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1.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 3064-3077, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032902

RESUMO

Myofibroblasts are a population of highly contractile fibroblasts that express and require the activity of the transcription factor Snail1. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) correlate with low survival of cancer patients when present in the stroma of primary tumors. Remarkably, the presence of myofibroblastic CAFs (which express Snail1) creates mechanical properties in the tumor microenvironment that support metastasis. However, therapeutic blockage of fibroblast activity in patients with cancer is a double-edged sword, as normal fibroblast activities often restrict tumor cell invasion. We used fibroblasts depleted of Snail1 or protein arginine methyltransferases 1 and 4 (PRMT1/-4) to identify specific epigenetic modifications induced by TGFß/Snail1. Furthermore, we analyzed the in vivo efficiency of methyltransferase inhibitors using mouse models of wound healing and metastasis, as well as fibroblasts isolated from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Mechanistically, TGFß-induced Snail1 promotes the epigenetic mark of asymmetrically dimethylated arginine. Critically, we found that inhibitors of methyltransferases prevent myofibroblast activity (but not regular fibroblast activity) in the extracellular matrix, both in cell culture and in vivo. In a mouse breast cancer model, the inhibitor sinefungin reduces both the myofibroblast activity in the tumor stroma and the metastatic burden in the lung. Two distinct inhibitors effectively blocked the exacerbated myofibroblast activity of patient-derived IPF fibroblasts. Our data reveal epigenetic regulation of myofibroblast transdifferentiation in both wound healing and in disease (fibrosis and breast cancer). Thus, methyltransferase inhibitors are good candidates as therapeutic reagents for these diseases.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 694, 2018 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330474

RESUMO

De novo FOXP1 mutations have been associated with intellectual disability (ID), motor delay, autistic features and a wide spectrum of speech difficulties. C syndrome (Opitz C trigonocephaly syndrome) is a rare and genetically heterogeneous condition, characterized by trigonocephaly, craniofacial anomalies and ID. Several different chromosome deletions and and point mutations in distinct genes have been associated with the disease in patients originally diagnosed as Opitz C. By whole exome sequencing we identified a de novo splicing mutation in FOXP1 in a patient, initially diagnosed as C syndrome, who suffers from syndromic intellectual disability with trigonocephaly. The mutation (c.1428 + 1 G > A) promotes the skipping of exon 16, a frameshift and a premature STOP codon (p.Ala450GLyfs*13), as assessed by a minigene strategy. The patient reported here shares speech difficulties, intellectual disability and autistic features with other FOXP1 syndrome patients, and thus the diagnosis for this patient should be changed. Finally, since trigonocephaly has not been previously reported in FOXP1 syndrome, it remains to be proved whether it may be associated with the FOXP1 mutation.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Craniossinostoses/genética , Éxons , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Processamento de RNA , Distúrbios da Fala/complicações , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44138, 2017 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281571

RESUMO

Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome (OTCS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies, variable intellectual and psychomotor disability, and variable cardiac defects with a high mortality rate. Different patterns of inheritance and genetic heterogeneity are known in this syndrome. Whole exome and genome sequencing of a 19-year-old girl (P7), initially diagnosed with OTCS, revealed a de novo nonsense mutation, p.Q638*, in the MAGEL2 gene. MAGEL2 is an imprinted, maternally silenced, gene located at 15q11-13, within the Prader-Willi region. Patient P7 carried the mutation in the paternal chromosome. Recently, mutations in MAGEL2 have been described in Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SHFYNG) and in severe arthrogryposis. Patient P7 bears resemblances with SHFYNG cases but has other findings not described in this syndrome and common in OTCS. We sequenced MAGEL2 in nine additional OTCS patients and no mutations were found. This study provides the first clear molecular genetic basis for an OTCS case, indicates that there is overlap between OTCS and SHFYNG syndromes, and confirms that OTCS is genetically heterogeneous. Genes encoding MAGEL2 partners, either in the retrograde transport or in the ubiquitination-deubiquitination complexes, are promising candidates as OTCS disease-causing genes.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses , Deficiência Intelectual , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas , Adulto , Craniossinostoses/genética , Craniossinostoses/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo
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