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1.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576729

RESUMO

Monitoring antimicrobial usage (AMU) in dairy cattle is becoming common in a growing number of countries, with the ultimate goal to improve practices, reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance, and protect human health. However, antimicrobials delivered as feed additives can be missed by some of the quantification methods usually implemented. Our objective was to compare three methods of quantification of in-feed AMU in Québec dairy herds. We recruited 101 dairy producers for one year in the Québec province. Quantities of antimicrobials were calculated by farm from: (1) feed mills invoices (reference method); (2) veterinary prescriptions; and (3) information collected during an in-person interview of each producer. We standardized AMU rates in kilograms per 100 cow-years and compared the reference method to both alternative methods using concordance correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Antimicrobial usage was well estimated by veterinary prescriptions (concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.66) or by the approximation using producer's data (CCC = 0.73) when compared with actual deliveries by feed mills. Users of medically important antimicrobials for human medicine (less than 10% of the farms) were easily identified using veterinary prescriptions. Given that veterinary prescriptions were mostly electronic (90%), this method could be integrated as part of a monitoring system in Québec.

2.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(5): 2534-2543, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Downer cow syndrome, a common problem in dairy cattle, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the attending veterinarian. Identifying prognostic indicators and assessing the odds of survival may improve the accuracy of the clinician's prognosis at the time of diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To describe a population of downer dairy cows referred to a hospital and investigate predictors of outcome. ANIMALS: Recumbent adult dairy cows (cows unable or unwilling to stand without help) treated at a referral hospital. METHODS: Data at the time of admission were collected from medical records of downer dairy cows treated at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire between 1994 and 2016. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of predictors with the outcome. RESULTS: Among 1318 cows included, 727 (55%) cows were discharged, and 591 (45%) cows died or were euthanized. Cows with longer time of recumbency before referral (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6), tachycardia (100-120 beats per minute [bpm], OR = 1.93; >120 bpm, OR = 2.92), tachypnea (OR = 1.76), hypothermia (OR = 2.08), anemia (OR = 3.30), neutropenia (OR = 1.7), high aspartate aminotransferase activity (500-1000 U/L, OR = 2.16; >1000 U/L, OR = 6.69), and increased serum creatinine concentration (OR = 1.75) had higher odds of nonsurvival. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: These findings may help the practitioner to consider treatment options and decide if referral is likely beneficial based on the odds of success. Early recognition of low chance of survival may facilitate an early decision for euthanasia.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Microorganisms ; 9(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065528

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to compare three quantification methods to a "garbage can audit" (reference method, REF) for monitoring antimicrobial usage (AMU) from products other than medicated feed over one year in 101 Québec dairy farms. Data were collected from veterinary invoices (VET method), from the "Amélioration de la Santé Animale au Québec" provincial program (GOV method), and from farm treatment records (FARM method). The AMU rate was reported in a number of Canadian Defined Course Doses for cattle (DCDbovCA) per 100 cow-years. Electronic veterinary sales data were obtained for all farms for VET and GOV methods. For the FARM method, a herd management software was used by 68% of producers whereas farm treatment records were handwritten for the others; records could not be retrieved in 4% of farms. Overall, agreement was almost perfect between REF and VET methods (concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.83), but moderate between REF and GOV (CCC = 0.44), and between REF and FARM (CCC = 0.51). Only a fair or slight agreement was obtained between any alternative method of quantification and REF for oral and intrauterine routes. The billing software used by most of Québec's dairy veterinary practitioners seems promising in terms of surveillance and benchmarking of AMU in the province.

4.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 654125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095273

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important burden for public health and veterinary medicine. For Québec (Canada) dairy farms, the prevalence of AMR is mostly described using passive surveillance, which may be misleading. In addition, the presence of extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Escherichia coli is unknown. This observational cross-sectional study used random dairy farms (n = 101) to investigate AMR and extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Escherichia coli. Twenty antimicrobials were tested on E. coli isolates (n = 593) recovered from fecal samples (n = 599) from calves, cows, and the manure pit. Isolates were mostly susceptible (3% AMR or less) to the highest priority critically important antimicrobials in humans. The highest levels of AMR were to tetracycline (26%), sulfisozaxole (23%) and streptomycin (19%). The resistance genes responsible for these resistances were, respectively: tet(A), tet(B), sul1, sul2, sul3, aph(3")-Ib (strA), aph(6)-Id (strB), aadA1, aadA2, and aadA5. ESBL analysis revealed two predominant phenotypes: AmpC (51%) and ESBL (46%) where bla CMY-2 and bla CTX-M ( bla CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-15, and bla CTX-M-55) were the genes responsible for these phenotypes, respectively. During this study, 85% of farms had at least one ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli. Isolates from calves were more frequently resistant than those from cows or manure pits. Although prevalence of AMR was low for critically important antimicrobials, there was a high prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli on Quebec dairy farms, particularly in calves. Those data will help determine a baseline for AMR to evaluate impact of initiatives aimed at reducing AMR.

5.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(4): 2058-2068, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The best test between thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) and thoracic radiography (TR) or the best combination of tests (series or parallel) to detect active infectious bronchopneumonia (BP) in hospitalized dairy calves remains unknown. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To estimate performances of TUS and TR to detect active BP in hospitalized dairy calves and to determine the best strategy for using these tests based on a panel diagnosis method (PDM). Performances of TUS and TR were hypothesized to be equivalent. ANIMALS: Fifty hospitalized dairy calves (≥7 days old; ≤100 kg; standing; pCO2 ≥ 53 mm Hg; any reason of presentation). METHODS: Each calf prospectively and sequentially underwent physical examination, thoracic auscultation, blood analyses, and TUS and TR. Three blinded experts determined whether active BP was present/absent based on PDM. Krippendorff's alpha measured interexpert agreement. The sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) of TUS and TR alone and in series or parallel were compared (McNemar's test; P < .05). RESULTS: Interexpert agreement was moderate at 0.58 (95%CI: 0.42; 0.73). The Se and Sp of TUS were 0.84 (95%CI: 0.60; 0.97) and 0.74 (95%CI: 0.57; 0.86), respectively. The Se and Sp of TR were 0.89 (95%CI: 0.67; 0.99) and 0.58 (95%CI: 0.39; 0.75), respectively. No significant difference was found in the Se and Sp of TUS and TR when analyzed alone, in series or in parallel. CONCLUSION: Thoracic ultrasonography or TR alone equally detected active BP in hospitalized dairy calves. Series or parallel analysis provided no additional benefit. Its ease of use and widespread accessibility support using TUS as a first-line test to detect active BP in hospitalized dairy calves.


Assuntos
Broncopneumonia , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Broncopneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Broncopneumonia/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(6): 7095-7108, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741167

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) is a worldwide multifactorial infectious disease. Antimicrobials are commonly used for treating BRD because bacteria are often involved. The clinical diagnosis of BRD is a challenge, especially in adult dairy cows, where information on this syndrome is scant. Having a definition based on consistent and reliable clinical signs would improve the accuracy of BRD diagnosis and could help to develop an optimal treatment approach by an early detection. The aim of this scoping review was to review clinical signs that could be recognized by producers in dairy cattle suffering from naturally occurring infectious respiratory disease, as reported in the literature. A review of the literature was performed for articles published between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2020. The search of literature in English, French, and Italian languages included 2 different databases (Pubmed, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/; CAB abstract, https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/cab-abstracts/). Clinical signs were categorized as follows: (1) "general manifestations of disease," which included behavioral changes or fever; (2) "alterations in respiratory function," which included clinical signs specifically associated with the respiratory tract examination; and (3) "clinical signs of other body systems," which included clinical signs related to other systems such as diarrhea or subcutaneous emphysema. The focus of the review was on clinical signs that could be monitored by animal handlers and producers. A total of 1,067 titles were screened, and 23 studies were finally included. The most common general clinical signs were increased body temperature (reported in 83% of studies, n = 19), change in feed intake (26%, n = 6), altered mentation (22%, n = 5), and decreased milk production (17%, n = 4). The alterations in respiratory function noted were nasal discharge (74%, n = 17), cough (65%, n = 15), altered respiratory dynamic or dyspnea (61%, n = 14), increased respiratory rate (43%, n = 10), and ocular discharge or lacrimation (30%, n = 7). The clinical signs associated with infectious respiratory disease reported in the 23 studies generally lacked a clear description of what constitutes a deviation from normality (0-50% of studies clearly reported what was considered normal versus abnormal depending on the clinical signs). This limitation prevented any comparison between studies that apparently reported the same "clinical sign," but possibly referred to a different assessment and definition of what was considered normal versus abnormal. Therefore, the definition of clinical signs in a repeatable way with validated interobserver agreement to determine the optimal combination for the diagnosis of BRD in dairy cows is needed. This could lead to a more judicious use of antimicrobials for respiratory disease in adult dairy cows.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças Respiratórias , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/diagnóstico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Diarreia/veterinária , Feminino , Febre/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária
7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 256(7): 814-821, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and outcome for cattle that developed a retroperitoneal abscess (RA) following paralumbar fossa laparotomy (PFL). ANIMALS: 32 Holstein cows with RA. PROCEDURES: The record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify cattle that were treated for an RA between January 1995 and March 2017. Cattle with an RA > 30 cm in diameter located 3.5 cm subjacent to the skin that had undergone a PFL < 3 months before examination for the RA were evaluated. Information extracted from the record of each cow included signalment; physical examination, clinicopathologic, and transabdominal ultrasonographic findings; treatments administered; and outcome. Milk production data were analyzed for the lactations before, during, and after RA treatment. RESULTS: Common physical examination findings were rumen hypomotility, anorexia, and fever, and common clinicopathologic findings were anemia and neutrophilia. Abdominal palpation per rectum and transabdominal ultrasonography facilitated RA diagnosis and identification of the optimal location for drainage. Thirty of 32 cows underwent surgical drainage of the RA and prolonged administration of systemic antimicrobials. Two cows were euthanized because of concurrent peritonitis, including 1 that underwent surgical RA drainage. Thirty cows were discharged from the hospital alive, and most returned to their previous level of milk production. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although uncommon, RA should be suspected in cows that develop anorexia and fever within 3 months after PFL. Cows with RA often returned to their previous level of milk production, but treatment was generally prolonged and costly.


Assuntos
Abscesso Abdominal/veterinária , Abscesso/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Lactação , Laparotomia/veterinária , Leite , Rúmen
8.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083099

RESUMO

Standardized units are essential to allow quantification and comparison of antimicrobial usage (AMU) between species and regions. In Canada, defined daily and course doses have not yet been harmonized for cattle. Our objective was to assign defined daily and course doses (named DDDbovCA and DCDbovCA, respectively) for cattle in Canada, by antimicrobial agent (AM) and by route of administration, based on the label of all products containing at least one AM, marketed and authorized in Canada for use in cattle. In April and December 2019, a systematic search was performed from the online Drug Product Database (DPD) of Health Canada to identify veterinary products containing at least one AM, marketed in Canada for use in cattle. Products were divided by route of administration (intramammary, intrauterine, injectable, oral, and topical). The monograph was retrieved for each product from the DPD, or from the Canadian Edition of the Compendium of Veterinary Products (CVP), and read completely to extract recommended dosages in cattle. Standard weights were applied to compute doses if required. DDDbovCA and DCDbovCA were assigned by calculating an average of daily and course doses, respectively, by AM and route of administration. Two products were excluded from calculations because of their claim as growth promotion or feed efficiency (no longer authorized in Canada for certain categories of AM). Overall, 39 injectable, 75 oral (including 23 medicated premixes), 8 intramammary (4 for lactating cows and 4 for dry cows), 5 intrauterine, and 4 topical products were used for calculations. DDDbovCA and DCDbovCA values were assigned successfully for each AM identified, by route of administration. These metrics will allow harmonized and transparent quantification of AMU in cattle in Canada.

10.
J Vet Intern Med ; 34(2): 1018-1027, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abomasitis is a syndrome affecting young milk-fed calves. The current veterinary literature describes mainly its necropsy findings. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation, complementary tests, treatments, and case-fatality rate of calves with a clinical diagnosis of abomasitis and to identify potential factors associated with outcome. METHODS: Observational retrospective cohort study (2006-2016). Review of the medical records of calves <3 months of age presented with abdominal and abomasal distension for <7 days that were clinically diagnosed with abomasitis at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Université de Montréal. A follow-up examination was conducted by telephone interview. ANIMALS: Twenty-three calves clinically diagnosed with abomasitis. RESULTS: Median age of presentation was 3 days (range, 0-62 days). The typical duration of the clinical course was <24 hours (15/23). On admission, the 2 most common clinical signs were anorexia (13/14) and positive succussion (13/14). Hyper-l-lactatemia (15/16) and increased γ-glutamyl-transferase activity (13/14) were the most common laboratory abnormalities. Hypoproteinemia (19/22) and a left shift (15/18) of the neutrophils also were observed. The short-term case-fatality rate was 52% (12/23). The clinical diagnosis was confirmed on all necropsied calves. Clostridium spp. and Escherichia coli were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Based on univariate statistical analysis, the surviving calves were significantly (P < .05) less hypothermic, less acidemic, less hyper-l-lactatemic, and had lower serum creatinine concentrations on admission than did the deceased calves. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: In our study, abomasitis was associated with a guarded prognosis.


Assuntos
Abomaso , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Gastrite/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Masculino , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(4): 1833-1839, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterization of the clinical signs, response to treatment and prognosis can be useful information for decision-making when evaluating cattle with pharyngeal trauma. OBJECTIVE: To describe the signalment, history, clinicopathologic, endoscopic, ultrasonographic, radiographic, and postmortem findings as well as treatments and outcomes of cattle diagnosed with pharyngeal perforation/trauma. ANIMALS: Review of medical records of cattle >1 month of age admitted to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2017. METHODS: Retrospective study. Review of medical records of cattle with pharyngeal perforation/trauma identified by oral or endoscopic examination in hospital setting. RESULTS: Twenty-seven out of 7550 (0.36%) cases met the inclusion criteria. Pharyngeal perforation/trauma was associated with the administration of a bolus in 24 (89%) cows and a magnet in 3 (11%) cases. The boluses contained monensin (n = 12), calcium salts (n = 5), iodine (n = 1), aspirin (n = 1), vitamins (n = 1), and an unknown product (n = 4). The primary clinical signs were dysphagia, swelling of the throatlatch, subcutaneous emphysema, swelling, and pain on palpation of the throatlatch. Seventeen (63%) cows were discharged whereas 10 (37%) were euthanized. Median time between the suspected traumatic event and hospital admission was 1 day (range: 0.5-3 days) and 2 days (range: 0.5-15) for surviving and nonsurviving cattle, respectively. All 5 cows that suffered pharyngeal trauma associated with administration of calcium salt bolus were euthanized. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Pharyngeal trauma is a rare condition in cattle. Case fatality rate increases if not diagnosed and treated promptly. The nature of the penetrating foreign body influences the outcome.


Assuntos
Administração Oral , Bovinos/lesões , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Doenças Faríngeas/veterinária , Faringe/lesões , Animais , Compostos de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico , Imãs/efeitos adversos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Doenças Faríngeas/diagnóstico , Doenças Faríngeas/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Anim Health Res Rev ; 20(1): 86-97, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895023

RESUMO

Use of antimicrobial approaches at drying-off for preventing new intramammary infections (IMI) during the dry period in dairy cows could be replaced by non-antimicrobial approaches. Such approaches would be of interest not only for organic but also for conventional dairy producers. The objective of the current review was to quantify the effect of non-antimicrobial internal teat sealant (ITS)-based approaches at drying-off for treating and preventing IMI, when compared with no treatment or with an antimicrobial-based approach. The protocol for this review was published before initiating the review. A total of 18 trials from 16 articles could be used to investigate the effect of an ITS-based approach. With the available results, we conclude with a high level of confidence that non-antimicrobial ITS-based dry-off approaches are efficient for preventing new IMI during the dry period when compared with no treatment, and would reduce risk of new IMI by 52%. Moreover, we are relatively confident that a bismuth subnitrate-based ITS performed better than an antimicrobial for preventing new IMI during the dry period (a risk reduction of 23%). Similarly, we are relatively confident that an ITS-based approach would only slightly or not at all reduce the prevalence of IMI at calving compared with untreated quarters.


Assuntos
Antiácidos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bismuto/farmacologia , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Feminino , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(12): 10605-10625, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292553

RESUMO

Various body sites of vertebrates provide stable and nutrient-rich ecosystems for a diverse range of commensal, opportunistic, and pathogenic microorganisms to thrive. The collective genomes of these microbial symbionts (the microbiome) provide host animals with several advantages, including metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates, biosynthesis of vitamins, and modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems. In the context of the bovine udder, however, the relationship between cow and microbes has been traditionally viewed strictly from the perspective of host-pathogen interactions, with intramammary infections by mastitis pathogens triggering inflammatory responses (i.e., mastitis) that are often detrimental to mammary tissues and cow physiology. This traditional view has been challenged by recent metagenomic studies indicating that mammary secretions of clinically healthy quarters can harbor genomic markers of diverse bacterial groups, the vast majority of which have not been associated with mastitis. These observations have given rise to the concept of "commensal mammary microbiota," the ecological properties of which can have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of mastitis and offer opportunities for development of novel prophylactic or therapeutic products (or both) as alternatives to antimicrobials. Studies conducted to date have suggested that an optimum diversity of mammary microbiota is associated with immune homeostasis, whereas the microbiota of mastitic quarters, or those with a history of mastitis, are considerably less diverse. Whether disruption of the diversity of udder microbiota (dysbiosis) has a role in determining mastitis susceptibility remains unknown. Moreover, little is known about contributions of various biotic and abiotic factors in shaping overall diversity of udder microbiota. This review summarizes current understanding of the microbiota within various niches of the udder and highlights the need to view the microbiota of the teat apex, teat canal, and mammary secretions as interconnected niches of a highly dynamic microbial ecosystem. In addition, host-associated factors, including physiological and anatomical parameters, as well as genetic traits that may affect the udder microbiota are briefly discussed. Finally, current understanding of the effect of antimicrobials on the composition of intramammary microbiota is discussed, highlighting the resilience of udder microbiota to exogenous perturbants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Feminino
14.
J Vet Intern Med ; 32(5): 1780-1786, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Threshold values for total nucleated cell count (TNCC) and protein concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of downer dairy cows suggestive of a spinal cord lesion were recently published. OBJECTIVES: Determine short- and long-term survival of downer cows that underwent CSF analysis using the reported threshold values. Evaluate the prognostic value of these threshold values to predict short- and long-term survival. ANIMALS: Two hundred and fourteen downer adult dairy cows that underwent CSF analysis during hospitalization at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire (CHUV) of the Université de Montréal. METHODS: Retrospective study. Medical records of downer adult dairy cows presented to the hospital between January 2006 and October 2014 for which CSF analysis results were available were studied. Short-term (discharge from hospital) and long-term (completion of lactation) survival were determined and compared in accordance with CSF TNCC and protein concentration, using a Chi-square test. RESULTS: Cows with CSF TNCC and/or protein concentration above the threshold values had a significantly lower short-term survival rate (P = .02). The odds of nonsurvival of cows with one or both CSF values above the threshold values was 2.16 times higher than the odds for cows with values under the threshold values. CSF TNCC >4.5 cells/µL had sensitivity and specificity of 17.3% (95% CI: 10.7%-25.7%) and 92.3% (95% CI: 85.4%-96.6%), respectively, for predicting short-term nonsurvival. CSF protein concentration >0.39 g/L had sensitivity and specificity of 20.9% (95% CI: 13.7%-29.7%) and 91.4% (95% CI: 84.2%-96.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CSF analysis above threshold values used in this study is associated with increased odds of short-term nonsurvival.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/química , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/química , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/citologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 31(4): 252-260, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To develop an evaluation grid to provide a systematic interpretation of calves' articular radiographs, (2) to describe radiographic lesions of septic arthritis in dairy calves less than 6 months of age, (3) to investigate potential associations between demographic data or synovial bacteriological culture results and radiographic lesions (4) to determine whether an association is present between radiographic lesions, their severity and the long-term outcome. METHODS: Medical records of 54 calves less than 180 days old treated for septic arthritis between 2009 and 2014 with radiographic images performed in the first 2 days after admission were reviewed. RESULTS: Most common radiographic findings were increased articular joint space height (n = 49), irregularity of the articular surfaces (n = 24) and subchondral bone lysis (n = 24). The number of lesions observed and their severity were associated with older calves (p = 0.02), increased time between onset of clinical signs and admission (p = 0.0001) and the culture of Trueperella pyogenes within the joint (p = 0.02). The radiographic lesions associated with negative long-term prognosis were reduction in the joint space height (p = 0.01) and subchondral bone lysis on weight-bearing surfaces (p = 0.02). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: An evaluation grid designed for veterinarians can facilitate systematic reading of articular radiographs and can be used for dairy calves with a presumptive diagnosis of septic arthritis. This diagnostic tool may aid in establishing a prognosis and decision-making process in terms of treatment.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia/veterinária , Animais , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Bovinos , Prognóstico , Radiografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
16.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 252(8): 995-1005, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To describe clinical findings and diagnostic test results and identify potential prognostic indicators for calves with septic arthritis. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 64 calves with septic arthritis. PROCEDURES The medical record database for a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify calves ≤ 6 months old that were treated for septic arthritis between 2009 and 2014. Data evaluated included signalment, history, physical examination and diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome. Descriptive data were generated, and calves were assigned to 2 groups (neonatal [≤ 28 days old] or postneonatal [29 to 180 days old]) on the basis of age at hospital admission for comparison purposes. RESULTS 64 calves had 92 infected joints; 17 calves had polyarthritis. Carpal joints were most frequently affected followed by the stifle and tarsal joints. Forty-nine bacterial isolates were identified from synovial specimens for 38 calves, and the most commonly identified isolates were catalase-negative Streptococcus spp (n = 14) and Mycoplasma bovis (9). Calves in the neonatal group had a shorter interval between onset of clinical signs and hospitalization and were more likely to have an infected carpal joint than calves in the postneonatal group. Outcome was positive for 35 calves. Synovial fluid total nucleated cell count was positively associated with a positive outcome. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that empirical antimicrobial treatment for calves with septic arthritis should target gram-positive catalase-negative cocci and M bovis and that synovial fluid total nucleated cell count might be a useful prognostic indicator.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Artrite Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Articulações do Carpo , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis/isolamento & purificação , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Joelho de Quadrúpedes , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Líquido Sinovial/microbiologia , Articulações Tarsianas
17.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 34(1): 19-33, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233583

RESUMO

The acute abdomen is a term used to characterize an animal presented as an emergency, in a more or less severe critical state, and for which medical and possibly surgical treatment will be necessary. To succeed, the clinician should use a systematic approach, have an excellent knowledge of the bovine abdominal anatomy, and have a good understanding of the pathophysiology of abdominal pain. Good clinical judgment, critical analysis, and good client communication skills are also essential. This article presents and discusses those necessary skills in the context of field practice.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Abdome Agudo/diagnóstico , Abdome Agudo/terapia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia
18.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 250(9): 1036-1041, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414605

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION A 4-hour-old 6.3-kg (13.9-lb) female alpaca cria was evaluated because of severe respiratory distress and difficulty nursing since birth. CLINICAL FINDINGS The cria had open-mouth breathing and cyanotic membranes, with no airflow evident from either nostril. Supplemental oxygen was delivered, and the patient was anesthetized and intubated orotracheally; a CT evaluation of the head confirmed bilateral membranous obstruction of the nasal cavities, consistent with complete bilateral choanal atresia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Choanal atresia was treated with an endoscopically assisted balloon-dilation technique, and temporary tracheostomy was performed. Stenosis recurred, requiring revision of the repair and intranasal stent placement 3 days after the first surgery. The tracheostomy tube was removed the next day. Complications during hospitalization included mucoid obstruction of the tracheostomy tube, granulation tissue development in the trachea near the tracheostomy site, mucoid stent obstruction, aspiration pneumonia, and presumed partial failure of passive transfer of immunity. The stents were removed 2 weeks after admission, and the cria was discharged 3 days later. The owner was advised that the animal should not be bred. At last follow-up 3 years later, the alpaca was doing well. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical treatment with a balloon-dilation technique and placement of nasal stents with endoscopic guidance were curative in this neonatal alpaca with bilateral membranous choanal atresia. Computed tomography was useful to determine the nature of the atresia and aid surgical planning. Because a genetic component is likely, owners should be advised to prevent affected animals from breeding.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Atresia das Cóanas/veterinária , Insuficiência Respiratória/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Atresia das Cóanas/complicações , Atresia das Cóanas/diagnóstico , Atresia das Cóanas/diagnóstico por imagem , Atresia das Cóanas/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Stents , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
19.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 32(3): 777-795, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618571

RESUMO

Lameness related to synovial infection needs to be addressed promptly because rapid degradation of the synovial homeostasis results in permanent cartilage alterations detrimental to complete recovery. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, synovial fluid analysis, and imaging. Commonly affected joints are the fetlock, carpus, tarsus, and stifle; shoulder, elbow, and hip may also be infected. Knowing the source of infection is essential in cases of remote septic arthritis. Antimicrobials should be administered; local delivery systems may be used. Therapy relies on the removal of inflammatory mediators. Pain management is critical throughout the surgical procedures and the recovery period.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Animais , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Artrite Infecciosa/terapia , Artroscopia/métodos , Artroscopia/veterinária , Bovinos , Feminino , Irrigação Terapêutica/veterinária
20.
Can Vet J ; 57(8): 853-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27493285

RESUMO

This study evaluated the long-term prognosis of return to normal mechanical milking after reconstructive teat surgery and determined the factors that have an impact on the outcome. A retrospective study of 67 dairy cows with teat lacerations was performed. Milking status at discharge and at long-term follow-up was adequate for 83% and 75% of the cows, respectively. No statistically significant differences were detected between the long-term prognosis and the age of the cow, the stage of lactation at presentation, or the configuration of the laceration. Lacerations repaired more than 24 hours after the trauma were more frequently associated with a negative outcome (P = 0.05). Mastitis was the most frequent complication (n = 17) and had a statistically significant negative impact on long-term prognosis (P = 0.02). Reconstructive surgery of lacerated teat in dairy cows can help establish return to normal mechanical milking.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Doenças dos Bovinos/cirurgia , Indústria de Laticínios , Lacerações/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/cirurgia , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Lacerações/cirurgia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/lesões , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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