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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11410, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388106

RESUMO

Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) burden differs by race/ethnicity. Although familial aggregation and heritability studies suggest a genetic basis, little is known about the genetic susceptibility to PAD, especially in non-European descent populations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the ankle brachial index (ABI) and PAD (defined as an ABI < 0.90) have not been conducted in Hispanics/Latinos. We performed a GWAS of PAD and the ABI in 7,589 participants aged >45 years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). We also performed GWAS for ABI stratified by Hispanic/Latino ethnic subgroups: Central American, Mexican, and South American (Mainland group), and Cuban, Dominican, and Puerto Rican (Caribbean group). We detected two genome-wide significant associations for the ABI in COMMD10 in Puerto Ricans, and at SYBU in the Caribbean group. The lead SNP rs4466200 in the COMMD10 gene had a replication p = 0.02 for the ABI in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) African Americans, but it did not replicate in African Americans from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). In a regional look-up, a nearby SNP rs12520838 had Bonferroni adjusted p = 0.05 (unadjusted p = 7.5 × 10-5) for PAD in MESA Hispanics. Among three suggestive associations (p < 10-7) in subgroup-specific analyses, DMD on chromosome X, identified in Central Americans, replicated in MESA Hispanics (p = 2.2 × 10-4). None of the previously reported ABI and PAD associations in whites generalized to Hispanics/Latinos.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012994, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310728

RESUMO

Background Systemic iron status has been implicated in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of genetically determined iron status on carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and venous thromboembolism using Mendelian randomization. Methods and Results Genetic instrumental variables for iron status were selected from a genome-wide meta-analysis of 48 972 subjects. Genetic association estimates for carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque were obtained using data from 71 128 and 48 434 participants, respectively, and estimates for venous thromboembolism were obtained using data from a study incorporating 7507 cases and 52 632 controls. Conventional 2-sample summary data Mendelian randomization was performed for the main analysis. Higher genetically determined iron status was associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Odds ratios per SD increase in biomarker levels were 1.37 (95% CI 1.14-1.66) for serum iron, 1.25 (1.09-1.43) for transferrin saturation, 1.92 (1.28-2.88) for ferritin, and 0.76 (0.63-0.92) for serum transferrin (with higher transferrin levels representing lower iron status). In contrast, higher iron status was associated with lower risk of carotid plaque. Corresponding odds ratios were 0.85 (0.73-0.99) for serum iron and 0.89 (0.80-1.00) for transferrin saturation, with concordant trends for serum transferrin and ferritin that did not reach statistical significance. There was no Mendelian randomization evidence of an effect of iron status on carotid intima-media thickness. Conclusions These findings support previous work to suggest that higher genetically determined iron status is protective against some forms of atherosclerotic disease but increases the risk of thrombosis related to stasis of blood.

3.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 21, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a significant public health concern disproportionately affecting African Americans (AAs). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the leading cause of ESKD in the USA, and efforts to uncover genetic susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have had limited success. A prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs with T2D-ESKD was expanded with additional AA cases and controls and genotypes imputed to the higher density 1000 Genomes reference panel. The discovery analysis included 3432 T2D-ESKD cases and 6977 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls (N = 10,409), followed by a discrimination analysis in 2756 T2D non-nephropathy controls to exclude T2D-associated variants. RESULTS: Six independent variants located in or near RND3/RBM43, SLITRK3, ENPP7, GNG7, and APOL1 achieved genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with T2D-ESKD. Following extension analyses in 1910 non-diabetic ESKD cases and 908 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls, a meta-analysis of 5342 AA all-cause ESKD cases and 6977 AA non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls revealed an additional novel all-cause ESKD locus at EFNB2 (rs77113398; P = 9.84 × 10-9; OR = 1.94). Exclusion of APOL1 renal-risk genotype carriers identified two additional genome-wide significant T2D-ESKD-associated loci at GRAMD3 and MGAT4C. A second variant at GNG7 (rs373971520; P = 2.17 × 10-8, OR = 1.46) remained associated with all-cause ESKD in the APOL1-negative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide further evidence for genetic factors associated with advanced kidney disease in AAs with T2D.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
6.
Hum Genet ; 138(2): 199-210, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671673

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated low-frequency and rare variants associated with blood pressure (BP) by focusing on a linkage region on chromosome 16p13. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program on 395 Cleveland Family Study (CFS) European Americans (CFS-EA). By analyzing functional coding variants and non-coding rare variants with CADD score > 10 residing within the chromosomal region in families with linkage evidence, we observed 25 genes with nominal statistical evidence (burden or SKAT p < 0.05). One of the genes is RBFOX1, an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates tissue-specific alternative splicing that we previously reported to be associated with BP using exome array data in CFS. After follow-up analysis of the 25 genes in ten independent TOPMed studies with individuals of European, African, and East Asian ancestry, and Hispanics (N = 29,988), we identified variants in SLX4 (p = 2.19 × 10-4) to be significantly associated with BP traits when accounting for multiple testing. We also replicated the associations previously reported for RBFOX1 (p = 0.007). Follow-up analysis with GTEx eQTL data shows SLX4 variants are associated with gene expression in coronary artery, multiple brain tissues, and right atrial appendage of the heart. Our study demonstrates that linkage analysis of family data can provide an efficient approach for detecting rare variants associated with complex traits in WGS data.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Exoma , Ligação Genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Recombinases/genética
7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1033-1054, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698716

RESUMO

A person's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. We included 45 studies in stage 1 (genome-wide discovery) and 66 studies in stage 2 (focused follow-up), for a total of 394,584 individuals from 5 ancestry groups. Analyses covered the period July 2014-November 2017. Genetic main effects and interaction effects were jointly assessed by means of a 2-degrees-of-freedom (df) test, and a 1-df test was used to assess the interaction effects alone. Variants at 495 loci were at least suggestively associated (P < 1 × 10-6) with lipid levels in stage 1 and were evaluated in stage 2, followed by combined analyses of stage 1 and stage 2. In the combined analysis of stages 1 and 2, a total of 147 independent loci were associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10-8 using 2-df tests, of which 18 were novel. No genome-wide-significant associations were found testing the interaction effect alone. The novel loci included several genes (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB), and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC1) complementation factor (A1CF)) that have a putative role in lipid metabolism on the basis of existing evidence from cellular and experimental models.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5141, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510157

RESUMO

Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque. Colocalization analysis with nearby vascular expression quantitative loci (cis-eQTLs) derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues obtained from patients with CHD identifies candidate genes at two potentially additional loci, ADAMTS9 and LOXL4. LD score regression reveals significant genetic correlations between cIMT and plaque traits, and both cIMT and plaque with CHD, any stroke subtype and ischemic stroke. Our study provides insights into genes and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms linking atherosclerosis both to its functional genomic origins and its clinical consequences in humans.

9.
Front Genet ; 9: 466, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369944

RESUMO

Background: Genetic research may inform underlying mechanisms for disparities in the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus among American Indians. Our objective was to assess the association of genetic variants in cardiometabolic candidate genes with B cell dysfunction via HOMA-B, insulin resistance via HOMA-IR, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Methods and Results: We examined the association of variants, previously associated with cardiometabolic traits (∼200,000 from Illumina Cardio MetaboChip), using mixed models of HOMA-B residuals corrected for HOMA-IR (cHOMA-B), log transformed HOMA-IR, and incident diabetes, adjusted for age, sex, population stratification, and familial relatedness. Center-specific estimates were combined using fixed effect meta-analyses. We used Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing (P < 4.13 × 10-7). We also assessed the association between variants in candidate diabetes genes with these metabolic traits. We explored the top SNPs in an independent, replication sample from Southwestern Arizona. We identified significant associations with cHOMA-B for common variants at 26 loci of which 8 were novel (PRSS7, FCRL5, PEL1, LRP12, IGLL1, ARHGEF10, PARVA, FLJ16686). The most significant variant association with cHOMA-B was observed on chromosome 5 for an intergenic variant near PARP8 (rs2961831, P = 6.39 × 10-9). In the replication study, we found a signal at rs4607517 near GCK/YKT6 (P = 0.01). Variants near candidate diabetes genes (especially GCK and KCNQ1) were also nominally associated with HOMA-IR and cHOMA-B. Conclusion: We identified variants at novel loci and confirmed those at known candidate diabetes loci associations for cHOMA-B. This study also provided evidence for association of variants at KCNQ2, CTNAA2, and KCNQ1with cHOMA-B among American Indians. Further studies are needed to account for the high heritability of diabetes among the American Indian participants of the SHFS cohort.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(15): 1763-1773, 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the SGLT1 (sodium/glucose co-transporter-1) gene result in a rare glucose/galactose malabsorption disorder and neonatal death if untreated. In the general population, variants related to intestinal glucose absorption remain uncharacterized. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to identify functional SGLT1 gene variants and characterize their clinical consequences. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants enrolled from 4 U.S. communities. The association of functional, nonsynonymous substitutions in SGLT1 with 2-h oral glucose tolerance test results was determined. Variants related to impaired glucose tolerance were studied, and Mendelian randomization analysis of cardiometabolic outcomes was performed. RESULTS: Among 5,687 European-American subjects (mean age 54 ± 6 years; 47% male), those who carried a haplotype of 3 missense mutations (frequency of 6.7%)-Asn51Ser, Ala411Thr, and His615Gln-had lower 2-h glucose and odds of impaired glucose tolerance than noncarriers (ß-coefficient: -8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -12.7 to -3.3; OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.86, respectively). The association of the haplotype with oral glucose tolerance test results was consistent in a replication sample of 2,791 African-American subjects (ß = -16.3; 95% CI: -36.6 to 4.1; OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.91) and an external European-Finnish population sample of 6,784 subjects (ß = -3.2; 95% CI: -6.4 to -0.02; OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.98). Using a Mendelian randomization approach in the index cohort, the estimated 25-year effect of a reduction of 20 mg/dl in 2-h glucose via SGLT1 inhibition would be reduced prevalent obesity (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.63), incident diabetes (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.81), heart failure (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.83), and death (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Functionally damaging missense variants in SGLT1 protect from diet-induced hyperglycemia in multiple populations. Reduced intestinal glucose uptake may protect from long-term cardiometabolic outcomes, providing support for therapies that target SGLT1 function to prevent and treat metabolic conditions.

11.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175238

RESUMO

Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. Results: We identified significant (P<2·8x10 -7) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in RPAP1, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( SEC24C, CASC17 and UQCC1) and two intergenic SNPs near to LY86 and FGF10. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including TYRO3 and PLAU. Conclusions: Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.

12.
BMC Nephrol ; 19(1): 194, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While there is a great deal of research updating methods for estimating renal function, many of these methods are being developed in either adults with CKD or younger children. Currently, there is limited understanding of the agreement between the modified new bedside Schwartz estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) formula and the adult CKD-EPI formula in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) measured longitudinally. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of 242 patients (10-30 years) with CKD, followed retrospectively in a single tertiary centre as they transitioned from the paediatric- to adult-focused settings. The study population came from a longitudinal cohort of AYAs undergoing healthcare transition at the STARx Program at the University of North Carolina, in the South-Eastern USA, from 2006 to 2015. We calculated and compared the eGFR using the new bedside Schwartz formula and the CKD-EPI eGFR. Measurements were repeated for each age in years. Agreement was tested using Bland & Altman analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed using the following age groups 10-15, 15-20, 20-25 and 25-30 years, glomerular and non-glomerular causes of CKD and height z-score. RESULTS: Using repeated measures, concordance between the new Schwartz and CKD-EPI eGFR was low at 0.74 (95% C.I. 0.67, 0.79) at the lowest age range of 10-15, 0.78 (95% C.I. 0.71, 0.84) at age 15-20, 0.80 (0.70, 0.87) at ages 20-25, and 0.82 (95% C.I. 0.70, 0.90) at age 25-30. Discordance was worse in males and largest in the 10-15 year-old age group, and in patients with stunted growth. CONCLUSIONS: The Schwartz and CKD-EPI equations exhibit poor agreement in patients before and during the transition period with CKD-EPI consistently yielding higher eGFRs, especially in males. Further studies are required to determine the appropriate age for switching to the CKD-EPI equation after age 18.

13.
Am J Nephrol ; 48(1): 21-31, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "T50," shortened transformation time from primary to secondary calciprotein particles may reflect deranged mineral metabolism predisposing to vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The glycoprotein fetuin-A is a major T50 determinant. METHODS: The Folic Acid For Vascular Outcome Prevention In Transplantation (FAVORIT) cohort is a completed, large, multiethnic controlled clinical trial cohort of chronic, stable kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We conducted a longitudinal case-cohort analysis using a randomly selected subcohort of patients, and all individual cases who developed CVD. Serum T50 and fetuin-A were determined in this total of n = 685 FAVORIT trial participants at randomization. RESULTS: During a median surveillance of 2.18-years, 311 incident or recurrent CVD events occurred. Shorter T50 (minutes) or reduced fetuin-A concentrations (g/L) were associated with CVD after adjustment for treatment assignment, systolic blood pressure, age, sex, race, preexisting CVD and diabetes, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, kidney allograft vintage and type, calcineurin inhibitor, or lipid-lowering drug use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin/creatinine: tertile 1 (lowest) to tertile 3 (highest) comparisons, T50, (hazard ratio [HR] 1.86; 95% CI 1.20-2.89); fetuin-A, (HR 2.25; 95% CI 1.38-3.69). Elevated high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP) was an effect modifier of both these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Shortened T50, as well as reduced fetuin-A levels, ostensible promoters of vascular calcification, remained associated with greater risk for CVD outcomes, after adjustment for major CVD risk factors, measures of kidney function and damage, and KTR clinical characteristics and demographics, in a large, multiethnic cohort of long-term KTRs. Increased hsCRP was an effect modifier of these CVD risk associations.

14.
J Rheumatol ; 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of preconceptional cardiovascular (CV) health, measured by American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines, on pregnancy outcomes in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: The study included patients in the Hopkins Lupus Pregnancy Cohort. Body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, and blood pressure (BP) in the most recent clinic visit prior to conception or first trimester were used to determine CV health (ideal, intermediate, or poor health) based on AHA definitions. Outcomes included preterm birth, gestational age at birth, and small for gestational age (SGA). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations estimated the association of each CV health factor and outcome. RESULTS: The analysis included 309 live births. There were 95 preterm births (31%), and of the 293 pregnancies with birth weights, 18% were SGA. Ideal BMI, total cholesterol, and BP were reported in 56%, 85%, and 51% of pregnancies, respectively. Intermediate BMI was associated with decreased odds of SGA (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.63), adjusted for race and prednisone use. Intermediate/poor total cholesterol was associated with increased odds of preterm birth (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.06-4.62). Intermediate/poor BP was associated with decreased gestational age at birth (ß -0.96, 95% CI -1.62 to -0.29). CONCLUSION: Poor/intermediate preconception CV health affects pregnancy outcomes of preterm birth and SGA infants among women with SLE. Efforts to maintain BMI, total cholesterol, and BP within the recommended ideal range prior to pregnancy is important to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with SLE.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200486, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044860

RESUMO

Current knowledge of the genetic architecture of key reproductive events across the female life course is largely based on association studies of European descent women. The relevance of known loci for age at menarche (AAM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) in diverse populations remains unclear. We investigated 32 AAM and 14 ANM previously-identified loci and sought to identify novel loci in a trans-ethnic array-wide study of 196,483 SNPs on the MetaboChip (Illumina, Inc.). A total of 45,364 women of diverse ancestries (African, Hispanic/Latina, Asian American and American Indian/Alaskan Native) in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study were included in cross-sectional analyses of AAM and ANM. Within each study we conducted a linear regression of SNP associations with self-reported or medical record-derived AAM or ANM (in years), adjusting for birth year, population stratification, and center/region, as appropriate, and meta-analyzed results across studies using multiple meta-analytic techniques. For both AAM and ANM, we observed more directionally consistent associations with the previously reported risk alleles than expected by chance (p-valuesbinomial≤0.01). Eight densely genotyped reproductive loci generalized significantly to at least one non-European population. We identified one trans-ethnic array-wide SNP association with AAM and two significant associations with ANM, which have not been described previously. Additionally, we observed evidence of independent secondary signals at three of six AAM trans-ethnic loci. Our findings support the transferability of reproductive trait loci discovered in European women to women of other race/ethnicities and indicate the presence of additional trans-ethnic associations both at both novel and established loci. These findings suggest the benefit of including diverse populations in future studies of the genetic architecture of female growth and development.

16.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(8): 712-720, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971324

RESUMO

Importance: APOL1 genotypes are associated with kidney diseases in African American individuals and may influence cardiovascular disease and mortality risk, but findings have been inconsistent. Objective: To discern whether high-risk APOL1 genotypes are associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke in postmenopausal African American women, who are at high risk for these outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Women's Health Initiative is a prospective cohort that enrolled 161 838 postmenopausal women into clinical trials and an observational study between 1993 and 1998. This study includes 11 137 African American women participants who had a clinical event from enrollment to June 2014. Data analyses were completed from January 2017 to August 2017. Exposures: The variants of APOL1 were genotyped or imputed from whole-exome sequencing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure subtypes, and overall and cause-specific mortality were adjudicated from hospital records and death certificates. Estimated incidence rates were determined for each outcome and hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for the associations of APOL1 groups with outcomes. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 61.7 (7.1) years. Carriers of high-risk APOL1 variants (n = 1370; 12.3%) had higher prevalence of hypertension, use of cholesterol-lowering medications, and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). After a mean (SD) of 11.0 (3.6) years, carriers of high-risk APOL1 variants had a higher incidence rate of hospitalized heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) than low-risk carriers did but showed no differences for other outcomes. In adjusted models, there was a significant 58% increased hazard of hospitalized HFpEF (HR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.03-2.41]) among carriers of high-risk APOL1 variants compared with carriers of low-risk APOL1 variants. The association with HFpEF was attenuated (HR = 1.50 [95% CI, 0.98-2.30]) and no longer significant when adjusting for baseline eGFR. Conclusions and Relevance: Status as a carrier of a high-risk APOL1 genotype was associated with HFpEF hospitalization among postmenopausal women, which is partly accounted for by baseline kidney function. These findings do not support an association of high-risk APOL1 genotypes with coronary heart disease, stroke, or mortality in postmenopausal African American women.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2536, 2018 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959320

RESUMO

We have been alerted that in our recent Article the calculations used to transform the heritability from the observed scale to the liability scale did not take into account the individuals in category 2 of the baldness scale, who were removed in our original analysis. This led to an overestimation of the heritability on the liability scale, which should have been 0.62 instead of 0.94. Moreover, in the Title and in the Abstract, we report that we can explain 38% of the risk, while in fact that is the proportion of heritability explained by the loci we discovered. These errors do not substantially change the paper or its conclusions apart from the statement MBP is therefore probably one of the most heritable complex traits. Genome-wide significant associations and pathway analyses are not affected in any way and male-pattern baldness remains less genetically complex than other complex traits. We wish to thank Yap et al. for bringing this to our attention.

19.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198166, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912962

RESUMO

Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol consumption interaction for BP might identify additional BP loci and contribute to the understanding of alcohol-related BP regulation. We conducted a large two-stage investigation incorporating joint testing of main genetic effects and single nucleotide variant (SNV)-alcohol consumption interactions. In Stage 1, genome-wide discovery meta-analyses in ≈131K individuals across several ancestry groups yielded 3,514 SNVs (245 loci) with suggestive evidence of association (P < 1.0 x 10-5). In Stage 2, these SNVs were tested for independent external replication in ≈440K individuals across multiple ancestries. We identified and replicated (at Bonferroni correction threshold) five novel BP loci (380 SNVs in 21 genes) and 49 previously reported BP loci (2,159 SNVs in 109 genes) in European ancestry, and in multi-ancestry meta-analyses (P < 5.0 x 10-8). For African ancestry samples, we detected 18 potentially novel BP loci (P < 5.0 x 10-8) in Stage 1 that warrant further replication. Additionally, correlated meta-analysis identified eight novel BP loci (11 genes). Several genes in these loci (e.g., PINX1, GATA4, BLK, FTO and GABBR2) have been previously reported to be associated with alcohol consumption. These findings provide insights into the role of alcohol consumption in the genetic architecture of hypertension.

20.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(7): 802-807, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710269

RESUMO

Importance: African Americans and individuals of African ancestry have a higher risk of stroke compared with non-Hispanic white individuals. Identifying the source of this disparity could provide an opportunity for clinical stroke risk stratification and more targeted therapy. Whether sickle cell trait (SCT) is an indicator of increased risk of ischemic stroke among African Americans is still unclear. Objective: To examine whether SCT is associated with a higher risk of incident ischemic stroke among African Americans. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis assessed the association of SCT with the risk of incident ischemic stroke. Four large, prospective, population-based studies with African American cohorts were assessed: Jackson Heart Study (September 1, 2005, through December 31, 2012), Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (July 1, 2002, through December 31, 2012), Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014), and Women's Health Initiative (October 1, 1998, through December 31, 2012). Using a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for major stroke risk factors, this study estimated the hazard ratio for incident ischemic stroke associated with SCT. Data analysis was performed from July 10, 2016, to February 2, 2017. Interventions or Exposures: Participants' SCT status determined by polymerase chain reaction assay genotyping or a combination of whole-exome sequencing and imputation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident ischemic stroke. Results: This meta-analysis included 19 464 African American individuals (1520 with SCT, 17 944 without SCT, and 620 with ischemic stroke) from 4 studies, with a mean (SD) age of 60.0 (13.0) years (5257 [27.0%] men and 14 207 [73.0%] women). No differences were found in the distribution of risk factors for ischemic stroke comparing participants with and those without SCT at study visit 1 in each cohort. The crude incidence of ischemic stroke was 2.9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 2.2-4.0 per 1000 person-years) among those with SCT and 3.2 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 2.7-3.8 per 1000 person-years) among those without SCT. After stroke risk factors were adjusted for, the hazard ratio of incident ischemic stroke independently associated with SCT in the meta-analysis of all 4 cohorts was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.47-1.35; P = .82). The results of the meta-analysis were similar to those of individual cohorts, in which the results were also similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Sickle cell trait may not be associated with incidence of ischemic stroke among African Americans. The results of this study suggest performing a more thorough clinical evaluation of a stroke patient with SCT rather than assuming that SCT is the etiologic factor for the stroke.

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