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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821646

RESUMO

RHOA is a member of the Rho family of GTPases that are involved in fundamental cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. RHOA can stimulate the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions and is a key regulator of actomyosin dynamics in various tissues. In a Genematcher-facilitated collaboration, we were able to identify four unrelated individuals with a specific phenotype characterized by hypopigmented areas of the skin, dental anomalies, body asymmetry, and limb length discrepancy due to hemihypotrophy of one half of the body, as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anomalies. Using whole-exome and ultra-deep amplicon sequencing and comparing genomic data of affected and unaffected areas of the skin, we discovered that all four individuals carried the identical RHOA missense variant, c.139G>A; p.Glu47Lys, in a postzygotic state. Molecular modeling and in silico analysis of the affected p.Glu47Lys residue in RHOA indicated that this exchange is predicted to specifically alter the interaction of RHOA with its downstream effectors containing a PKN-type binding domain and thereby disrupts its ability to activate signaling. Our findings indicate that the recurrent postzygotic RHOA missense variant p.Glu47Lys causes a specific mosaic disorder in humans.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677197

RESUMO

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is an aggressive tumor with leukemic presentation of mature T-lymphocytes. Here, we aimed at characterizing the initial events in the molecular pathogenesis of T-PLL and particularly, at determining the point in T-cell differentiation when the hallmark oncogenic events, that is, inv(14)(q11q32)/t(14;14)(q11;q32) and t(X;14)(q28;q11) occur. To this end, we mined whole genome and transcriptome sequencing data of 17 and 11 T-PLL cases, respectively. Mapping of the 14q32.1 locus breakpoints identified only TCL1A, which was moreover significantly overexpressed in T-PLL as compared to benign CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, as the only common oncogenic target of aberrations. In cases with t(14;14), the breakpoints mapped telomeric and in cases with inv(14) centromeric or in the 3'-untranslated region of TCL1A. Regarding the T-cell receptor alpha (TRA) locus-TCL1A breakpoint junctions, all 17 breakpoints involved recombination signal sequences and 15 junctions contained nontemplated (N-) nucleotides. All T-PLL cases studied carried in-frame TRA rearrangements on the intact allele, which skewed significantly toward usage of distal/central TRAV/TRAJ gene segments as compared to the illegitimate TRA rearrangements. Our findings suggest that the oncogenic TRA-TCL1A/MTCP1 rearrangements in T-PLL occur during opening of the TRA locus, that is, during the progression from CD4+ immature single positive to early double positive thymocyte stage, just before physiologic TCL1A expression is silenced. The cell carrying such an oncogenic event continues maturation and rearranges the second TRA allele to achieve a functional T-cell receptor. Thereafter, it switches off RAG and DNTT expression in line with the mature T-cell phenotype at presentation of T-PLL.

3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 106(5): 1153-1160, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280495

RESUMO

The host immune response is characterized by a complex interplay of signal-specific cellular transcriptional responses. The magnitude of the immune response is dependent on the strength of the external stimulus. Knowledge on leukocyte transcriptional responses altered in response to different stimulus dosages in man is lacking. Here, we sought to identify leukocyte transcriptional signatures dependent on LPS dose in humans. Healthy human volunteers were administered 1 ng/kg (n = 7), 2 ng/kg (n = 6), or 4 ng/kg (n = 7) LPS intravenously. Blood was collected before (pre-LPS) and 4 h after LPS administration. Total RNA was analyzed by microarrays and generalized linear models. Pathway analysis was performed by using Ingenuity pathway analysis. Leukocyte transcriptomes altered per LPS dosage were predominantly shared, with 47% common signatures relative to pre-LPS. A univariate linear model identified a set of 3736 genes that exhibited a dependency on differing LPS dosages. Neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts explained 38.9% of the variance in the LPS dose-dependent gene set. A multivariate linear model including leukocyte composition delineated a set of 295 genes with a dependency on LPS dose. Evaluation of the 295 gene signature in patients with sepsis due to abdominal infections showed significant correlations. Promoter regions of the LPS dose gene set were enriched for YY1, EGR1, ELK1, GABPA, KLF4, and REL transcription factor binding sites. Intravenous injection of 1, 2, or 4 ng/kg LPS was accompanied by both shared and distinct leukocyte transcriptional alterations. These data may assist in assessing the severity of the insult in patients with abdominal sepsis.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 144(2): 366-371, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151914

RESUMO

Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have become an important asset in translational cancer research. However, to provide a robust preclinical platform, PDXs need to accommodate the tumor heterogeneity that is observed in patients. Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be stratified into four consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) with distinct biological and clinical features. Surprisingly, using a set of CRC patients, we revealed the partial representation of tumor heterogeneity in PDX models. The epithelial subtypes, the largest subgroups of CRC subtype, were very ineffective in establishing PDXs, indicating the need for further optimization to develop an effective personalized therapeutic approach to CRC. Moreover, we showed that tumor cell proliferation was associated with successful PDX establishment and able to distinguish patient with poor clinical outcomes within CMS2 group.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Xenoenxertos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos
5.
Plant Cell ; 30(2): 300-323, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371439

RESUMO

The maize smut fungus Ustilago maydis is a model organism for elucidating host colonization strategies of biotrophic fungi. Here, we performed an in depth transcriptional profiling of the entire plant-associated development of U. maydis wild-type strains. In our analysis, we focused on fungal metabolism, nutritional strategies, secreted effectors, and regulatory networks. Secreted proteins were enriched in three distinct expression modules corresponding to stages on the plant surface, establishment of biotrophy, and induction of tumors. These modules are likely the key determinants for U. maydis virulence. With respect to nutrient utilization, we observed that expression of several nutrient transporters was tied to these virulence modules rather than being controlled by nutrient availability. We show that oligopeptide transporters likely involved in nitrogen assimilation are important virulence factors. By measuring the intramodular connectivity of transcription factors, we identified the potential drivers for the virulence modules. While known components of the b-mating type cascade emerged as inducers for the plant surface and biotrophy module, we identified a set of yet uncharacterized transcription factors as likely responsible for expression of the tumor module. We demonstrate a crucial role for leaf tumor formation and effector gene expression for one of these transcription factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Ustilago/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Zea mays/microbiologia , Biomassa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Tumores de Planta/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ustilago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ustilago/patogenicidade , Ustilago/fisiologia , Virulência/genética
6.
Cell Death Differ ; 25(3): 616-633, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305587

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease both from a molecular and clinical perspective. Several distinct molecular entities, such as microsatellite instability (MSI), have been defined that make up biologically distinct subgroups with their own clinical course. Recent data indicated that CRC can be best segregated into four groups called consensus molecular subtypes (CMS1-4), each of which has a unique biology and gene expression pattern. In order to develop improved, subtype-specific therapies and to gain insight into the molecular wiring and origin of these subtypes, reliable models are needed. This study was designed to determine the heterogeneity and identify the presence of CMSs in a large panel of CRC cell lines, primary cultures and patient-derived xenografts (PDX). We provide a repository encompassing this heterogeneity and moreover describe that a large part of the models can be robustly assigned to one of the four CMSs, independent of the stromal contribution. We subsequently validate our CMS stratification by functional analysis which for instance shows mesenchymal enrichment in CMS4 and metabolic dysregulation in CMS3. Finally, we observe a clear difference in sensitivity to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, specifically between CMS2 and CMS4. This relates to the in vivo efficacy of chemotherapy, which delays outgrowth of CMS2, but not CMS4 xenografts. Combined our data indicate that molecular subtypes are faithfully modelled in CRC cell cultures and PDXs, representing tumour cell intrinsic and stable features. This repository provides researchers with a platform to study CRC using the existing heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Crit Care Med ; 45(11): 1854-1862, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of gender with the presentation, outcome, and host response in critically ill patients with sepsis. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective observational cohort study in the ICU of two tertiary hospitals between January 2011 and January 2014. PATIENTS: All consecutive critically ill patients admitted with sepsis, involving 1,815 admissions (1,533 patients). INTERVENTIONS: The host response was evaluated on ICU admission by measuring 19 plasma biomarkers reflecting organ systems implicated in sepsis pathogenesis (1,205 admissions) and by applying genome-wide blood gene expression profiling (582 admissions). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Sepsis patients admitted to the ICU were more frequently males (61.0%; p < 0.0001 vs females). Baseline characteristics were not different between genders. Urosepsis was more common in females; endocarditis and mediastinitis in men. Disease severity was similar throughout ICU stay. Mortality was similar up to 1 year after ICU admission, and gender was not associated with 90-day mortality in multivariate analyses in a variety of subgroups. Although plasma proteome analyses (including systemic inflammatory and cytokine responses, and activation of coagulation) were largely similar between genders, females showed enhanced endothelial cell activation; this difference was virtually absent in patients more than 55 years old. More than 80% of the leukocyte blood gene expression response was similar in male and female patients. CONCLUSIONS: The host response and outcome in male and female sepsis patients requiring ICU admission are largely similar.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Sepse/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , Centros de Atenção Terciária
9.
Sci Data ; 3: 160075, 2016 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622383

RESUMO

Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Genoma , Genômica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Camundongos
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 194(11): 1366-1374, 2016 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267747

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Preclinical studies suggest that hospitalized patients are susceptible to infections caused by nosocomial respiratory pathogens at least in part because of immune suppression caused by the condition for which they were admitted. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize the systemic host response in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) when compared with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: We performed a prospective study in two intensive care units (ICUs) in 453 patients with HAP (n = 222) or CAP (n = 231). Immune responses were determined on ICU admission by measuring 19 plasma biomarkers reflecting organ systems implicated in infection pathogenesis (in 192 patients with HAP and 183 patients with CAP) and by applying genome-wide blood gene expression profiling (in 111 patients with HAP and 110 patients with CAP). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients with HAP and CAP presented with similar disease severities and mortality rates did not differ up to 1 year after admission. Plasma proteome analysis revealed largely similar responses, including systemic inflammatory and cytokine responses, and activation of coagulation and the vascular endothelium. The blood leukocyte genomic response was greater than 75% common in patients with HAP and CAP, comprising proinflammatory, antiinflammatory, T-cell signaling, and metabolic pathway gene sets. Patients with HAP showed overexpression of genes involved in cell-cell junction remodeling, adhesion, and diapedesis, which corresponded with lower plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 and soluble E-selectin. In addition, patients with HAP demonstrated underexpression of a type-I interferon signaling gene signature. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HAP and CAP present with a largely similar host response at ICU admission.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/imunologia , Infecção Hospitalar/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
EMBO Mol Med ; 8(7): 745-60, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221051

RESUMO

The heterogeneous nature of colorectal cancer (CRC) complicates prognosis and is suggested to be a determining factor in the efficacy of adjuvant therapy for individual patients. Based on gene expression profiling, CRC is currently classified into four consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs), characterized by specific biological programs, thus suggesting the existence of unifying developmental drivers for each CMS Using human organoid cultures, we investigated the role of such developmental drivers at the premalignant stage of distinct CRC subtypes and found that TGFß plays an important role in the development of the mesenchymal CMS4, which is of special interest due to its association with dismal prognosis. We show that in tubular adenomas (TAs), which progress to classical CRCs, the dominating response to TGFß is death by apoptosis. By contrast, induction of a mesenchymal phenotype upon TGFß treatment prevails in a genetically engineered organoid culture carrying a BRAF(V) (600E) mutation, constituting a model system for sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs). Our data indicate that TGFß signaling is already active in SSA precursor lesions and that TGFß is a critical cue for directing SSAs to the mesenchymal, poor-prognosis CMS4 of CRC.


Assuntos
Adenoma/patologia , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Organoides
12.
Blood ; 127(24): 3062-72, 2016 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26956172

RESUMO

Preclinical studies have suggested that platelets influence the host response during sepsis. We sought to assess the association of admission thrombocytopenia with the presentation, outcome, and host response in patients with sepsis. Nine hundred thirty-one consecutive sepsis patients were stratified according to platelet counts (very low <50 × 10(9)/L, intermediate-low 50 × 10(9) to 99 × 10(9)/L, low 100 × 10(9) to 149 × 10(9)/L, or normal 150 × 10(9) to 399 × 10(9)/L) on admission to the intensive care unit. Sepsis patients with platelet counts <50 × 10(9)/L and 50 × 10(9) to 99 × 10(9)/L presented with higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation scores and more shock. Both levels of thrombocytopenia were independently associated with increased 30-day mortality (hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals 2.00 [1.32-3.05] and 1.72 [1.22-2.44], respectively). To account for baseline differences besides platelet counts, propensity matching was performed, after which the association between thrombocytopenia and the host response was tested, as evaluated by measuring 17 plasma biomarkers indicative of activation and/or dysregulation of pathways implicated in sepsis pathogenesis and by whole genome blood leukocyte expression profiling. In the propensity matched cohort, platelet counts < 50 × 10(9)/L were associated with increased cytokine levels and enhanced endothelial cell activation. All thrombocytopenic groups showed evidence of impaired vascular integrity, whereas coagulation activation was similar between groups. Blood microarray analysis revealed a distinct gene expression pattern in sepsis patients with <50 × 10(9)/L platelets, showing reduced signaling in leukocyte adhesion and diapedesis and increased complement signaling. These data show that admission thrombocytopenia is associated with enhanced mortality and a more disturbed host response during sepsis independent of disease severity, thereby providing clinical validity to animal studies on the role of platelets in severe infection.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Citocinas/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/complicações , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade
13.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0148955, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26871709

RESUMO

HIV patients have an increased risk to develop sepsis and HIV infection affects several components of the immune system involved in sepsis pathogenesis. We hypothesized that HIV infection might aggrevate the aberrant immune response during sepsis, so we aimed to determine the impact of HIV infection on the genomic host response to sepsis. We compared whole blood leukocyte gene expression profiles among sepsis patients with or without HIV co-infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and validated our findings in a cohort of patients admitted to the same ICUs in a different time frame. To examine the influence of HIV infection per se, we also determined the expression of genes of interest in a cohort of asymptomatic HIV patients. We identified a predominantly common host response in sepsis patients with or without HIV co-infection. HIV positive sepsis patients in both ICU cohorts showed overexpression of genes involved in granzyme signaling (GZMA, GZMB), cytotoxic T-cell signaling (CD8A, CD8B) and T-cell inhibitory signaling (LAG3), compared to HIV negative patients. Enhanced expression of CD8A, CD8B and LAG3 was also unmasked in asymptomatic HIV patients. Plasma levels of granzymes in sepsis patients were largely below detection limit, without differences according to HIV status. These results demonstrate that sepsis is characterized by a massive common response with few differences between HIV positive and HIV negative sepsis patients. Observed differences in granzyme signaling, cytotoxic T-cell signaling and T-cell inhibitory signaling appear to be changes commonly observed in asymptomatic HIV patients which persist during sepsis.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por HIV/genética , Sepse/genética , Adulto , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/complicações , Feminino , Granzimas/sangue , Granzimas/genética , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/complicações
14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 192(7): 826-35, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26121490

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) accounts for a major proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions for respiratory failure and sepsis. Diagnostic uncertainty complicates case management, which may delay appropriate cause-specific treatment. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the blood genomic response in patients with suspected CAP and identify a candidate biomarker for the rapid diagnosis of CAP on ICU admission. METHODS: The study comprised two cohorts of consecutively enrolled patients treated for suspected CAP on ICU admission. Patients were designated CAP (cases) and no-CAP patients (control subjects) by post hoc assessment. The first (discovery) cohort (101 CAP and 33 no-CAP patients) was enrolled between January 2011 and July 2012; the second (validation) cohort (70 CAP and 30 no-CAP patients) between July 2012 and June 2013. Blood was collected within 24 hours of ICU admission. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Blood microarray analysis of CAP and no-CAP patients revealed shared and distinct gene expression patterns. A 78-gene signature was defined for CAP, from which a FAIM3:PLAC8 gene expression ratio was derived with area under curve of 0.845 (95% confidence interval, 0.764-0.917) and positive and negative predictive values of 83% and 81%, respectively. Robustness of the FAIM3:PLAC8 ratio was ascertained by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the validation cohort. The FAIM3:PLAC8 ratio outperformed plasma procalcitonin and IL-8 and IL-6 in discriminating between CAP and no-CAP patients. CONCLUSIONS: CAP and no-CAP patients presented shared and distinct blood genomic responses. We propose the FAIM3:PLAC8 ratio as a candidate biomarker to assist in the rapid diagnosis of CAP on ICU admission. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01905033).


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Proteínas/genética , Idoso , Calcitonina/sangue , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Análise Serial de Tecidos
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