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1.
BMJ ; 367: l6055, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between age and troponin level and its prognostic implication. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Five cardiovascular centres in the UK National Institute for Health Research Health Informatics Collaborative (UK-NIHR HIC). PARTICIPANTS: 257 948 consecutive patients undergoing troponin testing for any clinical reason between 2010 and 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 257 948 patients had troponin measured during the study period. Analyses on troponin were performed using the peak troponin level, which was the highest troponin level measured during the patient's hospital stay. Troponin levels were standardised as a multiple of each laboratory's 99th centile of the upper limit of normal (ULN). During a median follow-up of 1198 days (interquartile range 514-1866 days), 55 850 (21.7%) deaths occurred. A positive troponin result (that is, higher than the upper limit of normal) signified a 3.2 higher mortality hazard (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 3.2) over three years. Mortality varied noticeably with age, with a hazard ratio of 10.6 (8.5 to 13.3) in 18-29 year olds and 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6) in those older than 90. A positive troponin result was associated with an approximately 15 percentage points higher absolute three year mortality across all age groups. The excess mortality with a positive troponin result was heavily concentrated in the first few weeks. Results were analysed using multivariable adjusted restricted cubic spline Cox regression. A direct relation was seen between troponin level and mortality in patients without acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n=120 049), whereas an inverted U shaped relation was found in patients with ACS (n=14 468), with a paradoxical decline in mortality at peak troponin levels >70×ULN. In the group with ACS, the inverted U shaped relation persisted after multivariable adjustment in those who were managed invasively; however, a direct positive relation was found between troponin level and mortality in patients managed non-invasively. CONCLUSIONS: A positive troponin result was associated with a clinically important increased mortality, regardless of age, even if the level was only slightly above normal. The excess mortality with a raised troponin was heavily concentrated in the first few weeks. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03507309.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Circulation ; 140(24): 1971-1980, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dobutamine stress echocardiography is widely used to test for ischemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease. In this analysis, we studied the ability of the prerandomization stress echocardiography score to predict the placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within the ORBITA trial (Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation With Optimal Medical Therapy of Angioplasty in Stable Angina). METHODS: One hundred eighty-three patients underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography before randomization. The stress echocardiography score is broadly the number of segments abnormal at peak stress, with akinetic segments counting double and dyskinetic segments counting triple. The ability of prerandomization stress echocardiography to predict the placebo-controlled effect of PCI on response variables was tested by using regression modeling. RESULTS: At prerandomization, the stress echocardiography score was 1.56±1.77 in the PCI arm (n=98) and 1.61±1.73 in the placebo arm (n=85). There was a detectable interaction between prerandomization stress echocardiography score and the effect of PCI on angina frequency score with a larger placebo-controlled effect in patients with the highest stress echocardiography score (Pinteraction=0.031). With our sample size, we were unable to detect an interaction between stress echocardiography score and any other patient-reported response variables: freedom from angina (Pinteraction=0.116), physical limitation (Pinteraction=0.461), quality of life (Pinteraction=0.689), EuroQOL 5 quality-of-life score (Pinteraction=0.789), or between stress echocardiography score and physician-assessed Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina class (Pinteraction=0.693), and treadmill exercise time (Pinteraction=0.426). CONCLUSIONS: The degree of ischemia assessed by dobutamine stress echocardiography predicts the placebo-controlled efficacy of PCI on patient-reported angina frequency. The greater the downstream stress echocardiography abnormality caused by a stenosis, the greater the reduction in symptoms from PCI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02062593.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(20): 2093-2101, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study developed a neural network to perform automated pressure waveform analysis and allow real-time accurate identification of damping. BACKGROUND: Damping of aortic pressure during coronary angiography must be identified to avoid serious complications and make accurate coronary physiology measurements. There are currently no automated methods to do this, and so identification of damping requires constant monitoring, which is prone to human error. METHODS: The neural network was trained and tested versus core laboratory expert opinions derived from 2 separate datasets. A total of 5,709 aortic pressure waveforms of individual heart beats were extracted and classified. The study developed a recurrent convolutional neural network to classify beats as either normal, showing damping, or artifactual. Accuracies were reported using the opinions of 2 independent core laboratories. RESULTS: The neural network was 99.4% accurate (95% confidence interval: 98.8% to 99.6%) at classifying beats from the testing dataset when judged against the opinions of the internal core laboratory. It was 98.7% accurate (95% confidence interval: 98.0% to 99.2%) when judged against the opinions of an external core laboratory not involved in neural network training. The neural network was 100% sensitive, with no beats classified as damped misclassified, with a specificity of 99.8%. The positive predictive and negative predictive values were 98.1% and 99.5%. The 2 core laboratories agreed more closely with the neural network than with each other. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial waveform analysis using neural networks allows rapid and accurate identification of damping. This demonstrates how machine learning can assist with patient safety and the quality control of procedures.

4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(8): 968-976, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis examined the ability of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) to prevent atrial fibrillation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which the patients not receiving PVI nevertheless underwent a procedure. BACKGROUND: PVI is a commonly used procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), and its efficacy has usually been judged against therapy with anti-arrhythmic drugs in open-label trials. There have been several RCTs of AF ablation in which both arms received an ablation, but the difference between the treatment arms was inclusion or omission of PVI. These trials of an ablation strategy with PVI versus an ablation strategy without PVI may provide a more rigorous method for evaluating the efficacy of PVI. METHODS: Medline and Cochrane databases were searched for RCTs comparing ablation including PVI with ablation excluding PVI. The primary efficacy endpoint was freedom from atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial tachycardia at 12 months. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood estimator. RESULTS: Overall, 6 studies (n = 610) met inclusion criteria. AF recurrence was significantly lower with an ablation including PVI than an ablation without PVI (RR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33 to 0.89; p = 0.0147; I2 = 79.7%). Neither the type of AF (p = 0.48) nor the type of non-PVI ablation (p = 0.21) was a significant moderator of the effect size. In 3 trials the non-PVI ablation procedure was performed in both arms, whereas PVI was performed in only 1 arm. In these studies, AF recurrence was significantly lower when PVI was included (RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.73; p = 0.007, I2 78%). CONCLUSIONS: In RCTs where both arms received an ablation, and therefore an expectation amongst patients and doctors of benefit, being randomized to PVI had a striking effect, reducing AF recurrence by a half.

5.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(10): 1984-1993, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: His-bundle pacing (HBP) provides physiological ventricular activation. Observational studies have demonstrated the techniques' feasibility; however, data have come from a limited number of centers. OBJECTIVES: We set out to explore the contemporary global practice in HBP focusing on the learning curve, procedural characteristics, and outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicenter observational study of patients undergoing attempted HBP at seven centers. Pacing indication, fluoroscopy time, HBP thresholds, and lead reintervention and deactivation rates were recorded. Where centers had systematically recorded implant success rates from the outset, these were collated. RESULTS: A total of 529 patients underwent attempted HBP during the study period (2014-19) with a mean follow-up of 217 ± 303 days. Most implants were for bradycardia indications. In the three centers with the systematic collation of all attempts, the overall implant success rate was 81%, which improved to 87% after completion of 40 cases. All seven centers reported data on successful implants. The mean fluoroscopy time was 11.7 ± 12.0 minutes, the His-bundle capture threshold at implant was 1.4 ± 0.9 V at 0.8 ± 0.3 ms, and it was 1.3 ± 1.2 V at 0.9 ± 0.2 ms at last device check. HBP lead reintervention or deactivation (for lead displacement or rise in threshold) occurred in 7.5% of successful implants. There was evidence of a learning curve: fluoroscopy time and HBP capture threshold reduced with greater experience, plateauing after approximately 30-50 cases. CONCLUSION: We found that it is feasible to establish a successful HBP program, using the currently available implantation tools. For physicians who are experienced at pacemaker implantation, the steepest part of the learning curve appears to be over the first 30-50 cases.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(6): e005375, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163980

RESUMO

Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been considered the top cause of mortality globally. However, countries differ in their rates and there have been changes over time. Methods and Results We analyzed mortality data submitted to the World Health Organization from 2005 to 2015 by individual countries. We explored patterns in relationships with age, sex, and income and calculated age-standardized mortality rates for each country in addition to crude death rates. In 5 illustrative countries which provided detailed data, we analyzed trends of mortality from IHD and 3 noncommunicable diseases (lung cancer, stroke, and chronic lower respiratory tract diseases) and examined the simultaneous trends in important cardiovascular risk factors. Russia, United States, and Ukraine had the largest absolute numbers of deaths among the countries that provided data. Among 5 illustrative countries (United Kingdom, United States, Brazil, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine), IHD was the top cause of death, but mortality from IHD has progressively decreased from 2005 to 2015. Age-standardized IHD mortality rates per 100 000 people per year were much higher in Ukraine (324) and Kazakhstan (97) than in United States (60), Brazil (54), and the United Kingdom (46), with much less difference in other causes of death. All 5 countries showed a progressive decline in IHD mortality, with a decline in smoking and hypertension and in all cases a rise in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. Conclusions IHD remains the single largest cause of death in countries of all income groups. Rates are different between countries and are falling in most countries, indicating great potential for further gains. On the horizon, future improvements may become curtailed by increasing hypertension in some developing countries and more importantly global growth in obesity.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(13): e012419, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237174

RESUMO

Background The contribution of the lung or the plant gain ( PG ; ie, change in blood gases per unit change in ventilation) to Cheyne-Stokes respiration ( CSR ) in heart failure has only been hypothesized by mathematical models, but never been directly evaluated. Methods and Results Twenty patients with systolic heart failure (age, 72.4±6.4 years; left ventricular ejection fraction, 31.5±5.8%), 10 with relevant CSR (24-hour apnea-hypopnea index [ AHI ] ≥10 events/h) and 10 without ( AHI <10 events/h) at 24-hour cardiorespiratory monitoring underwent evaluation of chemoreflex gain (CG) to hypoxia ([Formula: see text]) and hypercapnia ([Formula: see text]) by rebreathing technique, lung-to-finger circulation time, and PG assessment through a visual system. PG test was feasible and reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.98; 95% CI , 0.91-0.99); the best-fitting curve to express the PG was a hyperbola ( R2≥0.98). Patients with CSR showed increased PG , [Formula: see text] (but not [Formula: see text]), and lung-to-finger circulation time, compared with patients without CSR (all P<0.05). PG was the only predictor of the daytime AHI ( R=0.56, P=0.01) and together with the [Formula: see text] also predicted the nighttime AHI ( R=0.81, P=0.0003) and the 24-hour AHI ( R=0.71, P=0.001). Lung-to-finger circulation time was the only predictor of CSR cycle length ( R=0.82, P=0.00006). Conclusions PG is a powerful contributor of CSR and should be evaluated together with the CG and circulation time to individualize treatments aimed at stabilizing breathing in heart failure.

8.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(9): 1464-1474, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional mapping techniques during atrial fibrillation (AF) are difficult to apply because of cycle length irregularity. Mapping studies are usually restricted to short durations of AF in limited regions because of the laborious manual annotation of local activation time (LAT). The purpose of this study was to test an automated algorithm to map activation during AF, with comparable accuracy to manual annotation. METHODS: Left atrial (LA) mapping was performed using a 20-pole double loop catheter (AFocusII) in 30-second data segments from 16 patients. The new algorithm (RETRO-Mapping) was designed to detect wavefront propagation between electrodes, and display activating wavefronts on a two-dimensional representation of the catheter. Activation patterns were validated against their bipolar electrograms and with isochronal maps. The mapping protocol was approved by the research ethics committee (13/LO1169 and 14/LO1367). RESULTS: During AF, uniform wavefront activation direction (mean ± SD, degrees) from manually constructed isochronal maps was comparable to RETRO-Propagation Map (RETRO-PM) and RETRO-Automated Direction (RETRO-AD): 1 ± 6.9 for RETRO-PM; and 2 ± 6.6 for RETRO-AD. There was no significant difference in activation direction assigned to 1373 uniform wavefronts during AF when comparing RETRO-PM with RETRO-AD (Bland-Altman mean difference: -0.1 degrees; limits of agreement: -8.0 to 8.3; 95% CI -0.4 to 0.2; (r = 0.01) R2 = < 0.005; P = .77). CONCLUSION: We have developed and validated a new technique to map activation during AF. This technique shows comparable accuracy to that of conventional isochronal mapping with careful manual adjustment of LAT.

9.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(6): 705-715, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test specialized processing of laser Doppler signals for discriminating ventricular fibrillation (VF) from common causes of inappropriate therapies. BACKGROUND: Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies remain a clinically important problem associated with morbidity and mortality. Tissue perfusion biomarkers, implemented to assist automated diagnosis of VF, sometimes mistake artifacts and random noise for perfusion, which could lead to shocks being inappropriately withheld. METHODS: The study tested a novel processing algorithm that combines electrogram data and laser Doppler perfusion monitoring as a method for assessing circulatory status. Fifty patients undergoing VF induction during ICD implantation were recruited. Noninvasive laser Doppler and continuous electrograms were recorded during both sinus rhythm and VF. Two additional scenarios that might have led to inappropriate shocks were simulated for each patient: ventricular lead fracture and T-wave oversensing. The laser Doppler was analyzed using 3 methods for reducing noise: 1) running mean; 2) oscillatory height; and 3) a novel quantification of electromechanical coupling which gates laser Doppler relative to electrograms. In addition, the algorithm was tested during exercise-induced sinus tachycardia. RESULTS: Only the electromechanical coupling algorithm found a clear perfusion cut off between sinus rhythm and VF (sensitivity and specificity of 100%). Sensitivity and specificity remained at 100% during simulated lead fracture and electrogram oversensing. (Area under the curve running mean: 0.91; oscillatory height: 0.86; electromechanical coupling: 1.00). Sinus tachycardia did not cause false positive results. CONCLUSIONS: Quantifying the coupling between electrical and perfusion signals increases reliability of discrimination between VF and artifacts that ICDs may interpret as VF. Incorporating such methods into future ICDs may safely permit reductions of inappropriate shocks.

10.
Europace ; 21(8): 1176-1184, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071213

RESUMO

AIMS: Ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PsAF) has been performed by many techniques with varying success rates. This may be due to ablation techniques, patient demographics, comorbidities, and trial design. We conducted a meta-regression of studies of PsAF ablation to elucidate the factors affecting atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS : Databases were searched for prospective studies of PsAF ablation. A meta-regression was performed. Fifty-eight studies (6767 patients) were included. Complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) ablation reduced freedom from AF by 8.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) -15 to -2.3, P = 0.009). Left atrial appendage [LAA isolation (three study arms)] increased freedom from AF by 39.5% (95% CI 9.1-78.4, P = 0.008). Posterior wall isolation (PWI) (eight study arms) increased freedom from AF by 19.4% (95% CI 3.3-38.1, P = 0.017). Linear ablation or ganglionated plexi ablation resulted in no significant effect on freedom from AF. More extensive ablation increased intraprocedural AF termination; however, intraprocedural AF termination was not associated with improved outcomes. Increased left atrial diameter was associated with a reduction in freedom from AF by 4% (95% CI -6.8% to -1.1%, P = 0.007) for every 1 mm increase in diameter. CONCLUSION : Linear ablation, PWI, and CFAE ablation improves intraprocedural AF termination, but such termination does not predict better long-term outcomes. Study arms including PWI or LAA isolation in the lesion set were associated with improved outcomes in terms of freedom from AF; however, further randomized trials are required before these can be routinely recommended. Left atrial size is the most important marker of AF chronicity influencing outcomes.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(6): 569-574, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042268

RESUMO

Importance: Physiological stenosis assessment is recommended to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with stable angina. Objective: To determine the association between all commonly used indices of physiological stenosis severity and angina-limited exercise time in patients with stable angina. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included data (without follow-up) collected over 1 year from 2 cardiac hospitals. Selected patients with stable angina and physiologically severe single-vessel coronary artery disease presenting for clinically driven elective PCI were included. Exposures: Fractional flow reserve (FFR), instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR), hyperemic stenosis resistance (HSR), and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were measured invasively. Immediately after this, patients maximally exercised on a catheter-table-mounted supine ergometer until they developed rate-limiting angina. Subsequent PCI was performed in most patients, followed by repeat maximal supine exercise testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations between FFR, iFR, HSR, CFR, and angina-limited exercise time were assessed using linear regression and Pearson correlation coefficients. Additionally, the associations between the post-PCI increment in exercise time and baseline FFR, iFR, HSR, and CFR were assessed. Results: Twenty-three patients (21 [91.3%] of whom were male; mean [SD] age, 60.6 [8.1] years) completed the pre-PCI component of the study protocol. Mean (SD) stenosis diameter was 74.6% (10.4%). Median (interquartile range [IQR]) values were 0.54 (0.44-0.72) for FFR, 0.53 (0.38-0.83) for iFR, 1.67 (0.84-3.16) for HSR, and 1.35 (1.11-1.63) for CFR. Mean (SD) angina-limited exercise time was 144 (77) seconds. Anatomical stenosis characteristics were not significantly associated with angina-limited exercise time. Conversely, FFR (R2 = 0.27; P = .01), iFR (R2 = 0.46; P < .001), HSR (R2 = 0.39; P < .01), and CFR (R2 = 0.16; P < .05) were all associated with angina-limited exercise time. Twenty-one patients (19 [90.5%] of whom were male; mean [SD] age, 60.1 [8.2] years) competed the full protocol of PCI, post-PCI physiological assessment, and post-PCI maximal exercise. After PCI, the median (IQR) FFR rose to 0.91 (0.85-0.96), median (IQR) iFR to 0.98 (0.94-0.99), and median (IQR) CFR to 2.73 (2.50-3.12), while the median (IQR) HSR fell to 0.16 (0.06-0.37) (P < .001 for all). The post-PCI increment in exercise time was most significantly associated with baseline iFR (R2 = 0.26; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In a selected group of patients with severe, single-vessel stable angina, FFR, iFR, HSR, and CFR were all modestly correlated with angina-limited exercise time to varying degrees. Notwithstanding the limited sample size, no clear association was demonstrated between anatomical stenosis severity and angina-limited exercise time.

12.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(5): e007494, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) disagree on the hemodynamic significance of a coronary lesion in ≈20% of cases. It is unknown whether the physiological pattern of disease is an influencing factor for this. This study assessed whether the physiological pattern of coronary artery disease influences discordance between FFR and iFR measurement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three-hundred and sixty intermediate coronary lesions (345 patients; mean age, 64.4±10.3 years; 76% men) with combined FFR, iFR, and iFR pressure-wire pullback were included for analysis from an international multicenter registry. Cut points for hemodynamic significance were FFR ≤0.80 and iFR ≤0.89, respectively. Lesions were classified into FFR+/iFR+ (n=154; 42.7%), FFR-/iFR+ (n=38; 10.6%), FFR+/iFR- (n=41; 11.4%), and FFR-/iFR- (n=127; 35.3%) groups. The physiological pattern of disease was classified according to the iFR pullback recordings as predominantly physiologically focal (n=171; 47.5%) or predominantly physiologically diffuse (n=189; 52.5%). Median FFR and iFR were 0.80 (interquartile range, 0.75-0.85) and 0.89 (interquartile range, 0.86-0.92), respectively. FFR disagreed with iFR in 22% (79 of 360). The physiological pattern of disease was the only influencing factor relating to FFR/iFR discordance: predominantly physiologically focal was significantly associated with FFR+/iFR- (58.5% [24 of 41]), and predominantly physiologically diffuse was significantly associated with FFR-/iFR+ (81.6% [31 of 38]; P<0.001 for pattern of disease between FFR+/iFR- and FFR-/iFR+ groups). CONCLUSIONS: The physiological pattern of coronary artery disease was an important influencing factor for FFR/iFR discordance.

13.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(9): 1610-1619, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115945

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New pacing technologies offer a greater choice of left ventricular pacing sites and greater personalization of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The effects on cardiac function of novel pacing configurations are often compared using multi-beat averages of acute hemodynamic measurements. In this analysis of the iSpot trial, we explore whether this is sufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The iSpot trial was an international, prospective, acute hemodynamic trial that assessed seven CRT configurations: standard CRT, MultiSpot (posterolateral vein), and MultiVein (anterior and posterior vein) pacing. Invasive and noninvasive blood pressure, and left ventricular (LV) dP/dtmax were recorded. Eight beats were recorded before and after an alternation from AAI to the tested pacing configuration and vice-versa. Eight alternations were performed for each configuration at each of the five atrioventricular delays. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients underwent the full protocol of eight alternations. Only four (16%) patients had a statistically significant >3 mm Hg improvement over conventional CRT configuration (posterolateral vein, distal electrode). However, if only one alternation was analyzed (standard multi-beat averaging protocol), 15 (60%) patients falsely appeared to have a superior nonconventional configuration. Responses to pacing were significantly correlated between the different hemodynamic measures: invasive systolic blood pressure (SBP) vs noninvasive SBP r = 0.82 (P < .001); invasive SBP vs LV dP/dt r = 0.57, r2 = 0.32 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Current standard multibeat acquisition protocols are unfortunately unable to prevent false impressions of optimality arising in individual patients. Personalization processes need to include distinct repeated transitions to the tested pacing configuration in addition to averaging multiple beats. The need is not only during research stages but also during clinical implementation.

14.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(5): 576-586, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper reports the development, validation, and public availability of a new neural network-based system which attempts to identify the manufacturer and even the model group of a pacemaker or defibrillator from a chest radiograph. BACKGROUND: Medical staff often need to determine the model of a pacemaker or defibrillator (cardiac rhythm device) quickly and accurately. Current approaches involve comparing a device's radiographic appearance with a manual flow chart. METHODS: In this study, radiographic images of 1,676 devices, comprising 45 models from 5 manufacturers were extracted. A convolutional neural network was developed to classify the images, using a training set of 1,451 images. The testing set contained an additional 225 images consisting of 5 examples of each model. The network's ability to identify the manufacturer of a device was compared with that of cardiologists, using a published flowchart. RESULTS: The neural network was 99.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 97.5% to 100.0%) accurate in identifying the manufacturer of a device from a radiograph and 96.4% (95% CI: 93.1% to 98.5%) accurate in identifying the model group. Among 5 cardiologists who used the flowchart, median identification of manufacturer accuracy was 72.0% (range 62.2% to 88.9%), and model group identification was not possible. The network's ability to identify the manufacturer of the devices was significantly superior to that of all the cardiologists (p < 0.0001 compared with the median human identification; p < 0.0001 compared with the best human identification). CONCLUSIONS: A neural network can accurately identify the manufacturer and even model group of a cardiac rhythm device from a radiograph and exceeds human performance. This system may speed up the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiac rhythm devices, and it is publicly accessible online.

15.
Open Heart ; 6(1): e000971, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997135

RESUMO

Aims: To determine the agreement between sensor-tipped microcatheter (MC) and pressure wire (PW)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods and results: Studies comparing FFR obtained from MC (FFRMC, Navvus Microcatheter System, ACIST Medical Systems, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, USA) versus standard PW (FFRPW) were identified, and a meta-analysis of numerical and categorical agreement was performed. The relative levels of drift and device failure of MC and PW systems from each study were assessed. Six studies with 440 lesions (413 patients) were included. The mean overall bias between FFRMC and FFRPW was -0.029 (FFRMC lower). Bias and variance were greater for lesions with lower FFRPW (p<0.001). Using a cut-off of 0.80, 18 % of lesions were reclassified by FFRMC versus FFRPW (with 15 % being false positives). The difference in reported drift between FFRPW and FFRMC was small. Device failure was more common with MC than PW (7.1% vs 2%). Conclusion: FFRMC systematically overestimates lesion severity, with increased bias in more severe lesions. Using FFRMC changes revascularisation guidance in approximately one out of every five cases. PW drift was similar between systems. Device failure was higher with MC.

16.
Physiol Meas ; 40(4): 04NT01, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy using non-invasive haemodynamic parameters produces reliable optima when performed at high atrial paced heart rates. Here we investigate whether this is a result of increased heart rate or atrial pacing itself. APPROACH: Forty-three patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy underwent haemodynamic optimization of atrioventricular (AV) delay using non-invasive beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure in three states: rest (atrial-sensing, 66 ± 11 bpm), slow atrial pacing (73 ± 12 bpm), and fast atrial pacing (94 ± 10 bpm). A 20-patient subset underwent a fourth optimization, during exercise (80 ± 11 bpm). MAIN RESULTS: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, quantifying information content mean ±SE) was 0.20 ± 0.02 for resting sensed optimization, 0.45 ± 0.03 for slow atrial pacing (p  < 0.0001 versus rest-sensed), and 0.52 ± 0.03 for fast atrial pacing (p  = 0.12 versus slow-paced). 78% of the increase in ICC, from sinus rhythm to fast atrial pacing, is achieved by simply atrially pacing just above sinus rate. Atrial pacing increased signal (blood pressure difference between best and worst AV delay) from 6.5 ± 0.6 mmHg at rest to 13.3 ± 1.1 mmHg during slow atrial pacing (p  < 0.0001) and 17.2 ± 1.3 mmHg during fast atrial pacing (p  = 0.003 versus slow atrial pacing). Atrial pacing reduced noise (average SD of systolic blood pressure measurements) from 4.9 ± 0.4 mmHg at rest to 4.1 ± 0.3 mmHg during slow atrial pacing (p  = 0.28). At faster atrial pacing the noise was 4.6 ± 0.3 mmHg (p  = 0.69 versus slow-paced, p  = 0.90 versus rest-sensed). In the exercise subgroup ICC was 0.14 ± 0.02 (p  = 0.97 versus rest-sensed). SIGNIFICANCE: Atrial pacing, rather than the increase in heart rate, contributes to ~80% of the observed information content improvement from sinus rhythm to fast atrial pacing. This is predominantly through increase in measured signal.

17.
Europace ; 21(9): 1422-1431, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820561

RESUMO

AIMS: Abnormal rate adaptation of the action potential is proarrhythmic but is difficult to measure with current electro-anatomical mapping techniques. We developed a method to rapidly quantify spatial discordance in whole heart activation in response to rate cycle length changes. We test the hypothesis that patients with underlying channelopathies or history of aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD) have a reduced capacity to maintain uniform activation following exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Electrocardiographical imaging (ECGI) reconstructs >1200 electrograms (EGMs) over the ventricles from a single beat, providing epicardial whole heart activation maps. Thirty-one individuals [11 SCD survivors; 10 Brugada syndrome (BrS) without SCD; and 10 controls] with structurally normal hearts underwent ECGI vest recordings following exercise treadmill. For each patient, we calculated the relative change in EGM local activation times (LATs) between a baseline and post-exertion phase using custom written software. A ventricular conduction stability (V-CoS) score calculated to indicate the percentage of ventricle that showed no significant change in relative LAT (<10 ms). A lower score reflected greater conduction heterogeneity. Mean variability (standard deviation) of V-CoS score over 10 consecutive beats was small (0.9 ± 0.5%), with good inter-operator reproducibility of V-CoS scores. Sudden cardiac death survivors, compared to BrS and controls, had the lowest V-CoS scores post-exertion (P = 0.011) but were no different at baseline (P = 0.50). CONCLUSION: We present a method to rapidly quantify changes in global activation which provides a measure of conduction heterogeneity and proof of concept by demonstrating SCD survivors have a reduced capacity to maintain uniform activation following exercise.

19.
Open Heart ; 25(6): 01-09, Mar. 2019. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1023241

RESUMO

AbstrAct Aims To determine the agreement between sensor tipped microcatheter (MC) and pressure wire (PW)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods and results Studies comparing FFR obtained from MC (FFRMC, Nav vus Microcatheter System, ACIST Medical Systems, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, USA) versus standard PW (FFRPW) were identified, and a meta-analysis of numerical and categorical agreement was performed. The relative levels of drift and device failure of MC and PW systems from each study were assessed. Six studies with 440 lesions (413 patients) were included. The mean overall bias between FFRMC and FFRPW was −0.029 (FFRMC lower). Bias and variance were greater for lesions with lower FFRPW (p<0.001). Using a cut-off of 0.80, 18 % of lesions were reclassified by FFRMC versus FFRPW (with 15 % being false positives). The difference in reported drift between FFRPW and FFRMC was small. Device failure was more common with MC than PW (7.1% vs 2%). Conclusion FFRMC systematically overestimates lesion severity, with increased bias in more severe lesions. Using FFRMC changes revascularisation guidance in approximately one out of every five cases. PW drift was similar between systems. Device failure was higher with MC. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Angiografia Coronária , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea
20.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 5(4): 321-333, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715300

RESUMO

AIMS: Right ventricular pacing for left ventricular outflow tract gradient reduction in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy remains controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis for echocardiographic and functional outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-four studies comprising 1135 patients met eligibility criteria. In the four blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs), pacing reduced gradient by 35% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.2-46.9, P < 0.0001], but there was only a trend towards improved New York Heart Association (NYHA) class [odds ratio (OR) 1.82, CI 0.96-3.44; P = 0.066]. The unblinded observational studies reported a 54.3% (CI 44.1-64.6, P < 0.0001) reduction in gradient, which was a 18.6% greater reduction than the RCTs (P = 0.0351 for difference between study designs). Observational studies reported an effect on unblinded NYHA class at an OR of 8.39 (CI 4.39-16.04, P < 0.0001), 450% larger than the OR in RCTs (P = 0.0042 for difference between study designs). Across all studies, the gradient progressively decreased at longer follow durations, by 5.2% per month (CI 2.5-7.9, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Right ventricular pacing reduces gradient in blinded RCTs. There is a non-significant trend to reduction in NYHA class. The bias in assessment of NYHA class in observational studies appears to be more than twice as large as any genuine treatment effect.

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