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1.
Planta Med ; 86(11): 782-789, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512613

RESUMO

Ten lignans (1:  - 10: ) were isolated from the hexane-ethyl acetate extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaves. Three of them, cubebin dimethyl ether (3: ), urinatetralin (4: ), and lintetralin (7: ) are described for the first time in this species, while phyllanthin (1: ), niranthin (2: ), 5-demethoxyniranthin (5: ), isolintetralin (6: ), hypophyllanthin (8: ), nirtetralin (9: ), and phyltetralin (10: ) have been already reported from P. amarus. Among the lignans tested against Trypanosoma cruzi intracellular amastigotes, 2: was the most active with an EC50 of 35.28 µM. Lignans 2, 5, 7: , and 9: showed inhibitory effects against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes with EC50 of 56.34, 51.86, 23.57, and 43.27 µM, respectively. During in vitro infection assays, 5: reduced amastigotes by 91% at 103.68 µM concentration, whereas 7: and 9: reduced amastigotes by approximately 84% at 47.5 and 86.04 µM, respectively. Lignans 5, 7: , and 9: were more potent in intracellular amastigotes with EC50 of 2.76, 8.30, and 15.83 µM, respectively, than in promastigotes. CC50 for all samples was > 100 µg/mL, thus revealing low cytotoxicity against macrophages, and selectivity against the parasite. L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with compounds 2: and 9: showed decreased respiratory control of 38% and 25%, respectively, suggesting a change in mitochondrial membrane potential and lower ATP production.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania mexicana , Lignanas , Phyllanthus , Extratos Vegetais
2.
RSC Med Chem ; 11(11): 1275-1284, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095840

RESUMO

The cysteine protease cruzipain is considered to be a validated target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of Chagas disease. Hence, peptidomimetic cruzipain inhibitors having a reactive group (known as warhead) are subject to continuous studies to discover novel antichagasic compounds. Here, we evaluated how different warheads for a set of structurally similar related compounds could inhibit the activity of cruzipain and, ultimately, their trypanocidal effect. We first investigated in silico the intrinsic reactivity of these compounds by applying the Fukui index to correlate it with the enzymatic affinity. Then, we evaluated their potency against T. cruzi (Y and Tulahuen strains), which revealed the reversible cruzain inhibitor Neq0656 as a better trypanocidal agent (ECY.strain 50 = 0.1 µM; SI = 58.4) than the current drug benznidazole (ECY.strain 50 = 5.1 µM; SI > 19.6). We also measured the half-life time by HPLC analysis of three lead compounds in the presence of glutathione and cysteine to experimentally assess their intrinsic reactivity. Results clearly illustrated the reactivity trend for the warheads (azanitrile > aldehyde > nitrile), where the aldehyde displayed an intermediate intrinsic reactivity. Therefore, the aldehyde bearing peptidomimetic compounds should be subject for in-depth evaluation in the drug discovery process.

3.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(22): 115083, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561938

RESUMO

The structure-activity relationship for nitrile-based cruzain inhibitors incorporating a P2 amide replacement based on trifluoroethylamine was explored by deconstruction of a published series of inhibitors. It was demonstrated that the P3 biphenyl substituent present in the published inhibitor structures could be truncated to phenyl with only a small loss of affinity. The effects of inverting the configuration of the P2 amide replacement and linking a benzyl substituent at P1 were observed to be strongly nonadditive. We show that plotting affinity against molecular size provides a means to visualize both the molecular size efficiency of structural transformations and the nonadditivity in the structure-activity relationship. We also show how the relationship between affinity and lipophilicity, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with an immobilized artificial membrane stationary phase, may be used to normalize affinity with respect to lipophilicity.


Assuntos
Amidas/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/síntese química , Proteínas de Protozoários/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Protozoários/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 4(2)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108888

RESUMO

Cell-based screening has become the major compound interrogation strategy in Chagas disease drug discovery. Several different cell lines have been deployed as host cells in screening assays. However, host cell characteristics and host-parasite interactions may play an important role when assessing anti-T. cruzi compound activity, ultimately impacting on hit discovery. To verify this hypothesis, four distinct mammalian cell lines (U2OS, THP-1, Vero and L6) were used as T. cruzi host cells in High Content Screening assays. Rates of infection varied greatly between different host cells. Susceptibility to benznidazole also varied, depending on the host cell and parasite strain. A library of 1,280 compounds was screened against the four different cell lines infected with T. cruzi, resulting in the selection of a total of 82 distinct compounds as hits. From these, only two hits were common to all four cell lines assays (2.4%) and 51 were exclusively selected from a single assay (62.2%). Infected U2OS cells were the most sensitive assay, as 55 compounds in total were identified as hits; infected THP-1 yielded the lowest hit rates, with only 16 hit compounds. Of the selected hits, compound FPL64176 presented selective anti-T. cruzi activity and could serve as a starting point for the discovery of new anti-chagasic drugs.

5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 163: 649-659, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562700

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is primarily transmitted to humans by the feces of infected Triatominae insects during their blood meal. The disease affects 6-8 million people, mostly in Latin America countries, and kills more people in the region each year than any other parasite-born disease, including malaria. Moreover, patient numbers are currently increasing in non-endemic, developed countries, such as Australia, Japan, Canada, and the United States. The treatment is limited to one drug, benznidazole, which is only effective in the acute phase of the disease and is very toxic. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new, safer, and effective drugs against the chronic phase of Chagas disease. Using a QSAR-based virtual screening followed by in vitro experimental evaluation, we report herein the identification of novel potent and selective hits against T. cruzi intracellular stage. We developed and validated binary QSAR models for prediction of anti-trypanosomal activity and cytotoxicity against mammalian cells using the best practices for QSAR modeling. These models were then used for virtual screening of a commercial database, leading to the identification of 39 virtual hits. Further in vitro assays showed that seven compounds were potent against intracellular T. cruzi at submicromolar concentrations (EC50 < 1 µM) and were very selective (SI > 30). Furthermore, other six compounds were also inside the hit criteria for Chagas disease, which presented activity at low micromolar concentrations (EC50 < 10 µM) against intracellular T. cruzi and were also selective (SI > 15). Moreover, we performed a multi-parameter analysis for the comparison of tested compounds regarding their balance between potency, selectivity, and predicted ADMET properties. In the next studies, the most promising compounds will be submitted to additional in vitro and in vivo assays in acute model of Chagas disease, and can be further optimized for the development of new promising drug candidates against this important yet neglected disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Tripanossomicidas/química
6.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 13(14): 1731-1751, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074435

RESUMO

Aim: Polyether pores were designed and tetracycline-loaded mesoporous silica materials, with their surface decorated by silver ions, were prepared, with the aim of reaching high antibacterial activity. Meanwhile, mammalian cell cytotoxicity and hemolytic effects were not observed using material concentrations tenfold the ones optimized for the bactericidal tests. Methods: Pore size was tuned by changing the polyether content and the surface was covalently decorated with silver thiolate groups. Results: We showed that the biological activity was enhanced by modulating silver ions and tetracycline releases by tuning silver thiolate group concentration on the silica surface and/or by modulating the pH of the environment. Conclusion: The combined use of tetracycline and silver ions with the mesoporous drug-delivery carrier was a very effective strategy against susceptible and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4857, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559670

RESUMO

Some 1,3-diarylureas and 1-((1,4-trans)-4-aryloxycyclohexyl)-3-arylureas (cHAUs) activate heme-regulated kinase causing protein synthesis inhibition via phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in mammalian cancer cells. To evaluate if these agents have potential to inhibit trypanosome multiplication by also affecting the phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha subunit (eIF2α), we tested 25 analogs of 1,3-diarylureas and cHAUs against Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. One of them (I-17) presented selectivity close to 10-fold against the insect replicative forms and also inhibited the multiplication of T. cruzi inside mammalian cells with an EC50 of 1-3 µM and a selectivity of 17-fold. I-17 also prevented replication of African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream and procyclic forms) at similar doses. It caused changes in the T. cruzi morphology, arrested parasite cell cycle in G1 phase, and promoted phosphorylation of eIF2α with a robust decrease in ribosome association with mRNA. The activity against T. brucei also implicates eIF2α phosphorylation, as replacement of WT-eIF2α with a non-phosphorylatable eIF2α, or knocking down eIF2 protein kinase-3 by RNAi increased resistance to I-17. Therefore, we demonstrate that eIF2α phosphorylation can be engaged to develop trypanosome-static agents in general, and particularly by interfering with activity of eIF2 kinases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Ureia/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Chagas/microbiologia , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme/metabolismo , Humanos , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioblastos/parasitologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ureia/análogos & derivados , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 144: 29-40, 2018 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247858

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected chronic tropical infection endemic in Latin America. New and effective treatments are urgently needed because the two available drugs - benznidazole (BZD) and nifurtimox (NFX) - have limited curative power in the chronic phase of the disease. We have previously reported the design and synthesis of N'-[(5-nitrofuran-2-yl) methylene] substituted hydrazides that showed high trypanocidal activity against axenic epimastigote forms of three T. cruzi strains. Here we show that these compounds are also active against a BZD- and NFX-resistant strain. Herein, multivariate approaches (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were applied to a set of thirty-six formerly characterized compounds. Based on the findings from exploratory data analysis, novel compounds were designed and synthesized. These compounds showed two-to three-fold higher trypanocidal activity against epimastigote forms than the previous set and were 25-30-fold more active than BZD. Their activity was also evaluated against intracellular amastigotes by high content screening (HCS). The most active compounds (BSF-38 to BSF-40) showed a selective index (SI') greater than 200, in contrast to the SI' values of reference drugs (NFX, 16.45; BZD, > 3), and a 70-fold greater activity than BZD. These findings indicate that nitrofuran compounds designed based on the activity against epimastigote forms show promising trypanocidal activity against intracellular amastigotes, which correspond to the predominant parasite stage in the chronic phase of Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Nitrofuranos/química , Nitrofuranos/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Eur J Med Chem, v. 144, p. 29-40, jan. 2018
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-2432

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected chronic tropical infection endemic in Latin America. New and effective treatments are urgently needed because the two available drugs - benznidazole (BZD) and nifurtimox (NFX) - have limited curative power in the chronic phase of the disease. We have previously reported the design and synthesis of N'-[(5-nitrofuran-2-yl) methylene] substituted hydrazides that showed high trypanocidal activity against axenic epimastigote forms of three T cruzi strains. Here we show that these compounds are also active against a BZD- and NFX-resistant strain. Herein, multivariate approaches (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were applied to a set of thirty-six formerly characterized compounds. Based on the findings from exploratory data analysis, novel compounds were designed and synthesized. These compounds showed two-to three-fold higher trypanocidal activity against epimastigote forms than the previous set and were 25-30-fold more active than BZD. Their activity was also evaluated against intracellular amastigotes by high content screening (HCS). The most active compounds (BSF-38 to BSF-40) showed a selective index (SI') greater than 200, in contrast to the SI' values of reference drugs (NFX, 16.45; BZD, > 3), and a 70-fold greater activity than BZD. These findings indicate that nitrofuran compounds designed based on the activity against epimastigote forms show promising trypanocidal activity against intracellular amastigotes, which correspond to the predominant parasite stage in the chronic phase of Chagas disease.

10.
Eur J Med Chem, v. 146, p. 423-434, fev. 2018
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-2419

RESUMO

Basing on a library of thiadiazole derivatives showing anti-trypanosomatidic activity, we have considered the thiadiazoles opened forms and reaction intermediates, thiosemicarbazones, as compounds of interest for phenotypic screening against Trypanosoma brucei (Tb), intracellular amastigote form of Leishmania infantum (Li) and Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc). Similar compounds have already shown interesting activity against the same organisms. The compounds were particularly effective against T. brucei and T. cruzi. Among the 28 synthesized compounds, the best one was (E)-2-(4-((3.4-dichlorobenzyl)oxy)benzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (A14) yielding a comparable anti-parasitic activity against the three parasitic species (TbEC50=231 mu M, LiEC50 = 6.14 mu M, TcEC50 = 1.31 mu M) and a Selectivity Index higher than 10 with respect to human macrophages, therefore showing a pan-anti-trypanosomatidic activity. (E)-2-((3'.4'-dimethoxy-[1.1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyle ne) hydrazinecarbothioamide (A12) and (E)-2-(4-((3.4-dichlorobenzyl)oxy)benzylidene)hydrazine carbothioamide (A14) were able to potentiate the anti parasitic activity of methotrexate (MTX) when evaluated in combination against T. brucei, yielding a 6 fold and 4-fold respectively Dose Reduction Index for MTX. The toxicity profile against four human cell lines and a panel of in vitro early-toxicity assays (comprising hERG, Aurora B, five cytochrome P450 isoforms and mitochondrial toxicity) demonstrated the low toxicity for the thosemicarbazones class in comparison with known drugs. The results confirmed thiosemicarbazones as a suitable chemical scaffold with potential for the development of properly decorated new anti-parasitic drugs.

11.
Sci Rep, v. 8, 4857, mar. 2018
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-2402

RESUMO

Some 1,3-diarylureas and 1-((1,4-trans)-4-aryloxycyclohexyl)-3-arylureas (cHAUs) activate heme-regulated kinase causing protein synthesis inhibition via phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in mammalian cancer cells. To evaluate if these agents have potential to inhibit trypanosome multiplication by also affecting the phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha subunit (eIF2 alpha), we tested 25 analogs of 1,3-diarylureas and cHAUs against Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. One of them (I-17) presented selectivity close to 10-fold against the insect replicative forms and also inhibited the multiplication of T. cruzi inside mammalian cells with an EC50 of 1-3 mu M and a selectivity of 17-fold. I-17 also prevented replication of African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream and procyclic forms) at similar doses. It caused changes in the T. cruzi morphology, arrested parasite cell cycle in G1 phase, and promoted phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha with a robust decrease in ribosome association with mRNA. The activity against T. brucei also implicates eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, as replacement of WT-eIF2 alpha with a non-phosphorylatable eIF2 alpha, or knocking down eIF2 protein kinase-3 by RNAi increased resistance to I-17. Therefore, we demonstrate that eIF2 alpha phosphorylation can be engaged to develop trypanosome-static agents in general, and particularly by interfering with activity of eIF2 kinases.

12.
Eur. J. Med. Chem. ; 144: p. 29-40, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib14961

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected chronic tropical infection endemic in Latin America. New and effective treatments are urgently needed because the two available drugs - benznidazole (BZD) and nifurtimox (NFX) - have limited curative power in the chronic phase of the disease. We have previously reported the design and synthesis of N'-[(5-nitrofuran-2-yl) methylene] substituted hydrazides that showed high trypanocidal activity against axenic epimastigote forms of three T cruzi strains. Here we show that these compounds are also active against a BZD- and NFX-resistant strain. Herein, multivariate approaches (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were applied to a set of thirty-six formerly characterized compounds. Based on the findings from exploratory data analysis, novel compounds were designed and synthesized. These compounds showed two-to three-fold higher trypanocidal activity against epimastigote forms than the previous set and were 25-30-fold more active than BZD. Their activity was also evaluated against intracellular amastigotes by high content screening (HCS). The most active compounds (BSF-38 to BSF-40) showed a selective index (SI') greater than 200, in contrast to the SI' values of reference drugs (NFX, 16.45; BZD, > 3), and a 70-fold greater activity than BZD. These findings indicate that nitrofuran compounds designed based on the activity against epimastigote forms show promising trypanocidal activity against intracellular amastigotes, which correspond to the predominant parasite stage in the chronic phase of Chagas disease.

13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 146: p. 423-434, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib14932

RESUMO

Basing on a library of thiadiazole derivatives showing anti-trypanosomatidic activity, we have considered the thiadiazoles opened forms and reaction intermediates, thiosemicarbazones, as compounds of interest for phenotypic screening against Trypanosoma brucei (Tb), intracellular amastigote form of Leishmania infantum (Li) and Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc). Similar compounds have already shown interesting activity against the same organisms. The compounds were particularly effective against T. brucei and T. cruzi. Among the 28 synthesized compounds, the best one was (E)-2-(4-((3.4-dichlorobenzyl)oxy)benzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (A14) yielding a comparable anti-parasitic activity against the three parasitic species (TbEC50=231 mu M, LiEC50 = 6.14 mu M, TcEC50 = 1.31 mu M) and a Selectivity Index higher than 10 with respect to human macrophages, therefore showing a pan-anti-trypanosomatidic activity. (E)-2-((3'.4'-dimethoxy-[1.1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyle ne) hydrazinecarbothioamide (A12) and (E)-2-(4-((3.4-dichlorobenzyl)oxy)benzylidene)hydrazine carbothioamide (A14) were able to potentiate the anti parasitic activity of methotrexate (MTX) when evaluated in combination against T. brucei, yielding a 6 fold and 4-fold respectively Dose Reduction Index for MTX. The toxicity profile against four human cell lines and a panel of in vitro early-toxicity assays (comprising hERG, Aurora B, five cytochrome P450 isoforms and mitochondrial toxicity) demonstrated the low toxicity for the thosemicarbazones class in comparison with known drugs. The results confirmed thiosemicarbazones as a suitable chemical scaffold with potential for the development of properly decorated new anti-parasitic drugs.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8: 4857, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib14893

RESUMO

Some 1,3-diarylureas and 1-((1,4-trans)-4-aryloxycyclohexyl)-3-arylureas (cHAUs) activate heme-regulated kinase causing protein synthesis inhibition via phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in mammalian cancer cells. To evaluate if these agents have potential to inhibit trypanosome multiplication by also affecting the phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha subunit (eIF2 alpha), we tested 25 analogs of 1,3-diarylureas and cHAUs against Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. One of them (I-17) presented selectivity close to 10-fold against the insect replicative forms and also inhibited the multiplication of T. cruzi inside mammalian cells with an EC50 of 1-3 mu M and a selectivity of 17-fold. I-17 also prevented replication of African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream and procyclic forms) at similar doses. It caused changes in the T. cruzi morphology, arrested parasite cell cycle in G1 phase, and promoted phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha with a robust decrease in ribosome association with mRNA. The activity against T. brucei also implicates eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, as replacement of WT-eIF2 alpha with a non-phosphorylatable eIF2 alpha, or knocking down eIF2 protein kinase-3 by RNAi increased resistance to I-17. Therefore, we demonstrate that eIF2 alpha phosphorylation can be engaged to develop trypanosome-static agents in general, and particularly by interfering with activity of eIF2 kinases.

15.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 27(22): 5031-5035, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054358

RESUMO

The effects on potency of cruzain inhibition of replacing a nitrile group with alternative warheads were explored. The oxime was almost an order of magnitude more potent than the corresponding nitrile and has the potential to provide access to the prime side of the catalytic site. Dipeptide aldehydes and azadipeptide nitriles were found to be two orders of magnitude more potent cruzain inhibitors than the corresponding dipeptide nitriles although potency differences were modulated by substitution at P1 and P3. Replacement of the α methylene of a dipeptide aldehyde with cyclopropane led to a loss of potency of almost three orders of magnitude. The vinyl esters and amides that were characterized as reversible inhibitors were less potent than the corresponding nitrile by between one and two orders of magnitude.


Assuntos
Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/química , Domínio Catalítico , Catepsina L/química , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Cinética , Nitrilas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 126: 1129-1135, 2017 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28064141

RESUMO

Chalcones display a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. Herein, a series of 2'-hydroxy methoxylated chalcones was synthesized and evaluated towards Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania infantum. Among the synthesized library, compounds 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 were the most potent and selective anti-T. brucei compounds (EC50 = 1.3-4.2 µM, selectivity index >10-fold). Compound 4 showed the best early-tox and antiparasitic profile. The pharmacokinetic studies of compound 4 in BALB/c mice using hydroxypropil-ß-cyclodextrins formulation showed a 7.5 times increase in oral bioavailability.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Chalconas/química , Chalconas/farmacologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacocinética , Antiparasitários/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chalconas/farmacocinética , Chalconas/toxicidade , Ciclodextrinas/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Camundongos , Solubilidade , Trypanosomatina/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Eur. J. Med. Chem. ; 128: 202-212, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib15399

RESUMO

A library of 16 4-substituted 2-(1H-pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ols 17-32 has been synthesized for use in biological testing against Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The 4-substituted 2-(1H-pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ols 17-32 were subjected to biological testing to evaluate their efficacy against intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain) amastigotes infecting U2OS human cells, with benznidazole as a reference compound. The assay was performed in duplicate (two independent experiments) and submitted to High Content Analysis (HCA) for determination of trypanocidal activity. Three of the tested compounds presented relatively high trypanocidal activity (19, 22 and 29), however severe host cell toxicity was observed concomitantly. Chemical optimization of the highly active compounds and the synthesis of more compounds for biological testing against Trypanosoma cruzi will be required to improve selectivity and so that a structure-activity relationship can be generated to provide a more insightful analysis of both chemical and biological aspects.

18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 109: 173-86, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26774924

RESUMO

In our search for new protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors with improved antiparasitic activities, we modified our previously developed 3-arylthiophene series of inhibitors by replacing the thioisopropyl group by different substituted imidazolylmethanamino moieties. Twenty four new derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against human and parasite farnesyltransferases, and their anti-parasitic activity was determined against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania donovani. Introduction of a N-p-substituted-benzylimidazole led to significantly increase the inhibition of parasite proliferation in the submicromolar range. The structure of the best inhibitors was parasite dependent. Three compounds possess IC50 values at the same range as the reference miltefosine against L. donovani proliferation and other new derivatives display high level of anti-trypanosomal activity against T. cruzi, higher or in the same order of magnitude as the reference compounds benznidazole and nifurtimox.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Leishmania donovani/enzimologia , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimologia , Trypanosoma/enzimologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/química , Linhagem Celular , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/enzimologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzimologia , Tripanossomíase/tratamento farmacológico
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