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Genet Med ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473204


PURPOSE: Genetic testing is an important diagnostic tool in pediatric genetics clinics, yet many patients face barriers to testing. We describe the outcomes of prior authorization requests (PARs) for genetic tests, one indicator of patient access to clinically recommended testing, in pediatric genetics clinics. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed PARs for genetic tests (n = 4,535) recommended for patients <18 years of age (n = 2,798) by pediatric medical geneticists at two children's hospitals in Texas, 2017-2018. We described PAR outcomes, accompanying diagnostic codes, and diagnostic yield. RESULTS: The majority (79.9%) of PARs received a favorable outcome. PARs submitted to public payers were more likely to receive a favorable outcome compared with private payers (85.5% vs. 70.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). No diagnostic codes were associated with higher likelihood of PAR approval for exome sequencing. Among the 2,685 tests approved and completed, 522 (19.4%) resulted in a diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Though there was a high PAR approval rate, our findings suggest that insurance coverage remains one barrier to genetic testing. When completed, genetic testing had a high yield in our sample. Further evidence of clinical utility and development of clinical practice guidelines may inform payer medical policy development and improve access to testing in the future.

Am J Med Genet A ; 185(3): 916-922, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369125


ALX4 is a homeobox gene expressed in the mesenchyme of developing bone and is known to play an important role in the regulation of osteogenesis. Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) is a phenotype of delayed intramembranous ossification of calvarial bones due to variants of ALX4. The contrasting phenotype of premature ossification of sutures is observed with heterozygous loss-of-function variants of TWIST1, which is an important regulator of osteoblast differentiation. Here, we describe an individual with a large cranium defect, with dominant transmission from the mother, both carrying disease causing heterozygous variants in ALX4 and TWIST1. The distinct phenotype of absent superior and posterior calvarium in the child and his mother was in sharp contrast to the other affected maternal relatives with a recognizable ALX4-related EPF phenotype. This report demonstrates comorbid disorders of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and EPF in a mother and her child, resulting in severe skull defects reminiscent of calvarial abnormalities observed with bilallelic ALX4 variants. To our knowledge this is the first instance of ALX4 and TWIST1 variants acting synergistically to cause a unique phenotype influencing skull ossification.

Am J Med Genet A ; 182(9): 2077-2084, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656927


Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS, MIM 610883), or duplication of chromosome 17p11.2, is a clinically recognizable condition characterized by infantile hypotonia, failure to thrive, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and congenital anomalies. Short stature, classified as greater than two standard deviations below the mean, has not previously been considered a major feature of PTLS. Retrospective chart review on a cohort of 37 individuals with PTLS was performed to investigate the etiology of short stature. Relevant data included anthropometric measurements, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), growth hormone (GH) stimulation testing, blood glucose levels, brain MRI, and bone age. Approximately 25% (9/37) of individuals with PTLS had short stature. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was definitively identified in two individuals. These two PTLS patients with growth hormone deficiency, as well as three others with short stature and no documented GHD, received growth hormone and obtained improvement in linear growth. One individual was identified to have pituitary abnormalities on MRI and had complications of hypoglycemia due to unrecognized GHD. Individuals with PTLS can benefit from undergoing evaluation for GHD should they present with short stature or hypoglycemia. Early identification of GHD could facilitate potential therapeutic benefit for individuals with PTLS, including linear growth, musculoskeletal, and in cases of hypoglycemia, potentially cognitive development as well.

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev ; 16(1): 186-193, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371037


Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency causes elevated androgen levels, which can lead to virilization of female external genitalia. Prenatal dexamethasone treatment has been shown to be effective in preventing virilization of external genitalia when started prior to 7-9 weeks of gestation in females with classic CAH. However, CAH cannot be diagnosed prenatally until the end of the first trimester. Treating pregnant women with a fetus at risk of developing classic CAH exposes a significant proportion of fetuses unnecessarily, because only 1 in 8 would benefit from treatment. Consequently, prenatal dexamethasone treatment has been met with much controversy due to the potential adverse outcomes when exposed to high-dose steroids in utero. Here, we review the short- and long-term outcomes for fetuses and pregnant women exposed to dexamethasone treatment, the ethical considerations that must be taken into account, and current practice recommendations.

Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Virilismo