proportion of patients with same death rates as the general population; (iii) time to cure (TTC) as time to reach 5-year conditional relative survival (CRS) >95%. RESULTS: LEF ranged from 10 years for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients to <6 months for those with liver, pancreas, brain, gallbladder and lung cancers. It was 7.7 years for patients with prostate cancer at age 65-74 years and >5 years for women with breast cancer. The CF was 94% for testis, 87% for thyroid cancer in women and 70% in men, 86% for skin melanoma in women and 76% in men, 66% for breast, 63% for prostate and <10% for liver, lung and pancreatic cancers. TTC was <5 years for testis and thyroid cancer patients diagnosed below age 55 years, and <10 years for stomach, colorectal, corpus uteri and melanoma patients of all ages. For breast and prostate cancers, a small excess (CRS < 95%) remained for at least 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates from this analysis should help to reduce unneeded medicalization and costs. They represent an opportunity to improve patients' quality of life.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1456-1463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

12.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 56(5): 633-641, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is quickly spreading, putting under heavy stress health systems worldwide and especially Intensive Care Units (ICU). Rehabilitation Units have a crucial role in reducing disability in order to reintroduce patients in the community. AIM: The aim of this study is to characterize pulmonary function and disability status and to propose an early rehabilitation protocol in a cohort of post-acute COVID-19 patients admitted to an Italian Rehabilitation Unit. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Inpatients Rehabilitation Unit. POPULATION: Post-acute COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Demographic, anamnestic and clinical characteristics, laboratory exams and medical imaging findings were collected for the entire cohort. Outcome measures evaluated at the admission in Rehabilitation Unit were: type of respiratory supports needed, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), FiO2/PaO2, Barthel Index (BI), modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnoea Scale, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6-MWT). Furthermore, we proposed an early rehabilitation protocol for COVID-19 patients based on baseline FiO2. RESULTS: We included 32 post-acute COVID-19 patients (22 male and 10 female), mean aged 72.6±10.9 years. BI was 45.2±27.6, with patients in need of higher FiO2 (≥40%) showing lower values: 39.6±25.7 vs. 53.3±29.3. All patients had grade 4 or 5 on the mMRC Dyspnea Scale. Only 14 COVID-19 patients were able to walk (43.7%). 6-MWT was feasible in 6 (18.8%) patients with a mean distance of 45.0±100.6 meters. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest that post-acute COVID-19 patients suffered from dyspnea and shortness of breath even for minimal activities, with a resulting severe disability, and only a few of them were able to perform 6-MWT with poor results. An early rehabilitation protocol was proposed according to the baseline conditions of the patients. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: This study could provide an accurate description of COVID-19 sub-acute patients admitted to a Rehabilitation Unit along with a proposal of treatment to help physicians to tailor the best possible rehabilitative treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Estado Terminal/reabilitação , Deambulação Precoce/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação , Centros de Reabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 109, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522223

RESUMO

If we focus our attention on seven main features of COVID-19 infection (heterogeneity, fragility, lack of effective treatments and vaccines, "miraculous cures", psychological suffering, deprivation, and globalization), we may establish parallelism with the challenges faced in the steep road to the understanding and treatment of neoplastic diseases. How the similarities between these two conditions can help us cope with the emergency effort represented by the management of cancer patients in the COVID-19 era, today and in the future? In a manner similar to the Cancer Moonshot initiative in the United States, we can hypothesize a multinational moonshot project towards the management of cancer patients during COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, we believe that the main road to elaborate meaningful scientific evidence is represented by the collection of all the data on COVID-19 and cancer comorbidity that are and will become available in cancer centers, coupled with the design of large clinical studies. To address this goal, it is essential to identify the entity that can produce this scientific evidences and the potentially most successful research strategy to undertake. The largest Italian organization for cancer research, Alliance Against Cancer (Alleanza Contro il Cancro, ACC), is called to play a scientific leadership in addressing these challenges, which requires the coordination of oncology teams at regional, national, and international levels. To fulfill this commitment, ACC will create a liaison with health government agencies in order to develop "dynamic" indications able to fight such an unpredictable pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297630

RESUMO

CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Increases of thyroid cancer (TC) incidence emerged in the past several decades in several countries. This study aimed to estimate time trends of TC incidence in India and the proportion of TC cases potentially attributable to overdiagnosis by sex, age, and area. DESIGN: TC cases aged 0 to 74 years reported to Indian cancer registries during 2006 through 2014 were included. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) and TC overdiagnosis were estimated by sex, period, age, and area. RESULTS: Between 2006 to 2008 and 2012 to 2014, the ASRs for TC in India increased from 2.5 to 3.5/100,000 women (+37%) and from 1.0 to 1.3/100,000 men (+27%). However, up to a 10-fold difference was found among regions in both sexes. Highest ASRs emerged in Thiruvananthapuram (14.6/100,000 women and 4.1/100,000 men in 2012-2014), with 93% increase in women and 64% in men compared with 2006 to 2008. No evidence of overdiagnosis was found in Indian men. Conversely, overdiagnosis accounted for 51% of TC in Indian women: 74% in those aged < 35 years, 50% at ages 35 to 54 years, and 30% at ages 55 to 64 years. In particular, 80% of TC overdiagnosis in women emerged in Thiruvananthapuram, whereas none or limited evidence of overdiagnosis emerged in Kamrup, Dibrugarh, Bhopal, or Sikkim. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively high and increasing TC ASRs emerged in Indian regions where better access to health care was reported. In India, as elsewhere, new strategies are needed to discourage opportunistic screening practice, particularly in young women, and to avoid unnecessary and expensive treatments. Present results may serve as a warning also for other transitioning countries.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 886, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060290

RESUMO

HPV16 causes half of cervical cancers worldwide; for unknown reasons, most infections resolve within two years. Here, we analyze the viral genomes of 5,328 HPV16-positive case-control samples to investigate mutational signatures and the role of human APOBEC3-induced mutations in viral clearance and cervical carcinogenesis. We identify four de novo mutational signatures, one of which matches the COSMIC APOBEC-associated signature 2. The viral genomes of the precancer/cancer cases are less likely to contain within-host somatic HPV16 APOBEC3-induced mutations (Fisher's exact test, P = 6.2 x 10-14), and have a 30% lower nonsynonymous APOBEC3 mutation burden compared to controls. We replicate the low prevalence of HPV16 APOBEC3-induced mutations in 1,749 additional cases. APOBEC3 mutations also historically contribute to the evolution of HPV16 lineages. We demonstrate that cervical infections with a greater burden of somatic HPV16 APOBEC3-induced mutations are more likely to be benign or subsequently clear, suggesting they may reduce persistence, and thus progression, within the host.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Genoma Viral , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/enzimologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo do Útero/virologia , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Papillomavirus Humano 16/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/enzimologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
16.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 329-340, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838637

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal cancer patterns are distinct among populations. Our study aims to compare the incidence and risk of gastrointestinal cancers between Chinese American and non-Hispanic whites in Los Angeles, CA, USA, to those of people indigenous to Shanghai to elucidate the changing patterns of gastrointestinal cancers. Cancer incidence data from 1988 to 2012 were extracted from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents plus database. The age standardized incidence and estimated annual percentage change were calculated to estimate the temporal trends of gastrointestinal cancers. Traditional Poisson regression models and three-factor constrained Poisson regression models were applied to compare the gastrointestinal cancer risk across populations. The incidences of oesophageal, stomach, liver and gall bladder cancers were higher among indigenous Chinese residents of Shanghai than among the other two populations in Los Angeles. While the incidences of colorectal and pancreatic cancer were higher among non-Hispanic whites, Chinese American immigrants were considered to be at an intermediate level for most gastrointestinal cancers. The gender-specific gastrointestinal cancer disparities across populations, especially between Shanghai Chinese and non-Hispanic US whites, were significant regardless of age, period or cohort scale. However, the regional differences in gastrointestinal cancer rates decreased over time. Most gastrointestinal cancer patterns in Chinese American immigrants were more aligned to those of their new country of residence than to those of their original country. The disparities in gastrointestinal cancers across populations indicate that environmental factors might play a key role in cancer genesis. Shift in environmental exposures may result in significant changes in gastrointestinal cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Risco
17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 601-609, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215037

RESUMO

We compared invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence rates in Europe, South Africa, Latin and North America among women living with HIV who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1996 and 2014. We analyzed cohort data from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE) in EuroCoord. We used flexible parametric survival models to determine regional ICC rates and risk factors for incident ICC. We included 64,231 women from 45 countries. During 320,141 person-years (pys), 356 incident ICC cases were diagnosed (Europe 164, South Africa 156, North America 19 and Latin America 17). Raw ICC incidence rates per 100,000 pys were 447 in South Africa (95% confidence interval [CI]: 382-523), 136 in Latin America (95% CI: 85-219), 76 in North America (95% CI: 48-119) and 66 in Europe (95% CI: 57-77). Compared to European women ICC rates at 5 years after ART initiation were more than double in Latin America (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.27-4.68) and 11 times higher in South Africa (aHR: 10.66, 95% CI: 6.73-16.88), but similar in North America (aHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.37-1.71). Overall, ICC rates increased with age (>50 years vs. 16-30 years, aHR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03-2.40) and lower CD4 cell counts at ART initiation (per 100 cell/µl decrease, aHR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.36). Improving access to early ART initiation and effective cervical cancer screening in women living with HIV should be key parts of global efforts to reduce cancer-related health inequities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Comparação Transcultural , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1841-1850, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342519

RESUMO

Polyphenols are bioactive compounds with several anticarcinogenic activities; however, human data regarding associations with thyroid cancer (TC) is still negligible. Our aim was to evaluate the association between intakes of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and risk of differentiated TC and its main subtypes, papillary and follicular, in a European population. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort included 476,108 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 748 incident differentiated TC cases, including 601 papillary and 109 follicular tumors. Polyphenol intake was estimated at baseline using validated center/country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, no association between total polyphenol and the risks of overall differentiated TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.29), papillary (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.41) or follicular TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.10, 95% CI 0.55-2.22) were found. No associations were observed either for flavonoids, phenolic acids or the rest of classes and subclasses of polyphenols. After stratification by body mass index (BMI), an inverse association between the intake of polyphenols (p-trend = 0.019) and phenolic acids (p-trend = 0.007) and differentiated TC risk in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 was observed. In conclusion, our study showed no associations between dietary polyphenol intake and differentiated TC risk; although further studies are warranted to investigate the potential protective associations in overweight and obese individuals.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/prevenção & controle
19.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1514-1522, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173641

RESUMO

The study aim was to describe human papillomavirus (HPV)-attributable cancer burden in Rwanda, according to anogenital cancer site, HPV type, age and HIV status. Tissue specimens of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile and anal cancer diagnosed in 2012-2018 were retrieved from three cancer referral hospitals and tested for high-risk (HR) HPV DNA. Cervical cancer represented the majority of cases (598 of 738), of which 96.0% were HR-HPV positive. HPV-attributable fractions in other cancer sites varied from 53.1% in 81 penile, through 76.7% in 30 vulvar, 83.3% in 24 vaginal, up to 100% in 5 anal cases. HPV16 was the predominant HR-HPV type in cervical cancer (55.0%), followed by HPV18 (16.6%) and HPV45 (13.4%). HPV16 also predominated in other cancer sites (60-80% of HR-HPV-attributable fraction). For cervical cancer, type-specific prevalence varied significantly by histology (higher alpha-9 type prevalence in 509 squamous cell carcinoma vs. higher alpha-7 type prevalence in 80 adenocarcinoma), but not between 501 HIV-negative and 97 HIV-positive cases. With respect to types targeted, and/or cross-protected, by HPV vaccines, HPV16/18 accounted for 73%, HPV31/33/45/52/58 for an additional 22% and other HR-HPV types for 5%, of HPV-attributable cancer burden, with no significant difference by HIV status nor age. These data highlight the preventive potential of the ongoing national HPV vaccination program in Rwanda, and in sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. Importantly for this region, the impact of HIV on the distribution of causal HPV types was relatively minor, confirming type-specific relevance of HPV vaccines, irrespective of HIV status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/virologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias Penianas/virologia , Adulto , Neoplasias do Ânus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/patologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Neoplasias Penianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Penianas/patologia , Prevalência , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Neoplasias Vaginais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Vaginais/patologia , Neoplasias Vaginais/virologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/virologia
20.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6): 378-384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to assess the completeness and timeliness of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme in Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) Region (Northern Italy), notably by monitoring 2-dose coverage among girls before they turn 15 years old (referred to as "at 15") in each year between 2009 and 2018 and making a preliminary evaluation of coverage among boys at 13 years in 2016-2018. DESIGN: retrospective study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: for each vaccine recipient, demographic information and history of HPV vaccine uptake from the digital FVG Vaccination Registry updated as of 31.12.2018 were extracted. Numerator data comprised all doses allocated to FVG residents. Age-specific denominators were derived from the FVG census in each examined year. Coverage estimates for the year 2018 were also provided by number of doses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: coverage for a full course of HPV vaccine, defined as 2 doses in girls and boys younger than age 15 years but 3 doses in less young women. RESULTS: In FVG 52,217 females had received >=1 dose since 2008 and 12,152 males since 2015. >=2-dose coverage in girls at 15 increased from 42% in 2009 to 76% in 2015 and slightly declined afterwards (69% in 2018). In 2008, 3-dose coverage was 65%, 74%, and 59% in females aged 16-17, 18-19, and 20-26 years, respectively. In the same year, 2-dose coverage in boys at 13 years was 54%, similar to the coverage in girls at 13 years (57%). CONCLUSIONS: this paper shows the achievements of routine and catch-up HPV vaccination in FVG. While coverage in girls at 15 years of age peaked in 2015 and slightly diminished in subsequent years, the coverage in boys at 13 in 2018 had already approached the coverage in same-age girls (57%). On account of the signs of weakening in girls' coverage, campaigns in support to HPV vaccination must be repeated, especially in favour of the most cost-effective group, i.e., girls before 15 years of age. The heavy burden posed by the COVID-19 emergency on other prevention-related activities makes a better targeted use of HPV vaccination even more necessary.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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