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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008953

RESUMO

Clinically used heart valve prostheses, despite their progress, are still associated with limitations. Biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds, as a matrix, were seeded with human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and human induced-pluripotent stem cells-derived MSCs (iMSCs) for the generation of tissue-engineered heart valves. Cell adhesion, proliferation, and distribution, as well as the effects of coating PCL nanofibers, were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. Mechanical properties of seeded PCL scaffolds were investigated under uniaxial loading. iPSCs were used to differentiate into iMSCs via mesoderm. The obtained iMSCs exhibited a comparable phenotype and surface marker expression to adult human MSCs and were capable of multilineage differentiation. EFCFs and MSCs showed good adhesion and distribution on PCL fibers, forming a closed cell cover. Coating of the fibers resulted in an increased cell number only at an early time point; from day 7 of colonization, there was no difference between cell numbers on coated and uncoated PCL fibers. The mechanical properties of PCL scaffolds under uniaxial loading were compared with native porcine pulmonary valve leaflets. The Young's modulus and mean elongation at Fmax of unseeded PCL scaffolds were comparable to those of native leaflets (p = ns.). Colonization of PCL scaffolds with human ECFCs or iMSCs did not alter these properties (p = ns.). However, the native heart valves exhibited a maximum tensile stress at a force of 1.2 ± 0.5 N, whereas it was lower in the unseeded PCL scaffolds (0.6 ± 0.0 N, p < 0.05). A closed cell layer on PCL tissues did not change the values of Fmax (ECFCs: 0.6 ± 0.1 N; iMSCs: 0.7 ± 0.1 N). Here, a successful two-phase protocol, based on the timed use of differentiation factors for efficient differentiation of human iPSCs into iMSCs, was developed. Furthermore, we demonstrated the successful colonization of a biodegradable PCL nanofiber matrix with human ECFCs and iMSCs suitable for the generation of tissue-engineered heart valves. A closed cell cover was already evident after 14 days for ECFCs and 21 days for MSCs. The PCL tissue did not show major mechanical differences compared to native heart valves, which was not altered by short-term surface colonization with human cells in the absence of an extracellular matrix.

2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103867, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023328

RESUMO

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are frequently used for gene transfer and gene editing in vivo, except for endothelial cells, which are remarkably resistant to unmodified AAV-transduction. AAVs are retargeted here toward endothelial cells by coating with second-generation polyamidoamine dendrimers (G2) linked to endothelial-affine peptides (CNN). G2CNN AAV9-Cre (encoding Cre recombinase) are injected into mTmG-mice or mTmG-pigs, cell-specifically converting red to green fluorescence upon Cre-activity. Three endothelial-specific functions are assessed: in vivo quantification of adherent leukocytes after systemic injection of - G2CNN AAV9 encoding 1) an artificial adhesion molecule (S1FG) in wildtype mice (day 10) or 2) anti-inflammatory Annexin A1 (Anxa1) in ApoE-/- mice (day 28). Moreover, 3) in Cas9-transgenic mice, blood pressure is monitored till day 56 after systemic application of G2CNN AAV9-gRNAs, targeting exons 6-10 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a vasodilatory enzyme. G2CNN AAV9-Cre transduces microvascular endothelial cells in mTmG-mice or mTmG-pigs. Functionally, G2CNN AAV9-S1FG mediates S1FG-leukocyte adhesion, whereas G2CNN AAV9-Anxa1-application reduces long-term leukocyte recruitment. Moreover, blood pressure increases in Cas9-expressing mice subjected to G2CNN AAV9-gRNAeNOS . Therefore, G2CNN AAV9 may enable gene transfer in vascular and atherosclerosis models.

3.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG AS) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are known to suffer from poor prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study aimed to develop a simple score system for risk prediction in this vulnerable subset of patients. METHODS: All patients with LFLG AS with reduced EF and sufficient CT data for aortic valve calcification (AVC) quantification, who underwent TAVI at five German centres, were retrospectively included. The Risk prEdiction in patients with Low Ejection Fraction low gradient aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI (RELiEF TAVI) score was developed based on multivariable Cox regression for all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Among all included patients (n=718), RELiEF TAVI score variables were defined as independent predictors of mortality: male sex (HR 1.34 (1.06, 1.68), p=0.013), underweight (HR 3.10 (1.50, 6.40), p=0.0022), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.55 (1.21, 1.99), p=0.001), pulmonary hypertension (HR 1.51 (1.17, 1.94), p=0.0015), atrial fibrillation (HR 1.28 (1.03, 1.60), p=0.028), stroke volume index (HR 0.96 (0.95, 0.98), p<0.001), non-transfemoral access (HR 1.36 (1.05, 1.76), p=0.021) and low AVC density (HR 1.44 (1.15, 1.79), p=0.0012). A score system was developed ranging from 0 to 12 points (risk of 1-year mortality: 13%-99%). Kaplan-Meier analysis for low (0-1 points), moderate (2-4 points) and high RELiEF TAVI score (>4 points) demonstrated rates of 18.0%, 29.0% and 46.1% (p<0.001) for all-cause mortality and 23.8%, 35.9% and 53.4% (p<0.001) for the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality or heart failure rehospitalisation after 1 year, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The RELiEF TAVI score is based on simple clinical, echocardiographic and CT parameters and might serve as a helpful tool for risk prediction in patients with LFLG AS and reduced LVEF scheduled for TAVI.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e054222, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing surgery for severe aortic stenosis (SAS) can be treated with either transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). The choice of procedure depends on several factors, including the clinical judgement of the heart team and patient preferences, which are captured by actively informing and involving patients in a process of shared decision making (SDM). We synthesised the most up-to-date and accessible evidence on the benefits and risks that may be associated with TAVI versus SAVR to support SDM in this highly personalised decision-making process. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Wiley) were searched from January 2000 to August 2020 with no language restrictions. Reference lists of included studies were searched to identify additional studies. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared TAVI versus SAVR in patients with SAS and reported on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, length of stay in intensive care unit or hospital, valve durability, rehospitalisation/reintervention, stroke (any stroke or major/disabling stroke), myocardial infarction, major vascular complications, major bleeding, permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation, new-onset or worsening atrial fibrillation (NOW-AF), endocarditis, acute kidney injury (AKI), recovery time or pain were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers were involved in data extraction and risk of bias (ROB) assessment using the Cochrane tool (one reviewer extracted/assessed the data, and the second reviewer checked it). Dichotomous data were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel method with random-effects to generate a risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Continuous data were pooled using the inverse-variance method with random-effects and expressed as a mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. RESULTS: 8969 records were retrieved and nine RCTs (61 records) were ultimately included (n=8818 participants). Two RCTs recruited high-risk patients, two RCTs recruited intermediate-risk patients, two RCTs recruited low-risk patients, one RCT recruited high-risk (≥70 years) or any-risk (≥80 years) patients; and two RCTs recruited all-risk or 'operable' patients. While there was no overall change in the risk of dying from any cause (30 day: RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.22; ≤1 year: RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.03; 5 years: RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.22), cardiovascular mortality (30 day: RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.39; ≤1 year: RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.06; 2 years: RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.12), or any type of stroke (30 day: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.14;≤1 year: RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.23; 5 years: RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.30), the risk of several clinical outcomes was significantly decreased (major bleeding, AKI, NOW-AF) or significantly increased (major vascular complications, PPM implantation) for TAVI vs SAVR. TAVI was associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay vs SAVR (MD -3.08 days, 95% CI -4.86 to -1.29; 4 RCTs, n=2758 participants). Subgroup analysis generally favoured TAVI patients receiving implantation via the transfemoral (TF) route (vs non-TF); receiving a balloon-expandable (vs self-expanding) valve; and those at low-intermediate risk (vs high risk). All RCTs were rated at high ROB, predominantly due to lack of blinding and selective reporting. CONCLUSIONS: No overall change in the risk of death from any cause or cardiovascular mortality was identified but 95% CIs were often wide, indicating uncertainty. TAVI may reduce the risk of certain side effects while SAVR may reduce the risk of others. Most long-term (5-year) results are limited to older patients at high surgical risk (ie, early trials), therefore more data are required for low risk populations. Ultimately, neither surgical technique was considered dominant, and these results suggest that every patient with SAS should be individually engaged in SDM to make evidence-based, personalised decisions around their care based on the various benefits and risks associated with each treatment. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019138171.

6.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Toronto Aortic Stenosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (TASQ) is a validated instrument for assessing quality of life (QoL) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). In this study, we evaluated health status outcomes, based on the TASQ, in patients with severe AS undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). METHODS: The TASQ registry was a prospective observational registry. Patients with severe AS from nine centres in Europe and one in Canada underwent either SAVR or transfemoral TAVR. Patients completed the TASQ, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and Short Form-12 V.2 prior to the intervention, predischarge, and at 30-day and 3-month follow-ups. Primary end point was the TASQ score. RESULTS: In both the TAVR (n=137) and SAVR (n=137) cohorts, significant increases were observed in all three scores. The overall TASQ score improved as did all but one of the individual domains at 3 months after the intervention (p<0.001). TASQ health expectations were the only domain which worsened (p<0.001). Across TASQ subscores, significant changes were evident from the time of discharge in the TAVR and 30-day follow-up in the SAVR cohort. In a categorical analysis of the TASQ, 39.7% of the TAVR group and 35.0% of the SAVR group had a substantially improved health status at 3 months compared with baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The TASQ captured changes in QoL among patients with severe AS who were treated with TAVR or SAVR. QoL improved substantially after either intervention, as indicated by changes in the TASQ overall score at 3 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03186339.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681711

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects in humans, present in around 40% of newborns with Down's syndrome (DS). The SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich (SH3BGR) gene, which maps to the DS region, belongs to a gene family encoding a cluster of small thioredoxin-like proteins sharing SH3 domains. Although its expression is confined to the cardiac and skeletal muscle, the physiological role of SH3BGR in the heart is poorly understood. Interestingly, we observed a significant upregulation of SH3BGR in failing hearts of mice and human patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Along these lines, the overexpression of SH3BGR exhibited a significant increase in the expression of hypertrophic markers (Nppa and Nppb) and increased cell surface area in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCMs), whereas its knockdown attenuated cellular hypertrophy. Mechanistically, using serum response factor (SRF) response element-driven luciferase assays in the presence or the absence of RhoA or its inhibitor, we found that the pro-hypertrophic effects of SH3BGR are mediated via the RhoA-SRF axis. Furthermore, SH3BGR knockdown resulted in the induction of apoptosis and reduced cell viability in NRVCMs via apoptotic Hippo-YAP signaling. Taking these results together, we here show that SH3BGR is vital for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity and cellular viability in NRVCMs through its modulation of the SRF/YAP signaling pathways.

8.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(10): 1344-1353, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for treating aortic stenosis (AS) has increased exponentially in recent years. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of valvular heart disease, disparities in quality of care (QoC) for TAVI patients remain widespread across Europe. Tailored QoC measures will help to reduce resource utilization and improve patient outcomes without compromising patient safety. Using a clear set of QoC measures, the BENCHMARK registry aims to document the progress that can be achieved if such tailored QoC measures are implemented. METHODS: The BENCHMARK registry (BENCHMARK) is a non-interventional, multicenter registry in patients with severe symptomatic AS undergoing TAVI with a 1- and 12-months follow-up. BENCHMARK will be conducted at 30 centers across Europe and will enroll a total of 2400 consecutive TAVI patients. Patients suffering from severe symptomatic AS who undergo TAVI with a balloon-expandable transcatheter aortic valve will be included. The registry will comprise four phases: (1) a retrospective baseline evaluation phase; (2) an education phase; (3) an implementation phase; and (4) a prospective effect documentation phase (prospective phase). The registry's primary objectives are to reduce the length of hospital stay and accelerate the post-procedural patient recovery pathway, but without compromising safety. The study started in April 2021 and has an estimated completion date of May 2023. DISCUSSION: BENCHMARK will establish QoC measures to reduce resource utilization, intensive care unit bed occupancy, and overall length of hospitalization with uncompromised patient safety post-TAVI (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04579445).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Benchmarking , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 1965-1974, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine if percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with significant coronary artery disease would produce noninferior clinical results when compared with no PCI (control arm). BACKGROUND: PCI in patients undergoing TAVR is not without risk, and there are no randomized data to inform clinical practice. METHODS: Patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis and significant coronary artery disease with Canadian Cardiovascular Society class ≤2 angina were randomly assigned to receive PCI or no PCI prior to TAVR. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death or rehospitalization at 1 year. Noninferiority testing (prespecified margin of 7.5%) was performed in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: At 17 centers, 235 patients underwent randomization. At 1 year, the primary composite endpoint occurred in 48 (41.5%) of the PCI arm and 47 (44.0%) of the no-PCI arm. The requirement for noninferiority was not met (difference: -2.5%; 1-sided upper 95% confidence limit: 8.5%; 1-sided noninferiority test P = 0.067). On analysis of the as-treated population, the difference was -3.7% (1-sided upper 95% confidence limit: 7.5%; P = 0.050). Mortality was 16 (13.4%) in the PCI arm and 14 (12.1%) in the no-PCI arm. At 1 year, there was no evidence of a difference in the rates of stroke, myocardial infarction, or acute kidney injury, with higher rates of any bleed in the PCI arm (P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Observed rates of death and rehospitalization at 1 year were similar between PCI and no PCI prior to TAVR; however, the noninferiority margin was not met, and PCI resulted in a higher incidence of bleeding. (Assessing the Effects of Stenting in Significant Coronary Artery Disease Prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation; ISRCTN75836930).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Canadá , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calculated plasma volume status (PVS) reflects volume overload based on the deviation of the estimated plasma volume (ePV) from the ideal plasma volume (iPV). Calculated PVS is associated with prognosis in the context of heart failure. This single-center study investigated the prognostic impact of PVS in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: A total of 859 TAVI patients had been prospectively enrolled in an observational study and were included in the analysis. An optimal cutoff for PVS of -5.4% was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalization within 1 year after TAVI. RESULTS: A total of 324 patients had a PVS < -5.4% (no congestion), while 535 patients showed a PVS ≥ -5.4% (congestion). The primary endpoint occurred more frequently in patients with a PVS ≥ -5.4% compared to patients with PVS < -5.4% (22.6% vs. 13.0%, p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, PVS was confirmed as a significant predictor of the primary endpoint (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05-2.22, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated PVS, as a marker of subclinical congestion, is significantly associated with all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalization within 1 year after TAVI.

12.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359851

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation, the activation of immune cells and their cross-talk with cardiomyocytes in the pathogenesis and progression of heart diseases has long been overlooked. However, with the latest research developments, it is increasingly accepted that a vicious cycle exists where cardiomyocytes release cardiocrine signaling molecules that spiral down to immune cell activation and chronic state of low-level inflammation. For example, cardiocrine molecules released from injured or stressed cardiomyocytes can stimulate macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and even T-cells, which then subsequently increase cardiac inflammation by co-stimulation and positive feedback loops. One of the key proteins involved in stress-mediated cardiomyocyte signal transduction is a small GTPase RhoA. Importantly, the regulation of RhoA activation is critical for effective immune cell response and is being considered as one of the potential therapeutic targets in many immune-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. In this review we provide an update on the role of RhoA at the juncture of immune cell activation, inflammation and cardiac disease.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomegalia/imunologia , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Cardiopatias/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/imunologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos
13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(14): 1578-1590, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the feasibility of coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute settings among patients who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Impaired coronary access after TAVR may be challenging and particularly in acute settings could have deleterious consequences. METHODS: In this international registry, data from patients with prior TAVR requiring urgent or emergent CA were retrospectively collected. A total of 449 patients from 25 sites with acute coronary syndromes (89.1%) and other acute cardiovascular situations (10.9%) were included. RESULTS: Success rates were high for CA of the right coronary artery (98.3%) and left coronary artery (99.3%) and were higher among patients with short stent-frame prostheses (SFPs) than in those with long SFPs for CA of the right coronary artery (99.6% vs 95.9%; P = 0.005) but not for CA of the left coronary artery (99.7% vs 98.7%; P = 0.24). PCI of native coronary arteries was successful in 91.4% of cases and independent of valve type (short SFP 90.4% vs long SFP 93.4%; P = 0.44). Guide engagement failed in 6 patients, of whom 3 underwent emergent coronary artery bypass grafting and another 3 died in the hospital. Among patients requiring revascularization of native vessels, independent predictors of 30-day all-cause mortality were prior diabetes, cardiogenic shock, and failed PCI but not valve type or success of coronary engagement. CONCLUSIONS: CA or PCI after TAVR in acute settings is usually successful, but selective coronary engagement may be more challenging in the presence of long SFPs. Among patients requiring PCI, prior diabetes, cardiogenic shock, and failed PCI were predictors of early mortality.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15415, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326368

RESUMO

The impact of uninterrupted dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) on bleeding events among patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has not been well studied. We conducted an analysis of 529 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR in our centre and were receiving either DAPT or single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) prior to the procedure. Accordingly, patients were grouped into a DAPT or SAPT group. Following current guidelines, patients in the SAPT group were switched to DAPT for 90 days after the procedure. The primary endpoint of our analysis was the incidence of bleeding events at 30 days according to the VARC-2 classification system. Any VARC-2 bleeding complications were found in 153 patients (28.9%), while major/life-threatening or disabling bleeding events occurred in 60 patients (11.3%). Our study revealed no significant difference between the DAPT vs. SAPT group regarding periprocedural bleeding complications. Based on multivariable analyses, major bleeding (HR 4.59, 95% CI 1.64-12.83, p = 0.004) and life-threatening/disabling bleeding (HR 8.66, 95% CI 3.31-22.65, p < 0.001) events were significantly associated with mortality at 90 days after TAVR. Both pre-existing DAPT and SAPT showed a comparable safety profile regarding periprocedural bleeding complications and mortality at 90 days. Thus, DAPT can be safely continued in patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol ; 32(3): 371-379, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conduction disturbances are common complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). One influencing factor is implantation depth (ID) of the TAVI prosthesis. Since this should be standardized, a differentiated consideration of ID is necessary. OBJECTIVE: Examination of the impact of ID at different anatomical regions of the left ventricular outflow tract on new conduction disturbances, new permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective cohort study included 420 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI with new-generation devices, including 352 patients without pre-existing pacemakers, for analyses on new pacemaker implantation. Of them, 46 patients underwent PPI. ID at non- (NCC) and left-coronary cusp (LCC) were measured using fluoroscopy after valve implantation. Deep ID was defined as the 4th quartile of each prosthesis' ID. Survival was determined from the two-year follow-up. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Deep ID was associated with higher PPI rate only at NCC (p = 0.013). At LCC deep ID resulted in more frequent permanent left bundle branch block (p = 0.014). DI, preexisting pacemaker or new PPI did not affect 2­year survival. No patients with new PPI suffered moderate to severe paravalvular leak. ID at NCC could be a predictor for PPI after TAVI. A detailed consideration of ID in intervention planning might predict outcome after TAVI and common complications. PPI after TAVI and deep ID at NCC and LCC can be considered safe regarding survival in absence of moderate-to-severe paravalvular leak.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Marca-Passo Artificial , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Eletrocardiografia , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Eur Heart J ; 42(28): 2780-2792, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104945

RESUMO

AIMS: Increased shedding of extracellular vesicles (EVs)-small, lipid bilayer-delimited particles with a role in paracrine signalling-has been associated with human pathologies, e.g. atherosclerosis, but whether this is true for cardiac diseases is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we used the surface antigen CD172a as a specific marker of cardiomyocyte (CM)-derived EVs; the CM origin of CD172a+ EVs was supported by their content of cardiac-specific proteins and heart-enriched microRNAs. We found that patients with aortic stenosis, ischaemic heart disease, or cardiomyopathy had higher circulating CD172a+ cardiac EV counts than did healthy subjects. Cellular stress was a major determinant of EV release from CMs, with hypoxia increasing shedding in in vitro and in vivo experiments. At the functional level, EVs isolated from the supernatant of CMs derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells and cultured in a hypoxic atmosphere elicited a positive inotropic response in unstressed CMs, an effect we found to be dependent on an increase in the number of EVs expressing ceramide on their surface. Of potential clinical relevance, aortic stenosis patients with the highest counts of circulating cardiac CD172a+ EVs had a more favourable prognosis for transcatheter aortic valve replacement than those with lower counts. CONCLUSION: We identified circulating CD172a+ EVs as cardiac derived, showing their release and function and providing evidence for their prognostic potential in aortic stenosis patients.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , MicroRNAs , Infarto do Miocárdio , Humanos , Hipóxia , Miocárdio , Miócitos Cardíacos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176108

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is routinely performed via the transfemoral or transapical route. Subclavian, transcarotid, and transaortic access are described as alternative routes for TAVR. The small intercostal approach can be used for a safe TAVR without touching the ribs and sternum.

18.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072399

RESUMO

The study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) at the University Medical Center Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany (reference number: AZ D 559/18) and registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (reference number: DRKS00022222). OBJECTIVE: Unilateral pulmonary edema (UPE) is a complication after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS). We analyzed the impact of this complication on the short- and long-term outcome over a 10-year period. METHODS: We retrospectively observed 393 MIMVS patients between 01/2009 and 12/2019. The primary endpoint was a radiographically and clinically defined UPE within the first postoperative 24 h, secondary endpoints were 30-day and long-term mortality and the percentage of patients requiring ECLS. Risk factors for UPE incidence were evaluated by logistic regression, and risk factors for mortality in the follow-up period were assessed by Cox regression. RESULTS: Median EuroSCORE II reached 0.98% in the complete MIMVS group. Combined 30-day and in-hospital mortality after MIMVS was 2.0% with a 95, 93 and 77% survival rate after 1, 3 and 10 years. Seventy-two (18.3%) of 393 patients developed a UPE 24 h after surgery. Six patients (8.3%) with UPE required an extracorporeal life-support system. Logistic regression analysis identified a higher creatinine level, a worse LV function, pulmonary hypertension, intraoperative transfusion and a longer aortic clamp time as predictors for UPE. Combined in hospital mortality and 30-day mortality was slightly but not significantly higher in the UPE group (4.2 vs. 1.6%; p = 0.17). Predictors for mortality during follow-up were age ≥ 70 years, impaired RVF, COPD, drainage loss ≥ 800 mL and length of ventilation ≥ 48 h. During a median follow-up of 4.6 years, comparable survival between UPE and non-UPE patients was seen in our analysis after 5 years (89 vs. 88%; p = 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital outcome with UPE after MIMVS was not significantly worse compared to non-UPE patients, and no differences were observed in the long-term follow-up. However, prolonged aortic clamp time, worse renal and left ventricular function, pulmonary hypertension and transfusion are associated with UPE.

19.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 6(4): 365-380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997522

RESUMO

Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that has been implicated in diverse disease processes. The authors provide evidence that FYCO1, a component of the autophagic machinery, is essential for adaptation to cardiac stress. Although the absence of FYCO1 does not affect basal autophagy in isolated cardiomyocytes, it abolishes induction of autophagy after glucose deprivation. Likewise, Fyco1-deficient mice subjected to starvation or pressure overload are unable to respond with induction of autophagy and develop impaired cardiac function. FYCO1 overexpression leads to induction of autophagy in isolated cardiomyocytes and transgenic mouse hearts, thereby rescuing cardiac dysfunction in response to biomechanical stress.

20.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 654554, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928138

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has emerged as the standard treatment for the majority of patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. As transcatheter aortic valve replacement expands to patients across all risk groups, optimal patient selection strategies and device implantation techniques become increasingly important. A significant number of patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve replacement present with challenging anatomies and clinical indications that had been historically considered a contraindication for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. This article aims to highlight and discuss some of the potential obstacles that are encountered in clinical practice with a particular emphasis on bicuspid aortic valve disease.

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