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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2030435, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399855

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) are substantially higher among African American individuals compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, even after adjusting for traditional factors associated with CHD. The unexplained excess risk might be due to genetic factors related to African ancestry that are associated with a higher risk of CHD, such as the heterozygous state for the sickle cell variant or sickle cell trait (SCT). Objective: To evaluate whether there is an association between SCT and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) or composite CHD outcomes in African American individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 5 large, prospective, population-based cohorts of African American individuals in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. The follow-up periods included in this study were 1993 and 1998 to 2014 for the WHI study, 2003 to 2014 for the REGARDS study, 2002 to 2016 for the MESA, 2002 to 2015 for the JHS, and 1987 to 2016 for the ARIC study. Data analysis began in October 2013 and was completed in October 2020. Exposures: Sickle cell trait status was evaluated by either direct genotyping or high-quality imputation of rs334 (the sickle cell variant). Participants with sickle cell disease and those with a history of CHD were excluded from the analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident MI, defined as adjudicated nonfatal or fatal MI, and incident CHD, defined as adjudicated nonfatal MI, fatal MI, coronary revascularization procedures, or death due to CHD. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for incident MI or CHD comparing SCT carriers with noncarriers. Models were adjusted for age, sex (except for the WHI study), study site or region of residence, hypertension status or systolic blood pressure, type 1 or 2 diabetes, serum high-density lipoprotein level, total cholesterol level, and global ancestry (estimated from principal components analysis). Results: A total of 23 197 African American men (29.8%) and women (70.2%) were included in the combined sample, of whom 1781 had SCT (7.7% prevalence). Mean (SD) ages at baseline were 61.2 (6.9) years in the WHI study (n = 5904), 64.0 (9.3) years in the REGARDS study (n = 10 714), 62.0 (10.0) years in the MESA (n = 1556), 50.3 (12.0) years in the JHS (n = 2175), and 53.2 (5.8) years in the ARIC study (n = 2848). There were no significant differences in the distribution of traditional factors associated with cardiovascular disease by SCT status within cohorts. A combined total of 1034 participants (76 with SCT) had incident MI, and 1714 (137 with SCT) had the composite CHD outcome. The meta-analyzed crude incidence rate of MI did not differ by SCT status and was 3.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 3.3-4.5 per 1000 person-years) among those with SCT and 3.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 2.7-5.1 per 1000 person-years) among those without SCT. For the composite CHD outcome, these rates were 7.3 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 5.5-9.7 per 1000 person-years) among those with SCT and 6.0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 4.9-7.4 per 1000 person-years) among those without SCT. Meta-analysis of the 5 study results showed that SCT status was not significantly associated with MI (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81-1.32) or the composite CHD outcome (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.92-1.47). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, there was not an association between SCT and increased risk of MI or CHD in African American individuals. These disorders may not be associated with sickle cell trait-related sudden death in this population.

2.
Neurology ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We employed Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore the effects of genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D), hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and ß-cell dysfunction on risk of stroke subtypes and related cerebrovascular phenotypes. METHODS: We selected instruments for genetic predisposition to T2D (74,124 cases, 824,006 controls), HbA1c levels (n=421,923), fasting glucose levels (n=133,010), insulin resistance (n=108,557), and ß-cell dysfunction (n=16,378) based on published genome-wide association studies. Applying two-sample MR, we examined associations with ischemic stroke (60,341 cases, 454,450 controls), intracerebral hemorrhage (1,545 cases, 1,481 controls), and ischemic stroke subtypes (large artery, cardioembolic, small vessel stroke), as well as with related phenotypes (carotid atherosclerosis, imaging markers of cerebral white matter integrity, and brain atrophy). RESULTS: Genetic predisposition to T2D and higher HbA1c levels were associated with higher risk of any ischemic stroke, large artery stroke, and small vessel stroke. Similar associations were also noted for carotid atherosclerotic plaque, fractional anisotropy, a white matter disease marker, and markers of brain atrophy. We further found associations of genetic predisposition to insulin resistance with large artery and small vessel stroke, whereas predisposition to ß-cell dysfunction was associated with small vessel stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, lower grey matter volume, and total brain volume. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports causal effects of T2D and hyperglycemia on large artery and small vessel stroke. We show associations of genetically predicted insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction with large artery and small vessel stroke that might have implications for anti-diabetic treatments targeting these mechanisms. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that genetic predisposition to T2D and higher HbA1c levels are associated with a higher risk of large artery and small vessel ischemic stroke.

4.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1314-1332, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230300

RESUMO

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.

5.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216373

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) and apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) G1/G2 variants increase chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk in African Americans by poorly understood mechanisms. We applied bioinformatics to identify new candidate genes associated with SCD-related CKD. An interaction network demonstrated APOA1 connecting haemoglobin subunit ß (HBB) and APOL1 with 36 other candidate genes. Gene expression revealed upregulation of engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) and downregulation of APOA1 in the kidney cortex of SCD versus non-SCD mice. Analysis of candidate genes identified ELMO1 rs10951509 to be associated with albuminuria and APOA1 rs11216132 with haemoglobinuria in patients with SCD. A bioinformatic approach highlights ELMO1 and APOA1 as potentially associated with SCD nephropathy.

6.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African American and Hispanic postmenopausal women have the highest risk for heart failure compared with other races, but heart failure prevalence is lower than expected in some national cohorts. It is unknown whether psychosocial factors are associated with lower risk of incident heart failure hospitalization among high-risk postmenopausal minority women. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the Women's Health Initiative Study, African American and US Hispanic women were classified as high-risk for incident heart failure hospitalization with 1 or more traditional heart failure risk factors and the highest tertile heart failure genetic risk scores. Positive psychosocial factors (optimism, social support, religion) and negative psychosocial factors (living alone, social strain, depressive symptoms) were measured using validated survey instruments at baseline. Adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios of developing heart failure hospitalization were determined with death as a competing risk. Positive deviance indicated not developing incident heart failure hospitalization with 1 or more risk factors and the highest tertile for genetic risk. Among 7986 African American women (mean follow-up of 16 years), 27.0% demonstrated positive deviance. Among high-risk African American women, optimism was associated with modestly reduced risk of heart failure hospitalization (subdistribution hazard ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.91-0.99), and social strain was associated with modestly increased risk of heart failure hospitalization (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.12) in the initial models; however, no psychosocial factors were associated with heart failure hospitalization in fully adjusted analyses. Among 3341 Hispanic women, 25.1% demonstrated positive deviance. Among high-risk Hispanic women, living alone was associated with increased risk of heart failure hospitalization (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval 1.06-3.63) in unadjusted analyses; however, no psychosocial factors were associated with heart failure hospitalization in fully adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Among postmenopausal African American and Hispanic women, a significant proportion remained free from heart failure hospitalization despite having the highest genetic risk profile and 1 or more traditional risk factors. No observed psychosocial factors were associated with incident heart failure hospitalization in high-risk African Americans and Hispanics. Additional investigation is needed to understand protective factors among high-risk African American and Hispanic women.

7.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension has been implicated as a smoking-related risk factor for cardiovascular disease but the dose-response relationship is incompletely described. Hispanics, who often have relatively light smoking exposures, have been understudied in this regard. METHODS: We used data from a six-year follow up study of US Hispanic adults aged 18 to 76 to address the dose-response linking cigarette use with incident hypertension, which was defined by measured blood pressure above 140 / 90 mmHg or initiation of antihypertensive medications. Adjustment was performed for potential confounders and mediators, including urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio which worsened over time among smokers. RESULTS: Current smoking was associated with incident hypertension, with a threshold effect above five cumulative pack-years of smoking (versus never smokers, hazard ratio for hypertension [95% confidence interval] of 0.95 [0.67, 1.35] for 0-5 pack-years, 1.47 [1.05, 2.06] for 5-10 pack years, 1.40 [1.00, 1.96] for 10-20 pack years, and 1.34 [1.09, 1.66] for >= 20 pack-years, P = 0.037). In contrast to current smokers, former smokers did not appear to have increased risk of hypertension, even at the highest cumulative pack years of past exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that smoking constitutes a hypertension risk factor in Hispanic adults. A relatively modest cumulative dose of smoking, above 5 pack-years of exposure, raises risk of hypertension by over 30%. The increased hypertension risk was confined to current smokers, and did not increase further with higher pack-year levels. The lack of a smoking-hypertension association in former smokers underscores the value of smoking cessation.

8.
Kidney Med ; 2(3): 332-340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734253

RESUMO

Rationale & Objective: Lower rates of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control have been observed in Hispanics/Latinos compared with non-Hispanic whites. These factors have not been studied in Hispanics/Latinos with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Hispanic/Latino adults with CKD. Study Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Setting & Participants: US.Hispanics/Latinos aged 18 to 74 years enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) with CKD. Comparisons were made with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007 to 2010. Exposure: CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or urinry albumin-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine. Outcomes: Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140 or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensives. For hypertension control, 2 thresholds were examined: <140/90 and <130/80 mm Hg. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 51.5%; among those with hypertension, hypertension awareness and treatment were present in 78.1% and 70.4%, respectively. A low prevalence of BP control was observed (32.6% with BP < 140/90 mm Hg; 17.9% with BP < 130/80 mm Hg). Health insurance coverage was associated with higher odds of BP < 140/90 mm Hg (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.15-3.43). Compared with non-Hispanic whites with CKD in NHANES, HCHS/SOL participants with CKD had a lower prevalence of hypertension but a lower rate of BP control (32.6% vs 48.6% for BP < 140/90 mm Hg). Limitations: Use of a single measurement of creatinine, cystatin C, and urinary albumin excretion to define CKD. Single-visit measurement of BP. Conclusions: Hispanics/Latinos with CKD residing in the United States have very low rates of BP control. The association of health insurance coverage with hypertension control suggests that improved access to health care may improve outcomes for this growing population.

9.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002891, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors that influence kidney traits have been understudied for low-frequency and ancestry-specific variants. METHODS: This study used imputed whole-genome sequencing from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine project to identify novel loci for estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in up to 12 207 Hispanics/Latinos. Replication was performed in the Women's Health Initiative and the UK Biobank when variants were available. RESULTS: Two low-frequency intronic variants were associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (rs58720902 at AQR, minor allele frequency=0.01, P=1.6×10-8) or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (rs527493184 at ZBTB16, minor allele frequency=0.002, P=1.1×10-8). An additional variant at PRNT (rs2422935, minor allele frequency=0.54, P=2.89×10-8) was significantly associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate in meta-analysis with replication samples. We also identified 2 known loci for urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (BCL2L11 rs116907128, P=5.6×10-8 and HBB rs344, P=9.3×10-11) and validated 8 loci for urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio previously identified in the UK Biobank. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows gains in gene discovery when using dense imputation from multi-ethnic whole-genome sequencing data in admixed Hispanics/Latinos. It also highlights limitations in genetic research of kidney traits, including the lack of suitable replication samples for variants that are more common in non-European ancestry and those at low frequency in populations.

10.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002772, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake influences plasma lipid levels, and such effects may be moderated by genetic variants. We aimed to characterize the role of aggregated rare and low-frequency protein-coding variants in gene by alcohol consumption interactions associated with fasting plasma lipid levels. METHODS: In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, fasting plasma triglycerides and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in 34 153 individuals with European ancestry from 5 discovery studies and 32 277 individuals from 6 replication studies. Rare and low-frequency functional protein-coding variants (minor allele frequency, ≤5%) measured by an exome array were aggregated by genes and evaluated by a gene-environment interaction test and a joint test of genetic main and gene-environment interaction effects. Two dichotomous self-reported alcohol consumption variables, current drinker, defined as any recurrent drinking behavior, and regular drinker, defined as the subset of current drinkers who consume at least 2 drinks per week, were considered. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated 21 gene-lipid associations at 13 known lipid loci through the joint test. Eight loci (PCSK9, LPA, LPL, LIPG, ANGPTL4, APOB, APOC3, and CD300LG) remained significant after conditioning on the common index single-nucleotide polymorphism identified by previous genome-wide association studies, suggesting an independent role for rare and low-frequency variants at these loci. One significant gene-alcohol interaction on triglycerides in a novel locus was significantly discovered (P=6.65×10-6 for the interaction test) and replicated at nominal significance level (P=0.013) in SMC5. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study applied new gene-based statistical approaches and suggested that rare and low-frequency genetic variants interacted with alcohol consumption on lipid levels.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(6): 1315-1324, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are often considered a single ethnic group, they represent a heterogenous mixture of ancestries who can self-identify as any race defined by the U.S. Census. They have higher ESKD incidence compared with non-Hispanics, but little is known about the CKD incidence in this population. METHODS: We examined rates and risk factors of new-onset CKD using data from 8774 adults in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Incident CKD was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with eGFR decline ≥1 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, or urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Rates and incidence rate ratios were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance while accounting for the study's complex design. RESULTS: Mean age was 40.3 years at baseline and 51.6% were women. In 5.9 years of follow-up, 648 participants developed CKD (10.6 per 1000 person-years). The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates ranged from 6.6 (other Hispanic/mixed background) to 15.0 (Puerto Ricans) per 1000 person-years. Compared with Mexican background, Puerto Rican background was associated with 79% increased risk for incident CKD (incidence rate ratios, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 2.40), which was accounted for by differences in sociodemographics, acculturation, and clinical characteristics. In multivariable regression analysis, predictors of incident CKD included BP >140/90 mm Hg, higher glycated hemoglobin, lower baseline eGFR, and higher baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio. CONCLUSIONS: CKD incidence varies by Hispanic/Latino heritage and this disparity may be in part attributed to differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Culturally tailored public heath interventions focusing on the prevention and control of risk factors might ameliorate the CKD burden in this population.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17899, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784582

RESUMO

While studies have reported genetic loci affecting serum urate (SU) concentrations, few studies have been conducted in minority populations. Our objective for this study was to identify genetic loci regulating SU in a multigenerational family-based cohort of American Indians, the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). We genotyped 162,718 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2000 SHFS participants using an Illumina MetaboChip array. A genome-wide association analysis of SU was conducted using measured genotype analysis approach accounting for kinships in SOLAR, and meta-analysis in METAL. Our results showed strong association of SU with rs4481233, rs9998811, rs7696092 and rs13145758 (minor allele frequency (MAF) = 25-44%; P < 3 × 10-14) of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9) and rs41481455, rs2231142 and rs1481012 (MAF = 29%; p < 3 × 10-9) of ATP-binding cassette protein, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2). Carriers of G alleles of rs9998811, rs4148155 and rs1481012 and A alleles of rs4481233, rs7696092 and rs13145758 and rs2231142 had lower SU concentrations as compared to non-carriers. Genetic analysis of SU conditional on significant SLC2A9 and ABCG2 SNPs revealed new loci, nucleobindin 1 (NUCB1) and neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (NPAS4) (p <6× 10-6). To identify American Indian-specific SNPs, we conducted targeted sequencing of key regions of SLC2A9. A total of 233 SNPs were identified of which 89 were strongly associated with SU (p < 7.1 × 10-10) and 117 were American Indian specific. Analysis of key SNPs in cohorts of Mexican-mestizos, European, Indian and East Asian ancestries showed replication of common SNPs, including our lead SNPs. Our results demonstrate the association of SU with uric acid transporters in a minority population of American Indians and potential novel associations of SU with neuronal-related genes which warrant further investigation.

16.
Cell ; 179(4): 984-1002.e36, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675503

RESUMO

Genomic studies in African populations provide unique opportunities to understand disease etiology, human diversity, and population history. In the largest study of its kind, comprising genome-wide data from 6,400 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 1,978 individuals from rural Uganda, we find evidence of geographically correlated fine-scale population substructure. Historically, the ancestry of modern Ugandans was best represented by a mixture of ancient East African pastoralists. We demonstrate the value of the largest sequence panel from Africa to date as an imputation resource. Examining 34 cardiometabolic traits, we show systematic differences in trait heritability between European and African populations, probably reflecting the differential impact of genes and environment. In a multi-trait pan-African GWAS of up to 14,126 individuals, we identify novel loci associated with anthropometric, hematological, lipid, and glycemic traits. We find that several functionally important signals are driven by Africa-specific variants, highlighting the value of studying diverse populations across the region.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Uganda/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5121, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719535

RESUMO

Both short and long sleep are associated with an adverse lipid profile, likely through different biological pathways. To elucidate the biology of sleep-associated adverse lipid profile, we conduct multi-ancestry genome-wide sleep-SNP interaction analyses on three lipid traits (HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). In the total study sample (discovery + replication) of 126,926 individuals from 5 different ancestry groups, when considering either long or short total sleep time interactions in joint analyses, we identify 49 previously unreported lipid loci, and 10 additional previously unreported lipid loci in a restricted sample of European-ancestry cohorts. In addition, we identify new gene-sleep interactions for known lipid loci such as LPL and PCSK9. The previously unreported lipid loci have a modest explained variance in lipid levels: most notable, gene-short-sleep interactions explain 4.25% of the variance in triglyceride level. Collectively, these findings contribute to our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in sleep-associated adverse lipid profiles.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Lipídeos/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sono/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1580-1587, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659325

RESUMO

Aortic calcification is an important independent predictor of future cardiovascular events. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis to determine SNPs associated with the extent of abdominal aortic calcification (n = 9,417) or descending thoracic aortic calcification (n = 8,422). Two genetic loci, HDAC9 and RAP1GAP, were associated with abdominal aortic calcification at a genome-wide level (P < 5.0 × 10-8). No SNPs were associated with thoracic aortic calcification at the genome-wide threshold. Increased expression of HDAC9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells promoted calcification and reduced contractility, while inhibition of HDAC9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells inhibited calcification and enhanced cell contractility. In matrix Gla protein-deficient mice, a model of human vascular calcification, mice lacking HDAC9 had a 40% reduction in aortic calcification and improved survival. This translational genomic study identifies the first genetic risk locus associated with calcification of the abdominal aorta and describes a previously unknown role for HDAC9 in the development of vascular calcification.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/fisiologia , Contração Muscular , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/fisiologia , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Idoso , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Calcificação Vascular/genética , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223574, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an important component of the innate immune response, are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been identified which are associated with CRP levels, and Mendelian randomization studies have shown a positive association between SNPs increasing CRP expression and risk of colon cancer (but thus far not CVD). The effects of individual genetic variants often interact with the genetic background of a population and hence we sought to resolve the genetic determinants of serum CRP in a number of American Indian populations. METHODS: The Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS) has serum CRP measurements from 2428 tribal members, recruited as large families from three regions of the United States. Microsatellite markers and MetaboChip defined SNP genotypes were incorporated into variance components, decomposition-based linkage and association analyses. RESULTS: CRP levels exhibited significant heritability (h2 = 0.33 ± 0.05, p<1.3 X 10-20). A locus on chromosome (chr) 6, near marker D6S281 (approximately at 169.6 Mb, GRCh38/hg38) showed suggestive linkage (LOD = 1.9) to CRP levels. No individual SNPs were found associated with CRP levels after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing (threshold <7.77 x 10-7), however, we found nominal associations, many of which replicate previous findings at the CRP, HNF1A and 7 other loci. In addition, we report association of 46 SNPs located at 7 novel loci on chromosomes 2, 5, 6(2 loci), 9, 10 and 17, with an average of 15.3 Kb between SNPs and all with p-values less than 7.2 X 10-4. CONCLUSION: In agreement with evidence from other populations, these data show CRP serum levels are under considerable genetic influence; and include loci, such as near CRP and other genes, that replicate results from other ethnic groups. These findings also suggest possible novel loci on chr 6 and other chromosomes that warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Alelos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11410, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388106

RESUMO

Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) burden differs by race/ethnicity. Although familial aggregation and heritability studies suggest a genetic basis, little is known about the genetic susceptibility to PAD, especially in non-European descent populations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the ankle brachial index (ABI) and PAD (defined as an ABI < 0.90) have not been conducted in Hispanics/Latinos. We performed a GWAS of PAD and the ABI in 7,589 participants aged >45 years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). We also performed GWAS for ABI stratified by Hispanic/Latino ethnic subgroups: Central American, Mexican, and South American (Mainland group), and Cuban, Dominican, and Puerto Rican (Caribbean group). We detected two genome-wide significant associations for the ABI in COMMD10 in Puerto Ricans, and at SYBU in the Caribbean group. The lead SNP rs4466200 in the COMMD10 gene had a replication p = 0.02 for the ABI in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) African Americans, but it did not replicate in African Americans from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). In a regional look-up, a nearby SNP rs12520838 had Bonferroni adjusted p = 0.05 (unadjusted p = 7.5 × 10-5) for PAD in MESA Hispanics. Among three suggestive associations (p < 10-7) in subgroup-specific analyses, DMD on chromosome X, identified in Central Americans, replicated in MESA Hispanics (p = 2.2 × 10-4). None of the previously reported ABI and PAD associations in whites generalized to Hispanics/Latinos.


Assuntos
Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Doença Arterial Periférica/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Distrofina/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/etnologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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