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1.
Nephron ; : 1-9, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis and septic shock are life-threatening causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently seen and managed in intensive care units (ICUs). Sepsis-associated AKI (SA-AKI) independently contributes to the mortality of sepsis. Understanding the potential factors involved in kidney function recovery may further aid in the prevention and management of SA-AKI. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of septic shock patients who required kidney replacement therapy and factors associated with kidney function recovery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult septic shock patients who received in-hospital kidney replacement therapy at medical intensive care unit (MICU) at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, from January 1, 2006, to May 31, 2018. Kidney function recovery was defined as liberation from kidney replacement therapy before hospital discharge. Associations between clinical features and kidney recovery were analyzed using multivariable Fine and Gray regression accounting for death as a competing event. RESULTS: Our retrospective cohort consisted of 229 patients with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 64 (52-74) years: 55% were men, 89% were Caucasians, 39% had diabetes mellitus (DM), 16% had heart failure, APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) III score was 105 (84-123), and SOFA (Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment) score was 12 (9-14). The patients received 1,567 (524-4,108) mL of intravenous fluids in the first 3 h, 92% required vasopressor support, and 83% required mechanical ventilation. The median MICU and hospital stays were 7 (4-13) and 19 (10-31) days, respectively. Median (IQR) kidney replacement therapy duration was 7 (3.5-17.1) days. Among 158 ICU survivors, 73 (46%) patients were weaned from RRT in ICU and 85 (54%) were transitioned to intermittent RRT. A higher volume of fluid resuscitation in the first 3 h (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.07 per 1 L, CI: 1.01-1.14, p = 0.04) and a history of DM (HR = 1.70, CI: 1.14-2.54, p = 0.009) were associated with kidney function recovery. CONCLUSION: Among septic shock patients who initiated kidney replacement therapy in the MICU, 41% recovered kidney function before discharge. A higher initial fluid resuscitation volume was associated with recovery, and interestingly, patients with DM had a higher chance of recovery.

2.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 137, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation has become the cornerstone of early septic shock management, but the optimal fluid rate is still not well studied. The goal of this investigation is to examine the relationship between fluid resuscitation rate and septic shock resolution. METHOD: We retrospectively studied adult (≥ 18 years) patients with septic shock, defined based on sepsis III definition, from January 1, 2006, through May 31, 2018, in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of Mayo Clinic Rochester. The fluid resuscitation time was defined as the time required to infuse the initial fluid bolus of 30 ml/kg, based on the recommendations of the 2016 surviving sepsis campaign. The cohort was divided into four groups based on the average fluid rate (group 1 ≥ 0.5, group 2 0.25-0.49, group 3 0.17-0.24, and group 4 < 0.17 ml/kg/min). The primary outcome was the time to shock reversal. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to account for potential confounders. RESULT: A total of 1052 patients met eligibility criteria and were included in the analysis. The time-to-shock reversal was significantly different among the groups (P < .001). Patients in group 1 who received fluid resuscitation at a faster rate had a shorter time to shock reversal (HR = 0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.91; P = .01) when compared with group 4 with a median (IQR) time-to-shock reversal of 1.7 (1.5, 2.0) vs. 2.8 (2.6, 3.3) days, respectively. Using 0.25 ml/kg/min as cutoff, the higher fluid infusion rate was associated with a shorter time to shock reversal (HR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.06-1.41; P = .004) and with decreased odds of 28-day mortality (HR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.60-0.85; P < .001). CONCLUSION: In septic shock patients, initial fluid resuscitation rate of 0.25-0.50 ml/kg/min (i.e., completion of the initial 30 ml/kg IV fluid resuscitation within the first 2 h), may be associated with early shock reversal and lower 28-day mortality compared with slower rates of infusion.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Choque Séptico/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 45(6): 405-411, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty increases risk for complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Whether this association is influenced by anesthetic administered is unknown. We hypothesized that use of neuraxial (spinal or epidural) anesthesia is associated with better outcomes compared with general anesthesia, and that the effect of anesthesia type on outcomes differs by frailty status. METHODS: This single-institution cohort study included all patients (≥50 years) from January 2005 through December 2016 undergoing unilateral, primary and revision TJA. Using multivariable Cox regression, we assessed relationships between anesthesia type, a preoperative frailty deficit index (FI) categorized as non-frail (FI <0.11), vulnerable (FI 0.11 to 0.20), and frail (FI >0.20), and complications (mortality, infection, wound complications/hematoma, reoperation, dislocation, and periprosthetic fracture) within 1 year after surgery. Interactions between anesthesia type and frailty were tested, and stratified models were presented when an interaction (p<0.1) was observed. RESULTS: Among 18 458 patients undergoing TJA, more patients were classified as frail (21.5%) and vulnerable (36.2%) than non-frail (42.3%). Anesthesia type was not associated with complications after adjusting for age, joint, and revision type. However, in analyzes stratified by frailty, vulnerable patients under neuraxial block had less mortality (HR=0.49; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.89) and wound complications/hematoma (HR=0.71; 95% CI 0.55 to 0.90), whereas no difference in risk by anesthesia type was observed among patients found non-frail or frail. CONCLUSIONS: Neuraxial anesthesia use among vulnerable patients was associated with improved survival and less wound complications. Calculating preoperative frailty prior to TJA informs perioperative risk and enhances shared-decision making for selection of anesthesia type.

4.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066620913262, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anemia is common during critical illness and often persists after hospital discharge; however, its potential association with physical outcomes after critical illness is unclear. Our objective was to assess the associations between hemoglobin at intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital discharge with physical status at 3-month follow-up in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multisite prospective cohort study of 195 mechanically ventilated ARDS survivors from 13 ICUs at 4 teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. Multivariable regression was utilized to assess the relationships between ICU and hospital discharge hemoglobin concentrations with measures of physical status at 3 months, including muscle strength (Medical Research Council sumscore), exercise capacity (6-minute walk distance [6MWD]), and self-reported physical functioning (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36v2] Physical Function score and Activities of Daily Living [ADL] dependencies). RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) hemoglobin concentrations at ICU and hospital discharge were 9.5 (8.5-10.7) and 10.0 (9.0-11.2) g/dL, respectively. In multivariable regression analyses, higher ICU discharge hemoglobin concentrations (per 1 g/dL) were associated with greater 3-month 6MWD mean percent of predicted (3.7% [95% confidence interval 0.8%-6.5%]; P = .01) and fewer ADL dependencies (-0.2 [-0.4 to -0.1]; P = .02), but not with percentage of maximal muscle strength (0.7% [-0.9 to 2.3]; P = .37) or SF-36v2 normalized Physical Function scores (0.8 [-0.3 to 1.9]; P = .15). The associations of physical outcomes and hospital discharge hemoglobin concentrations were qualitatively similar, but none were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In ARDS survivors, higher hemoglobin concentrations at ICU discharge, but not hospital discharge, were significantly associated with improved exercise capacity and fewer ADL dependencies. Future studies are warranted to further assess these relationships.

5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of intraoperative fluid balance on postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in cardiac surgical patients is poorly defined. METHODS: In this retrospective study of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis, the primary outcome of interest was postoperative AKI. Secondary outcomes were postoperative fluid balance, cardiac index, vasopressor use, hospital-free days, stroke, myocardial infarction, hospital readmission, and 30- and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 2327 patients were analyzed. Positive intraoperative fluid balance was associated with lower odds of AKI; the lowest odds were in the 20- to 39-mL/kg group (odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.81; P = .002). Positive intraoperative fluid balance was associated with a lower postoperative fluid balance. Increased ultrafiltration volume was associated with increased postoperative fluid resuscitation and vasopressor use. AKI was associated with increased 30- and 90-day mortality. Increased fluid balance was associated with increased odds of myocardial infarction and 30-day mortality. Increased ultrafiltration volume was associated with increased odds of 30- and 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis, positive intraoperative fluid balance was associated with decreased odds of AKI. Patients developing AKI had increased 30- and 90-day mortality. Although the overall incidence was low, increased intraoperative fluid balance was associated with myocardial infarction and 30-day mortality, whereas increased ultrafiltration volume was associated with 30- and 90-day morality. Prospective studies are needed to better define proper intraoperative fluid management in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(6): 1446-1456, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess outcomes after intraoperative plasma transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective study of adult cardiac surgical between 2011 and 2015. Relationships between plasma transfusion volume, coagulation test values, and a primary outcome of early postoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion were assessed via multivariable regression analyses. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, intensive care unit and hospital-free days, intraoperative RBCs, estimated blood loss, and reoperation for bleeding. SETTING: Academic tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,794 patients received intraoperative plasma transfusions during the study period. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Higher plasma transfusion volumes were associated with worse clinical outcomes, with each 1-unit increase being associated with greater odds for postoperative RBCs [odds ratio (OR) 1.12 (confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.20); p = 0.002], intraoperative [OR 1.85 (CI 1.69-2.03); p < 0.001], and fewer hospital-free days [mean -0.20 (-0.39, -0.01); p = 0.04]. Each 0.1 increase in pretransfusion International Normalized Ratio (INR) was associated with increased odds of postoperative and intraoperative RBCs, reoperation for bleeding, and fewer intensive care unit and hospital-free days. For given plasma volumes, patients achieving greater reduction in elevated pretransfusion INR values experienced more favorable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received intraoperative plasma transfusion, higher plasma transfusion volumes were associated with inferior clinical outcomes. Higher pretransfusion INR values also were associated with worse outcomes; however, those achieving a greater degree of INR correction after plasma transfusion demonstrated more favorable outcomes. Prospective studies related to plasma transfusion are needed to address this important topic.

7.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 21(3): e115-e129, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570228

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), survival has significantly improved. Despite such trends, it has been noted that patients frequently refuse treatment. Therefore, we explored the factors associated with treatment refusal in NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Utilizing the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), we identified all stage IV NSCLC cases from 2004 to 2014. Patients who received cancer treatment outside of the reporting facility were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine associations with treatment refusal. RESULTS: A total of 341,993 patients were identified; 5.4% of patients refused radiotherapy and 10.3% refused chemotherapy despite provider recommendations. The proportion of patients refusing radiotherapy and chemotherapy increased over time from 4.2% to 7.3% and 7.9% to 15%, respectively (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, men were less likely to refuse treatment compared to women (respectively, odds ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.84; P < .001; odds ratio = 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.85; P < .001, respectively). Factors associated with radiotherapy refusal included: Medicaid or Medicare as primary insurance, uninsured status, low household median income, and lower educational level. Regarding chemotherapy, uninsured patients, Medicaid patients, and patients with a high comorbidity index were more likely to refuse chemotherapy. Asians had lower rates of chemotherapy refusal relative to non-Hispanic whites. Non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians had increasing chemotherapy refusal rates over time, while non-Hispanic blacks had less pronounced trends over time. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors rather than race/ethnicity appear to influence the refusal of cancer treatment in patients with stage IV NSCLC. Assessing socioeconomic challenges should be an essential part of patient evaluation when discussing treatment options.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between the ratios of transfused allogeneic blood products and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intraoperative hemorrhage are poorly defined. METHODS: To better define these ratios, we undertook a single-center, observational cohort study of all surgical patients (≥18 years) who received rapid transfusion defined by a critical administration threshold of 3 or more units of red blood cells (RBCs) intraoperatively within 1 hour between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess relationships between ratios of plasma to RBCs and platelets to RBCs at 3, 12, and 24 hours and clinical outcomes. The primary outcome was hospital mortality, with secondary outcomes of intensive care unit and hospital-free days. RESULTS: The study included 2385 patients, of whom 14.9% had a plasma-to-RBC ratio of 1.0+, and 47.6% had a platelet-to-RBC ratio of 1.0+. Higher plasma-to-RBC and platelet-to-RBC ratios were observed for patients who underwent cardiac, transplant, and vascular surgery and in patients with greater derangements in hemostatic laboratory values. Ratios did not differ by patient age or severity of illness. Higher ratios were not associated with improved clinical outcomes. Mortality differed by platelet-to-RBC but not plasma-to-RBC ratio, with the highest mortality observed with a platelet-to-RBC ratio of 0.1-0.9 at 24 hours (odds ratio, 3.34 [1.62-6.88]) versus no platelets (P= .001). Higher plasma-to-RBC ratios were associated with decreased hospital-free days, although differences in clinical outcomes were not significant after exclusion of patients receiving only RBCs without component therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion ratios in surgical patients with critical intraoperative hemorrhage were largely related to surgical and hemostatic features rather than baseline patient characteristics. Higher ratios were not associated with improved outcomes.

9.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 3(3): 285-293, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485566

RESUMO

Objective: To identify preoperative factors predicting early admission (within 30 days) of adult kidney transplant recipients to the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study of consecutive kidney transplant recipients between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2016. Children (aged <18 years) and patients who underwent simultaneous multiorgan transplantation were excluded from the analysis. Associations between demographic, transplant-related, and comorbidity variables with ICU admission within 30 days of transplantation were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Of the 1527 eligible patients, 305 (20%) required early ICU admission. In univariate analysis, older age, higher body mass index (BMI), previous transplantation, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, obstructive pulmonary disease, longer ischemia time, pretransplant dialysis, and transplantation from a deceased donor were associated with increased odds of ICU admission. After multivariate adjustment, every 10-year increase in recipient age (odds ratio [OR], 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12-1.42; P<.001), 5-unit increase in BMI (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00-1.22; P=.049), pretransplant dialysis (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.19-2.08; P=.002), and deceased donor transplantation (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.29-2.55; P<.001) were associated with the increased risk of ICU admission. Preemptive transplantation (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84; P=.002) and living donor kidney transplantation (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39-0.77; P<.001) were associated with lower odds of ICU admission after transplantation. Conclusion: Recipient age, BMI, and the need for pretransplant dialysis are associated with a higher risk of early ICU admission after kidney transplantation, whereas living donor kidney transplantation and preemptive transplantation decrease these odds. Early referral of patients with end-stage renal disease for preemptive transplantation and living donor kidney transplantation can significantly reduce transplant-related ICU admissions.

10.
Orthopedics ; 42(6): 335-343, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408522

RESUMO

This cohort study of adult (≥50 years) patients aimed to calculate a validated, preoperative frailty deficit index (FI) and used it to compare outcomes following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), primary and revision, from 2005 through 2016. Using multivariable logistic and Cox regression, the authors analyzed whether FI, adjusted for age, predicts outcomes prior to hospital discharge, within 90 days, and within 365 days. They classified 9818 patients undergoing TKA (7920 primary and 1898 revision; median age, 69 years) as frail (21%), vulnerable (39%), and non-frail (40%). Frail, relative to non-frail, patients were more often female with more systemic diseases (American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, ≥III). While in-hospital, frail patients were found to have increased odds of reoperation (odds ratio, 2.52) and wound complications/hematoma (odds ratio, 2.15). Within 90 days, there was increased risk for periprosthetic fracture (>4-fold) and mortality (>9-fold) following TKA after age adjustment. Within the first year, frail patients were at heightened risk for death (hazard ratio, 8.08), any patient infection (hazard ratio, 1.97), wound complications/hematoma (hazard ratio, 2.16), periprosthetic fracture (hazard ratio, 3.03), and reoperation (hazard ratio, 1.41). At no time point were significant associations found with arthrofibrosis, aseptic loosening, or patellar clunk syndrome. One-fifth of patients undergoing primary and revision TKAs are frail and at notable risk for complications. Calculating a preoperative FI should guide pre-habilitation efforts (eg, chronic disease management, wellness) before and postoperative surveillance after TKA. [Orthopedics. 2019; 42(6):335-343.].


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fraturas Periprotéticas/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia do Joelho/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas Periprotéticas/mortalidade , Fraturas Periprotéticas/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Anesth Analg ; 129(3): 819-829, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is common, yet transfusion strategies remain controversial as pretransfusion hemoglobin triggers are difficult to utilize during acute bleeding. Alternatively, postoperative hemoglobin values may provide useful information regarding transfusion practices, though optimal targets remain undefined. METHODS: This is a single-center observational cohort study of adults receiving allogeneic RBCs during noncardiac surgery from 2010 through 2014. Multivariable regression analyses adjusting for patient illness, laboratory derangements, and surgical features were used to assess relationships between initial postoperative hemoglobin values and a primary outcome of hospital-free days. RESULTS: A total of 8060 patients were included. Those with initial postoperative hemoglobin <7.5 or ≥11.5 g/dL had decreased hospital-free days [mean (95% confidence interval [CI]), -1.45 (-2.50 to -0.41) and -0.83 (-1.42 to -0.24), respectively] compared to a reference range of 9.5-10.4 g/dL (overall P value .003). For those with hemoglobin <7.5 g/dL, the odds (95% CI) for secondary outcomes included acute kidney injury (AKI) 1.43 (1.03-1.99), mortality 2.10 (1.18-3.74), and cerebral ischemia 3.12 (1.08-9.01). The odds for postoperative mechanical ventilation with hemoglobin ≥11.5 g/dL were 1.33 (1.07-1.65). Secondary outcome associations were not significant after multiple comparisons adjustment (Bonferroni P < .0056). CONCLUSIONS: In transfused patients, postoperative hemoglobin values between 7.5 and 11.5 g/dL were associated with superior outcomes compared to more extreme values. This range may represent a target for intraoperative transfusions, particularly during active bleeding when pretransfusion hemoglobin thresholds may be impractical or inaccurate. Given similar outcomes within this range, targeting hemoglobin at the lower aspect may be preferable, though prospective validation is warranted.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos/tendências , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(4): 392-398, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316885

RESUMO

Background There is little data regarding postoperative outcomes of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) undergoing skull base surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine an association between risk factors and proximity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak to surgery in patients with OSA undergoing endoscopic skull base surgery. Methods A retrospective review of neurosurgical inpatients, with and without OSA, at a tertiary care institution from 2002 to 2015 that experienced a postoperative CSF leak after undergoing endoscopic skull base surgery. Results Forty patients met inclusion criteria, 12 (30%) with OSA. OSA patients had significantly higher body mass index (BMI; median 39.4 vs. 31.7, p < 0.01) and were more likely to have diabetes (41.7 vs. 10.7%, p = 0.04) than non-OSA patients; otherwise there were no significant differences in clinical comorbidities. No patients restarted positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the inpatient setting. The type of repair was not a significant predictor of the time from surgery to leak. Patients with OSA experienced postoperative CSF leak 49% sooner than non-OSA patients (Hazard Ratio 1.49, median 2 vs. 6 days, log-rank p = 0.20). Conclusion Patients with OSA trended toward leaking earlier than those without OSA, and no OSA patients repaired with a nasoseptal flap (NSF) had a leak after postoperative day 5. Due to a small sample size this trend did not reach significance. Future studies will help to determine the appropriate timing for restarting PPV in this high risk population. This is important given PPV's significant benefit to the patient's overall health and its ability to lower intracranial pressure.

14.
Br J Anaesth ; 122(5): 671-681, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesised that exposure to multiple, but not single, procedures requiring general anaesthesia before age 3 yr is associated with a specific pattern of deficits in processing speed and fine motor skills. METHODS: A secondary analysis (using factor and cluster analyses) of data from the Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids study was conducted, in which unexposed, singly exposed, and multiply exposed children born in Olmsted County, MN, USA from 1994 to 2007 were sampled using a propensity-guided approach and underwent neuropsychological testing at ages 8-12 or 15-20 yr. RESULTS: In the factor analysis, the data were well fit to a five factor model. For subjects multiply (but not singly) exposed to anaesthesia, a factor reflecting motor skills, visual-motor integration, and processing speed was significantly lower [standardised difference of -0.35 (95% confidence interval {CI} -0.57 to -0.13)] compared with unexposed subjects. No other factor was associated with exposure. Three groups were identified in the cluster analysis, with 106 subjects (10.6%) in Cluster A (lowest performance in most tests), 557 (55.9%) in Cluster B, and 334 (33.5%) in Cluster C (highest performance in most tests). The odds of multiply exposed children belonging to Cluster A was 2.83 (95% CI: 1.49-5.35; P=0.001) compared with belonging to Cluster B; there was no other significant association between exposure status and cluster membership. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple, but not single, exposures to procedures requiring general anaesthesia before age 3 yr are associated with a specific pattern of deficits in neuropsychological tests. Factors predicting which children develop the most pronounced deficits remain unknown.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Gerais/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Anestésicos Gerais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br J Anaesth ; 122(4): 470-479, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the neurotoxicity produced by anaesthetics administered to young animals can also occur in children. Exposure of infant macaques to ketamine impairs performance in selected domains of the Operant Test Battery (OTB), which can also be administered to children. This study determined whether a similar pattern of results on the OTB is found in children exposed to procedures requiring general anaesthesia before age 3 yr. METHODS: We analysed data from the Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids (MASK) study, in which unexposed, singly-exposed, and multiply-exposed children born in Olmsted County, MN, USA, from 1994 to 2007 were sampled using a propensity-guided approach and prospectively underwent OTB testing at ages 8-12 or 15-20 yr, using five tasks that generated 15 OTB test scores. RESULTS: In primary analysis, none of the OTB test scores depended upon anaesthesia exposure status when corrected for multiple comparisons. Cluster analysis identified four clusters of subjects, with cluster membership determined by relative performance on the OTB tasks. There was no evidence of association between exposure status and cluster membership. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the OTB scores loaded onto four factors. The score for one factor was significantly less in multiply-exposed children (mean standardised difference -0.28 [95% confidence interval, -0.55 to -0.01; P=0.04]), but significance did not survive a sensitivity analysis accounting for outlying values. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide little evidence to support the hypothesis that children exposed to procedures requiring anaesthesia show deficits on OTB tasks that are similar to those observed in non-human primates.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Anestésicos Gerais/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
16.
J Arthroplasty ; 34(1): 56-64.e5, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty and disability from arthritis are closely intertwined and little is known about the impact of frailty on total hip arthroplasty (THA) outcomes. We hypothesized that higher preoperative frailty is associated with more adverse events following THA. METHODS: All patients (≥50 years) undergoing unilateral primary or revision THA at a single institution from 2005 through 2016 were included. We analyzed the association of frailty (measured by a frailty deficit index) with postoperative outcomes in hospital, within 90 days, and within 1 year using multivariable logistic and Cox regression, adjusting for age. RESULTS: Among 8640 patients undergoing THA (6502 primary and 2138 revisions; median age 68 years), 22.7%, 32.9%, and 44.4% were classified as frail, vulnerable, and nonfrail, respectively. Frail patients tended to be female, older, sicker (American Society of Anesthesiologists ≥3), and received general anesthesia more frequently. Relative to nonfrail patients, frail patients had significantly increased odds of wound complications/hematoma (odds ratio 2.01) and reoperation (odds ratio 2.74) while in hospital, and increased risks for mortality (1-year hazards ratio [HR] 5.65), infection (1-year HR 3.63), dislocation (1-year HR 2.10), wound complications/hematoma (1-year HR 2.61), and reoperation (1-year HR 2.22) within 90 days and 1 year. Frailty was also associated with >5.5-fold increased mortality risk 1 year following THA. No significant associations with aseptic loosening, periprosthetic fracture, or heterotopic ossification were observed. CONCLUSION: A higher preoperative frailty index is associated with increased mortality and perioperative complications following primary and revision THA. The proposed frailty deficit index provides clinically important information for healthcare providers to use when counseling patients prior to decision for surgery.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Ossificação Heterotópica , Fraturas Periprotéticas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 197: 74-79, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) and other hormonal contraceptives are associated with a higher incidence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). DESIGN: Retrospective, population-based, case-control study. METHODS: Setting: Female IIH patients evaluated between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2016 were identified using the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP), a record-linkage system of medical records for all patient-physician encounters among Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents. STUDY POPULATION: Fifty-three female residents of Olmsted County diagnosed with IIH between 15 and 45 years of age. The use of OCPs and other hormonal contraceptives was compared to controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Interventions/Exposures: Hormonal contraceptives. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds of developing IIH. RESULTS: Of the 53 women diagnosed with IIH between 15 and 45 years of age, 11 (20.8%) had used hormonal contraceptives within ≤30 days of the date of IIH diagnosis, in contrast to 30 (31.3%) among the control patients. The odds ratio of hormonal contraceptive use and IIH was 0.55 (95% conficence interval [CI]: 0.24-1.23, P = .146). The odds ratio of OCP use was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.20-1.34, P = .174). CONCLUSIONS: OCP and other hormonal contraceptives were not significantly associated with a higher incidence of IIH, arguing against the need for women with IIH to discontinue their use.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais/efeitos adversos , Pseudotumor Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 103(4): 527-529, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The literature on the prevalence and demographics of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is 30-70 years old and largely comprises small sample sizes. This study provides epidemiological findings of this common disorder from the largest cohort reported to date. METHODS: The medical records of all children (<5 years of age) residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, when diagnosed with CNLDO from 1 January 1995 through 31 December 2004, were reviewed. RESULTS: Of 17 713 newborns born during the 10-year study period, 1998 were diagnosed with CNLDO, yielding a birth prevalence of one in nine live births. The diagnosis was made in approximately 90% by a primary care physician, at a median age of 5 weeks, with no gender predilection. Compared with the reference population, CNLDO was associated with premature birth (p=0.005) and was more prevalent among Caucasians (p<0.001). Two-thirds of patients initially presented with discharge alone, 18% with tearing alone and 15% with both discharge and tearing. CONCLUSIONS: In this large population-based cohort, CNLDO occurred in one in nine live births with no gender predilection. Prematurity and Caucasian race were associated with the development of CNLDO. Mucopurulent discharge was a much more common feature than tearing at initial presentation.


Assuntos
Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/epidemiologia , Ducto Nasolacrimal/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Dacriocistorinostomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/congênito , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Ducto Nasolacrimal/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Transfusion ; 59(1): 112-124, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative plasma transfusion is common, yet little is known regarding its effects on perioperative coagulation tests or clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of adults receiving intraoperative plasma transfusion at a single center from 2011 to 2015. Relationships between plasma transfusion volume, changes in coagulation test values, and clinical outcomes, including a primary outcome of early postoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, were assessed with multivariable regression analyses. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU)- and hospital-free days, intraoperative RBC transfusions, and estimated blood loss. RESULTS: A total of 3393 unique patients were included, with median (IQR) transfusion of 2 (2-4) units. In multivariable analyses, higher plasma volumes were associated with worse outcomes, with each 1 mL/kg increase associated with increased odds for postoperative (1.02 [1.01-1.03], p < 0.001) and intraoperative RBCs (1.17 [1.16-1.19], p < 0.001) and fewer ICU- and hospital-free days (mean difference [95% CI], -0.08 [-0.12 to -0.05], p < 0.001; and -0.09 [-0.13 to -0.06], p < 0.001, respectively). Greater decreases in international normalized ratio (INR) following plasma transfusion were associated with decreased odds of postoperative RBCs (0.35 [0.25-0.47], p < 0.001), decreased mortality (0.50 [0.31-0.83], p = 0.007), and increased mean ICU- (1.31 [0.41-2.21], p = 0.004) and hospital-free days (1.15 [0.19-2.10], p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: In patients receiving intraoperative plasma transfusion, higher transfusion volumes were associated with inferior clinical outcomes; however, greater improvements in INR were associated with improved outcomes. Future prospective studies are necessary to better define these relationships and to explore plasma transfusion triggers beyond the limitations of INR.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Volume Plasmático/fisiologia , Transfusão de Plaquetas/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Am J Surg ; 218(3): 514-520, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative treatment may be associated with prolonged survival and improved quality of life, but remains underutilized in stage IV colorectal (CRC). We examined a national cohort of stage IV CRC patients to determine the factors associated with palliative treatment. METHODS: Stage IV CRC patients, classified based on their survival length (<6 months, 6-24 months, and 24 + months), were analyzed using the American College of Surgeons National Cancer Data Base (2004-2013). Multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with palliative treatment. RESULTS: Of 85,981 patients analyzed, 10.9% received palliative treatment. For 6-24 months survival, a more recent year of diagnosis, Medicaid, uninsured status, Mountain and Pacific regions were associated with higher odds of palliative treatment. For those who survived < 6months, older patients had lower odds, while academic centers and residence > 20 miles from treating institutions were associated with increased likelihood of palliative treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Palliative treatment in stage IV CRC is associated with a more recent year of diagnosis, Medicaid, academic centers, Mountain and Pacific regions of the US.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos
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