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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(27): 5228-5233, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602492

RESUMO

Three molecular threads incorporating two viologen units attached by an oligo-ethylene glycol chain of variable length and an electron rich naphthalene moiety were prepared. The internal viologen unit is connected to the naphthalene by a rigid linker that prevents the simultaneous complexation of these systems. The axle with the shortest chain (14+) in the presence of CB[8] placed the chain inside the macrocycle in aqueous media. In contrast, the longer chains in 24+ and 34+ allow locating the terminal viologen and the electron rich unit inside the cavity. Upon reduction of the bipyridinium salts, the system behaves like a zip tie relaxing the chain as a consequence of the insertion of both radical cation moieties within the CB[8] and making these switches as potential components for molecular machinery.

2.
Radiol Med ; 125(7): 625-635, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125637

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to apply density correction method to the quantitative image analysis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) computed tomography (CT) images, determining its influence on overall survival (OS) prediction of surgically treated patients. Clinicopathological (CP) data and preoperative CT scans, pre- and post-contrast medium (CM) administration, of 57 surgically treated NSCLC patients, were retrospectively collected. After CT volumetric density measurement of primary gross tumour volume (GTV), aorta and tracheal air, density correction was conducted on GTV (reference values: aortic blood and tracheal air). For each resulting data set (combining CM administration and normalization), first-order statistical and textural features were extracted. CP and imaging data were correlated with patients 1-, 3- and 5-year OS, alone and combined (uni-/multivariate logistic regression and Akaike information criterion). Predictive performance was evaluated using the ROC curves and AUC values and compared among non-normalized/normalized data sets (DeLong test). The best predictive values were obtained when combining CP and imaging parameters (AUC values: 1 year 0.72; 3 years 0.82; 5 years 0.78). After normalization resulted an improvement in predicting 1-year OS for some of the grey level size zonebased features (large zone low grey level emphasis) and for the combined CP-imaging model, a worse performance for grey level co-occurrence matrix (cluster prominence and shade) and first-order statistical (range) parameters for 1- and 5-year OS, respectively. The negative performance of cluster prominence in predicting 1-year OS was the only statistically significant result (p value 0.05). Density corrections of volumetric CT data showed an opposite influence on the performance of imaging quantitative features in predicting OS of surgically treated NSCLC patients, even if no statistically significant for almost all predictors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Medicina de Precisão , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Tumoral
3.
J Thorac Imaging ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205818

RESUMO

Systemic immune-mediated diseases (SID) are a large group of disorders characterized by complex inflammatory and autoimmune damage to various organs and tissues. Among the possible manifestations, SIDs may potentially involve each structure of the cardiopulmonary system. Each disease is characterized by a specific clinical presentation. Coronary artery disease, myocarditis, pericarditis, valvular disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and interstitial lung disease represent characteristic findings of cardiopulmonary involvement in these disorders and their prompt recognition is crucial for the diagnosis of SIDs and the patient's prognosis. In this setting, chest high-resolution computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance are the most important noninvasive techniques for the assessment of these diseases and their complications. The knowledge of various cardiac and pulmonary radiologic patterns increases the likelihood of diagnosing these disorders and can lead to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology to personalize the treatment for each patient.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11636, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406187

RESUMO

A large number of basic researches and observational studies suggested the cancer preventive activity of vitamin E, but large-scale human intervention trials have yielded disappointing results and actually showed a higher incidence of prostate cancer although the mechanisms underlying the increased risk remain largely unknown. Here we show through in vitro and in vivo studies that vitamin E produces a marked inductive effect on carcinogen-bioactivating enzymes and a pro-oxidant status promoting both DNA damage and cell transformation frequency. First, we found that vitamin E in the human prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cell line has the remarkable ability to upregulate the expression of various phase-I activating cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, including activators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), giving rise to supraphysiological levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, our rat model confirmed that vitamin E in the prostate has a powerful booster effect on CYP enzymes associated with the generation of oxidative stress, thereby favoring lipid-derived electrophile spread that covalently modifies proteins. We show that vitamin E not only causes DNA damage but also promotes cell transformation frequency induced by the PAH-prototype benzo[a]pyrene. Our findings might explain why dietary supplementation with vitamin E increases the prostate cancer risk among healthy men.

5.
J Org Chem ; 84(14): 9364-9368, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203619

RESUMO

The back and forth motions of a crown-ether based wheel along the axis of a bistable rotaxane are triggered by the decarboxylation of 2-cyano-2-phenylpropanoic acid and detected by the oscillation of the EPR nitrogen splitting of a dialkyl nitroxide function mounted within the macrocyclic ring. When the p-Cl derivative of the acid is used, back and forth motions are accelerated. Conversely, with p-CH3 and p-OCH3 derivatives, the back motion is strongly inhibited by the insurgence of collateral radical reactions.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(23): 12380-12388, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140493

RESUMO

Nanoscale disassembly of mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) in ionic liquids (ILs) was recently shown to induce an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-detectable reorganization of free radical centers in the resulting nanoparticles (NPs) in an IL-controlled manner. Herein, we report electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data showing that PDA NPs produced by suspending samples obtained in Tris and bicarbonate buffer (PDA-T and PDA-C) in different ILs display different redox activity as a result of structural control combined with IL-surface interactions. In particular, susceptibility to oxidation was found to correlate closely with the spin density in an ion pair-tunable fashion in ILs. Structural control over free radical properties and redox behavior of PDA NPs in ILs opens novel perspectives for the rational design of functional nanovectors of possible interest for drug delivery and theranostic applications.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(7): 3558-3563, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229755

RESUMO

The synthesis of novel dibenzo-24-crown ether substituted nitroxides and their use as spin probes for the detection of cation guests by EPR are reported. Formation of a host-guest complex between the proposed spin probes and several cations, both organic and inorganic, was evidenced by a significant change in the value of the benzylic and nitrogen EPR hyperfine splittings upon complexation. This favorable feature provided a reliable EPR sensor that is able to selectively distinguish different cationic guests.

8.
Chempluschem ; 84(9): 1331-1337, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944050

RESUMO

Developing effective strategies to increase the chemical stability and to fine-tune the physico-chemical properties of melanin biopolymers by rational control of π-electron conjugation is an important goal in materials science for biomedical and technological applications. Herein we report that poly-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (pDHN), a non-nitrogenous, catechol-free fungal melanin mimic, displays a high degree of structural integrity (from MALDI-MS and CP/MAS 13 C NMR analysis), a strong radical scavenging capacity (DPPH and FRAP assays), and an unusually intense EPR signal (g=2.0030). Morphological and spectral characterization of pDHN, along with deassembly experiments in ionic liquids, indicated amorphous aggregates of small globular structures with an estimated stacking distance of 3.9 Šand broadband absorption throughout the visible range. These results indicate that DHN-based melanins exhibit a high structural integrity and enhanced antioxidant and free-radical properties of potentially greater biomedical and technological relevance than for typical indole-based eumelanins.

9.
Nanoscale ; 10(21): 9908-9916, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790558

RESUMO

Hybrid systems have great potential for a wide range of applications in chemistry, physics and materials science. Conjugation of a biosystem to a molecular material can tune the properties of the components or give rise to new properties. As a workhorse, here we take a C60@lysozyme hybrid. We show that lysozyme recognizes and disperses fullerene in water. AFM, cryo-TEM and high resolution X-ray powder diffraction show that the C60 dispersion is monomolecular. The adduct is biocompatible, stable in physiological and technologically-relevant environments, and easy to store. Hybridization with lysozyme preserves the electrochemical properties of C60. EPR spin-trapping experiments show that the C60@lysozyme hybrid produces ROS following both type I and type II mechanisms. Due to the shielding effect of proteins, the adduct generates significant amounts of 1O2 also in aqueous solution. In the case of type I mechanism, the protein residues provide electrons and the hybrid does not require addition of external electron donors. The preparation process and the properties of C60@lysozyme are general and can be expected to be similar to other C60@protein systems. It is envisaged that the properties of the C60@protein hybrids will pave the way for a host of applications in nanomedicine, nanotechnology, and photocatalysis.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Muramidase/química , Água/química , Detecção de Spin
10.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196980, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746600

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of our present study is to evaluate the impact of different PEEP levels on cerebral hemodynamic, gas exchanges and respiratory system mechanics in paediatric patients with post-traumatic brain swelling treated with decompressive craniectomy (DC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective physiologic study was carried out on 14 paediatric patients presenting with severe traumatic brain swelling treated with DC. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the middle cerebral artery bilaterally after DC. After assessment at ZEEP, intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP) and gas exchanges were recorded at PEEP 4 and PEEP 8. RESULTS: From ZEEP to PEEP 8, the compliance of respiratory system indexed to the weight of the patient significantly increased (P = 0.02) without ICP modifications. No significant variation of the MAP, CPP, Vmed, the total resistance of respiratory system and ohmic resistance of the respiratory system indexed to the weight of the patients was observed. CVP significantly increased between ZEEP and PEEP 8 (P = 0.005), and between PEEP 4 and PEEP 8 (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PEEP values up to 8 cmH20 seem to be safe in paediatric patients with a severe post-traumatic brain swelling treated with DC.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Hemodinâmica , Pressão Intracraniana , Adolescente , Edema Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Edema Encefálico/cirurgia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Chemistry ; 24(47): 12370-12382, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660175

RESUMO

Operating molecular machines are based on switchable systems whose components can be set in motion in a controllable fashion. The presence of nonsymmetrical elements is a mandatory requirement to obtain and demonstrate the unidirectionality of motion. Calixarene-based macrocycles have proved to be very efficient hosts in the design of oriented rotaxanes and of pseudorotaxanes with strict control over the direction of complexation. A series of two-station rotaxanes based on bipyridinium-ammonium axles was synthesized and characterized. A recently reported supramolecularly assisted strategy for the synthesis of different orientational isomers was exploited, and the ammonium unit was identified as a proper secondary station for the calixarene. Displacement of the macrocycle was triggered by electrochemical reduction of the bipyridinium primary station, and it was shown that the shuttling is influenced both by the length of the chain of the axle component and by the position of the secondary station with respect to the calixarene rims.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(12): 8071-8076, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516066

RESUMO

A mechanism based on the sequential absorption of two photons by the components of a redox couple has been recently proposed for catalysis of the energetically demanding reduction of aryl halides. Here, we analyze the suggested photochemical mechanism of this reaction, which employs perylenediimide (PDI) as a photocatalyst, on the basis of spectroscopic, electrochemical and electron paramagnetic resonance data. Our results indicate that the photoexcited PDI radical anion (*PDI˙-) cannot play the role of a photosensitizer in the aforementioned process. Instead, the reduction of 4'-bromoacetophenone likely involves *PDI˙- decomposition products. The extremely short lifetime of the photoexcited transient species, as *PDI˙-, is a major general limitation for photocatalytic schemes based on sequential two-photon excitation. In order to better understand the potential of such schemes, we discuss them in the context of the Z-scheme in natural photosynthesis.

13.
Clin Respir J ; 12(1): 347-351, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27322356

RESUMO

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrosing interstitial pneumonia associated with the histologic and/or radiologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Nowadays, the high-resolution computed tomography pattern of "definite UIP" is enough to define a diagnosis of UIP without histological proof. This is pivotal especially in elderly patients with comorbidities. Early recognition of IPF is relevant for its prognostic implication. Some pharmacological strategies have been proposing novel molecules that tend to slow lung function decline, even though without healing fibrosis. We report a case of ex-heavy smoker male with IPF showing clinical and radiological improvement after 11 months of treatment with Pirfenidone. The definite diagnosis was challenging and it was reached by a multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Masculino
14.
Chemistry ; 24(5): 1198-1203, 2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125653

RESUMO

The synthesis of the new nitroxide crown ether 8 and its use as the wheel in a bistable [2]rotaxane, containing dialkylammonium and 4,4'-bipyridinium recognition sites, is reported. The synthesis of 8 was achieved by the sequential addition of substituted phenyl groups to a nitrone derivatives leading to the preferential formation of the cis stereoisomer. Due to charge-dipole interactions between the nitroxide unit and the bipyridinium moiety, it was possible to probe the movement of the macrocycle between the two molecular stations of the [2]rotaxane after addition of a base by measuring the nitrogen hyperfine splitting in the corresponding EPR spectra. The equilibrium constant for the complexation of dibenzyl viologen by the macrocycle 8 was also determined by EPR titration.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(38): 9385-9390, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255033

RESUMO

Allosteric control, one of Nature's most effective ways to regulate functions in biomolecular machinery, involves the transfer of information between distant sites. The mechanistic details of such a transfer are still an object of intensive investigation and debate, and the idea that intramolecular communication could be enabled by dynamic processes is gaining attention as a complement to traditional explanations. Mechanically interlocked molecules, owing to the particular kind of connection between their components and the resulting dynamic behavior, are attractive systems to investigate allosteric mechanisms and exploit them to develop functionalities with artificial species. We show that the pKa of an ammonium site located on the axle component of a [2]rotaxane can be reversibly modulated by changing the affinity of a remote recognition site for the interlocked crown ether ring through electrochemical stimulation. The use of a reversible ternary redox switch enables us to set the pKa to three different values, encompassing more than seven units. Our results demonstrate that in the axle the two sites do not communicate, and that in the rotaxane the transfer of information between them is made possible by the shuttling of the ring, that is, by a dynamic intramolecular process. The investigated coupling of electron- and proton-transfer reactions is reminiscent of the operation of the protein complex I of the respiratory chain.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Conformação Molecular , Rotaxanos/química , Sítios de Ligação , Estimulação Elétrica , Transporte de Elétrons , Transferência de Energia , Estrutura Molecular , Prótons
16.
Eur Respir Rev ; 26(146)2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263171

RESUMO

The incidence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules has risen constantly over the past few years. Determination of lung nodule malignancy is pivotal, because the early diagnosis of lung cancer could lead to a definitive intervention. According to the current international guidelines, size and growth rate represent the main indicators to determine the nature of a pulmonary nodule. However, there are some limitations in evaluating and characterising nodules when only their dimensions are taken into account. There is no single method for measuring nodules, and intrinsic errors, which can determine variations in nodule measurement and in growth assessment, do exist when performing measurements either manually or with automated or semi-automated methods. When considering subsolid nodules the presence and size of a solid component is the major determinant of malignancy and nodule management, as reported in the latest guidelines. Nevertheless, other nodule morphological characteristics have been associated with an increased risk of malignancy. In addition, the clinical context should not be overlooked in determining the probability of malignancy. Predictive models have been proposed as a potential means to overcome the limitations of a sized-based assessment of the malignancy risk for indeterminate pulmonary nodules.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico por imagem , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/patologia , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/patologia , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/terapia , Carga Tumoral
17.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 23(6): 420-427, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097345

RESUMO

In the medical era of early detection of diseases and tailored therapies, an accurate characterization and staging of the disease is pivotal for treatment planning. The widespread use of computed tomography (CT)-often with the use of contrast material (CM)-probably represents the most important advance in diagnostic radiology. The result is a marked increase in radiation exposure of the population for medical purposes, with its intrinsic carcinogenic potential, and CM affecting kidney function. The radiologists should aim to minimize patient's risk by reducing radiation exposure and CM amount, while maintaining the highest image quality. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to perform "patient-centric imaging". The purpose of this review is to provide radiologists with "tips and tricks" to control radiation dose at CT, summarizing technical artifices in order to reduce image noise and increase image contrast. Also chest CT tailored protocols are supplied, with particular attention to three most common thoracic CT protocols: aortic/cardiac CT angiography (CTA), pulmonary CTA, and routine chest CT.


Assuntos
Doses de Radiação , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Doenças Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2028, 2017 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28515485

RESUMO

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are devices designed to deliver nicotine in a vaping solution rather than smoke and without tobacco combustion. Perceived as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, e-cigs are aggressively marketed as lifestyle-choice consumables, thanks to few restrictions and a lack of regulatory guidelines. E-cigs have also gained popularity among never-smokers and teenagers, becoming an emergent public health issue. Despite the burgeoning worldwide consumption of e-cigs, their safety remains largely unproven and it is unknown whether these devices cause in vivo toxicological effects that could contribute to cancer. Here we demonstrate the co-mutagenic and cancer-initiating effects of e-cig vapour in a rat lung model. We found that e-cigs have a powerful booster effect on phase-I carcinogen-bioactivating enzymes, including activators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and increase oxygen free radical production and DNA oxidation to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Furthermore, we found that e-cigs damage DNA not only at chromosomal level in peripheral blood, such as strand breaks in leucocytes and micronuclei formation in reticulocytes, but also at gene level such as point mutations in urine. Our results demonstrate that exposure to e-cigs could endanger human health, particularly among younger more vulnerable consumers.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/patologia , Oxirredução , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
J Org Chem ; 82(12): 6133-6141, 2017 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534620

RESUMO

A kinetic study of the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions from a series of organic compounds to the quinolinimide-N-oxyl radical (QINO) was performed in CH3CN. The HAT rate constants are significantly higher than those observed with the phthalimide-N-oxyl radical (PINO) as a result of enthalpic and polar effects due to the presence of the N-heteroaromatic ring in QINO. The relevance of polar effects is supported by theoretical calculations conducted for the reactions of the two N-oxyl radicals with toluene, which indicate that the HAT process is characterized by a significant degree of charge transfer permitted by the π-stacking that occurs between the toluene and the N-oxyl aromatic rings in the transition state structures. An increase in the HAT reactivity of QINO was observed in the presence of 0.15 M HClO4 and 0.15 M Mg(ClO4)2 due to the protonation or complexation with the Lewis acid of the pyridine nitrogen that leads to a further decrease in the electron density in the N-oxyl radical. These results fully support the use of N-hydroxyquinolinimide as a convenient substitute for N-hydroxyphthalimide in the catalytic aerobic oxidations of aliphatic hydrocarbons characterized by relatively high C-H bond dissociation energies.

20.
Chemistry ; 23(26): 6380-6390, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263437

RESUMO

A shape-persistent molecule, featuring four bipyridinium units, has been synthesized that upon reduction undergoes intermolecular pimerization because of the rigid architecture of the molecule. The pimerization process has been investigated by a variety of techniques, such as absorption measurements, EPR spectroscopy, as well as gamma and pulse radiolysis, and compared with the behavior of a model compound. Computational studies have also been performed to support the experimental data. The most interesting feature of the tetramer is that pimerization occurs only above a threshold concentration of monoreduced species, on the contrary to the model compound. Furthermore, there is an increase of the apparent pimerization constant by increasing the concentration of reduced bipyridinium units. These results have been interpreted by the fact that pimerization is favored in the tetrahedrally shaped molecule because of a cooperative mechanism. Each multiply reduced molecule can indeed undergo multiple intermolecular interactions that enhance the stabilization of the system, also leading to hierarchical supramolecular growth. The resulting supramolecular system formed by such intermolecular pimerization should exhibit a diamond-like structure, as suggested by a simplified modeling approach. The intermolecular nature of the pimerization process occurring in the tetramer has been demonstrated by measuring the corresponding bimolecular rate constant by pulsed radiolysis experiments.

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