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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 15% of atopic dermatitis liability-scale heritability could be attributed to 31 susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies, with only three of them (IL13, IL6R, and FLG) resolved to protein-coding variants. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a significant portion of unexplained atopic dermatitis heritability is further explained by low-frequency and rare variants in gene coding sequence. METHODS: We evaluated common, low-frequency and rare protein-coding variants using exome chip and replication genotype data of 15,574 patients and 377,839 controls, combined with whole transcriptome data on lesional, non-lesional and healthy skin samples of 27 patients and 38 controls. RESULTS: Additional 12.56% (s.e. 0.74%) of atopic dermatitis heritability is explained by rare protein-coding variation. We identified Docking protein 2 (DOK2) and CD200 Receptor 1 (CD200R1) as novel genome-wide significant susceptibility genes. Rare coding variants associated with atopic dermatitis are further enriched in five genes (IL4R, IL13, JAK1, JAK2, TYK2) of the IL13 pathway, all of which are targets for novel systemic atopic dermatitis therapeutics. Multiomics-based network and RNA-Sequencing analysis revealed DOK2 as a central hub interacting, among others, with CD200R1, IL6R and STAT3. Multi-tissue gene expression profile analysis for 53 tissue types from GTEx showed that disease-associated protein-coding variants exert their greatest effect in skin tissues. CONCLUSION: Our discoveries highlight a major role of rare coding variants in atopic dermatitis acting independently of common variants. Further extensive functional studies are required to detect all potential causal variants and to specify the contribution of novel susceptibility genes DOK2 and CD200R1 to overall disease susceptibility.

2.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is thought to be T cell mediated and therefore dependent on the interaction between the T-cell receptor (TCR) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins expressed on antigen presenting cells.The collection of all TCRs in one individual, known as the TCR repertoire, is characterized by enormous diversity and inter-individual variability. It was shown that healthy monozygotic (MZ) twins are more similar in their TCR repertoire than unrelated individuals. Therefore, MZ twins concordant or discordant for IBD, may be useful to identify disease-related and non-genetic factors in the TCR repertoire that could potentially be used as disease biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Employing unique molecular barcoding that can distinguish between PCR artefacts and true sequence variation, we performed deep TCRα and TCRß repertoire profiling of the peripheral blood of 28 MZ twin pairs from Denmark and Germany, 24 of which were discordant and 4 concordant for IBD. We observed disease- and smoking-associated traits such as sharing, diversity and abundance of specific clonotypes in the TCR repertoire of IBD patients, and particularly in patients with active disease, compared to their healthy twins. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified TCR repertoire features specific for smokers and IBD patients, particularly when signs of disease activity were present. These findings are a first step towards the application of TCR repertoire analyses as a valuable tool to characterize inflammatory bowel diseases and to identify potential biomarkers and true disease causes.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.

4.
Hepatology ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Carriage of rs738409:G in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) is associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, rs72613567:TA in hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) was shown to be associated with a reduced risk for developing alcohol-related liver disease and to attenuate the risk associated with PNPLA3 rs738409:G. This study explores the risk-associations between these two genetic variants and the development of alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Variants in HSD17B13 and PNPLA3 were genotyped in 6,171 participants, including: 1,031 with alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC; 1,653 with alcohol-related cirrhosis without HCC; 2,588 alcohol misusers with no liver disease; and 899 healthy controls. Genetic associations with the risks for alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC were determined using logistic regression analysis. Carriage of HSD17B13 rs72613567:TA was associated with a lower risk for both cirrhosis (OR 0.79 [95% CI 0.72-0.88], p=8.13×10-6) and HCC (OR 0.77 [95% CI 0.68-0.89], p=2.27×10-4), while carriage of PNPLA3 rs738409:G was associated with an increased risk for developing cirrhosis (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.54-1.88], p=1.52x10-26) and HCC (OR 1.77 [95% CI 1.58-1.98], p=2.31×10-23). These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, type II diabetes mellitus and country. Carriage of HSD17B13 rs72613567:TA attenuated the risk for developing cirrhosis associated with PNPLA3 rs738409:G in both men and women but the protective effect against the subsequent development of HCC was only observed in men (p=1.72×10-4; ORallelic, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Carriage of variants in PNPLA3 and HSD17B13 differentially affect the risk for developing advanced alcohol-related liver disease. A genotypic/phenotypic risk score might facilitate earlier diagnosis of HCC in this population.

6.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 59, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After years of concentrated research efforts, the exact cause of Crohn's disease (CD) remains unknown. Its accurate diagnosis, however, helps in management and preventing the onset of disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified 241 CD loci, but these carry small log odds ratios and are thus diagnostically uninformative. METHODS: Here, we describe a machine learning method-AVA,Dx (Analysis of Variation for Association with Disease)-that uses exonic variants from whole exome or genome sequencing data to extract CD signal and predict CD status. Using the person-specific coding variation in genes from a panel of only 111 individuals, we built disease-prediction models informative of previously undiscovered disease genes. By additionally accounting for batch effects, we were able to accurately predict CD status for thousands of previously unseen individuals from other panels. RESULTS: AVA,Dx highlighted known CD genes including NOD2 and new potential CD genes. AVA,Dx identified 16% (at strict cutoff) of CD patients at 99% precision and 58% of the patients (at default cutoff) with 82% precision in over 3000 individuals from separately sequenced panels. CONCLUSIONS: Larger training panels and additional features, including other types of genetic variants and environmental factors, e.g., human-associated microbiota, may improve model performance. However, the results presented here already position AVA,Dx as both an effective method for revealing pathogenesis pathways and as a CD risk analysis tool, which can improve clinical diagnostic time and accuracy. Links to the AVA,Dx Docker image and the BitBucket source code are at https://bromberglab.org/project/avadx/ .

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the gut microbiota shows overabundance of commensal bacteria species in patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, similar to patients with MS or neuromyelitis optica where they potentially balance pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses or participate in disease pathogenesis by molecular mimicry. METHODS: Intestinal microbiota was characterized in patients with NMDAR encephalitis (n = 23, mean age: 34 ± 12.7 years; 21 females) and age/sex/environment-matched healthy controls (n = 24, 40 ± 14.2 years; 22 females) using stool bacteria 16S rDNA sequencing and classification in operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Statistical analyses focused on intraindividual and interindividual bacterial diversity and identification of differentially abundant taxa. RESULTS: Patients with NMDAR encephalitis and controls had similar microbiome profiles of the gut microbiota regarding intraindividual bacterial diversity, OTU distribution, ratio between regional and local species diversity when testing all OTUs, and genera with a relative abundance greater than 0.5%. Similarly, the subgroup of NMDAR encephalitis patients with an ovarian teratoma (n = 3) showed no differences in microbiome variation compared with controls. Patients in the acute encephalitis stage (n = 8) showed significant differences in the numbers of Clostridium XVIII, Clostridium IV, Oscillibacter, Prevotella, and Blautia; however, significance was lost after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSION: Patients with NMDAR encephalitis and controls both had a normal gut microbiome. The lack of overabundance of certain bacterial species in patients suggests that microbiome changes are no major contributors to the pathogenesis, disease course, or prognosis in NMDAR encephalitis. Despite the small sample size and heterogeneous groups, findings indicate differences to other neuroimmunologic diseases.

8.
Cell ; 178(6): 1299-1312.e29, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474368

RESUMO

Metformin is the first-line therapy for treating type 2 diabetes and a promising anti-aging drug. We set out to address the fundamental question of how gut microbes and nutrition, key regulators of host physiology, affect the effects of metformin. Combining two tractable genetic models, the bacterium E. coli and the nematode C. elegans, we developed a high-throughput four-way screen to define the underlying host-microbe-drug-nutrient interactions. We show that microbes integrate cues from metformin and the diet through the phosphotransferase signaling pathway that converges on the transcriptional regulator Crp. A detailed experimental characterization of metformin effects downstream of Crp in combination with metabolic modeling of the microbiota in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients predicts the production of microbial agmatine, a regulator of metformin effects on host lipid metabolism and lifespan. Our high-throughput screening platform paves the way for identifying exploitable drug-nutrient-microbiome interactions to improve host health and longevity through targeted microbiome therapies. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(11): 1478-1488, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasma proteins have been widely studied as candidate biomarkers to predict brain amyloid deposition to increase recruitment efficiency in secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease. Most such biomarker studies are targeted to specific proteins or are biased toward high abundant proteins. METHODS: 4001 plasma proteins were measured in two groups of participants (discovery group = 516, replication group = 365) selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study, all of whom had measures of amyloid. RESULTS: A panel of proteins (n = 44), along with age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4, predicted brain amyloid deposition with good performance in both the discovery group (area under the curve = 0.78) and the replication group (area under the curve = 0.68). Furthermore, a causal relationship between amyloid and tau was confirmed by Mendelian randomization. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that high-dimensional plasma protein testing could be a useful and reproducible approach for measuring brain amyloid deposition.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485028

RESUMO

Gallstones Disease (GSD) is one of the most common digestive diseases requiring hospitalization and surgical procedures in the world. GSD has a high prevalence in populations with European or Amerindian ancestry (10-20%) and the influence of genetic factors is broadly acknowledged. However, known genetic variants do not entirely explain the disease heritability suggesting that additional genetic variants remain to be identified. Here, we examined the association of copy number variants (CNVs) with GSD in a sample of 4778 individuals (1929 GSD cases and 2849 controls) including two European cohorts from Germany (n = 3702) and one admixed Latin American cohort from Chile (n = 1076). We detected 2936 large and rare CNVs events (size > 100 kb, frequency < 1%). Case-control burden analysis and generalized linear regression models revealed significant association of CNVs with GSD in men, with the strongest effect observed with CNVs overlapping lipid metabolism genes (p-value = 6.54 × 10-4; OR = 2.76; CI 95% = 1.53-4.89). Our results indicate a clear link between CNVs and GSD in men and provides additional evidence that the genetic components of risk for GSD are complex, can be sex specific and include CNVs affecting genes involved in lipid metabolism.

11.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 133, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interplay between hosts and their associated microbiome is now recognized as a fundamental basis of the ecology, evolution, and development of both players. These interdependencies inspired a new view of multicellular organisms as "metaorganisms." The goal of the Collaborative Research Center "Origin and Function of Metaorganisms" is to understand why and how microbial communities form long-term associations with hosts from diverse taxonomic groups, ranging from sponges to humans in addition to plants. METHODS: In order to optimize the choice of analysis procedures, which may differ according to the host organism and question at hand, we systematically compared the two main technical approaches for profiling microbial communities, 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic shotgun sequencing across our panel of ten host taxa. This includes two commonly used 16S rRNA gene regions and two amplification procedures, thus totaling five different microbial profiles per host sample. CONCLUSION: While 16S rRNA gene-based analyses are subject to much skepticism, we demonstrate that many aspects of bacterial community characterization are consistent across methods. The resulting insight facilitates the selection of appropriate methods across a wide range of host taxa. Overall, we recommend single- over multi-step amplification procedures, and although exceptions and trade-offs exist, the V3 V4 over the V1 V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Finally, by contrasting taxonomic and functional profiles and performing phylogenetic analysis, we provide important and novel insight into broad evolutionary patterns among metaorganisms, whereby the transition of animals from an aquatic to a terrestrial habitat marks a major event in the evolution of host-associated microbial composition.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12297, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444389

RESUMO

The culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) at large scale becomes feasible with the aid of scalable suspension setups in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Innovative monitoring options and emerging automated process control strategies allow for the necessary highly defined culture conditions. Next to standard process characteristics such as oxygen consumption, pH, and metabolite turnover, a reproducible and steady formation of hiPSC aggregates is vital for process scalability. In this regard, we developed a hiPSC-specific suspension culture unit consisting of a fully monitored CSTR system integrated into a custom-designed and fully automated incubator. As a step towards cost-effective hiPSC suspension culture and to pave the way for flexibility at a large scale, we constructed and utilized tailored miniature CSTRs that are largely made from three-dimensional (3D) printed polylactic acid (PLA) filament, which is a low-cost material used in fused deposition modelling. Further, the monitoring tool for hiPSC suspension cultures utilizes in situ microscopic imaging to visualize hiPSC aggregation in real-time to a statistically significant degree while omitting the need for time-intensive sampling. Suitability of our culture unit, especially concerning the developed hiPSC-specific CSTR system, was proven by demonstrating pluripotency of CSTR-cultured hiPSCs at RNA (including PluriTest) and protein level.

14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(2): 252-264.e10, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399369

RESUMO

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic disorders that are linked to microbiome alterations. However, their co-occurrence poses challenges in disentangling microbial features unique to each condition. We analyzed gut microbiomes of lean non-diabetic (n = 633), obese non-diabetic (n = 494), and obese individuals with T2D (n = 153) from German population and metabolic disease cohorts. Microbial taxonomic and functional profiles were analyzed along with medical histories, serum metabolomics, biometrics, and dietary data. Obesity was associated with alterations in microbiome composition, individual taxa, and functions with notable changes in Akkermansia, Faecalibacterium, Oscillibacter, and Alistipes, as well as in serum metabolites that correlated with gut microbial patterns. However, microbiome associations were modest for T2D, with nominal increases in Escherichia/Shigella. Medications, including antihypertensives and antidiabetics, along with dietary supplements including iron, were significantly associated with microbiome variation. These results differentiate microbial components of these interrelated metabolic diseases and identify dietary and medication exposures to consider in future studies.

15.
Gastroenterology ; 157(5): 1279-1292.e11, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Altered interactions between the mucosal immune system and intestinal microbiota contribute to pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). It is not clear how inhibitors of cytokines, such as antagonists of tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF), affect the intestinal microbiome. We investigated the effects of anti-TNF agents on gut microbe community structure and function in a longitudinal 2-step study of patients with IBD. We correlated our findings with outcomes of treatment and investigated patterns of metabolites in fecal samples before and after anti-TNF therapy. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 2 cohorts of patients in Germany; the discovery cohort comprised 12 patients with IBD, 17 patients with rheumatic disease, and 19 healthy individuals (controls); fecal samples were collected at baseline and 2, 6, and 30 weeks after induction of anti-TNF therapy. The validation cohort comprised 23 patients with IBD treated with anti-TNF or vedolizumab (anti-α4ß7 integrin) and 99 healthy controls; fecal samples were collected at baseline and at weeks 2, 6, and 14. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by V3-V4 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. Clinical response and remission were determined by clinical disease activity scores. Metabolic network reconstruction and associated fecal metabolite level inference was performed in silico using the AGORA (Assembly of Gut Organisms through Reconstruction and Analysis) resource. Metabolomic analyses of fecal samples from a subset of patients were performed to validate metabolites associated with treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Anti-TNF therapy shifted the diversity of fecal microbiota in patients with IBD, but not with rheumatic disease, toward that of controls. Across timepoints, diversity indices did not vary significantly between patients with IBD who did or did not achieve clinical remission after therapy. In contrast, in silico modeling of metabolic interactions between gut microbes found metabolite exchange to be significantly reduced at baseline in fecal samples from patients with IBD and to be associated with later clinical remission. Predicted levels of butyrate and substrates involved in butyrate synthesis (ethanol or acetaldehyde) were significantly associated with clinical remission following anti-TNF therapy, verified by fecal metabolomic analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic network reconstruction and assessment of metabolic profiles of fecal samples might be used to identify patients with IBD likely to achieve clinical remission following anti-TNF therapy and increase our understanding of the heterogeneity of IBD.

16.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(10): 2916-2925, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa require frequent intravenous antibiotic treatment in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance is common in these patients, which to date has been investigated at long-term intervals only. OBJECTIVES: To investigate under close to real-time conditions the dynamics of the response by P. aeruginosa to a single course of antibiotic therapy and the potentially associated rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance, as well as the impact on the airway microbiome. METHODS: We investigated a cohort of adult CF patients that were treated with a single course of antimicrobial combination therapy. Using daily sampling during treatment, we quantified the expression of resistance by P. aeruginosa (median of six isolates per daily sample, 347 isolates in total), measured bacterial load by P. aeruginosa-specific quantitative PCR and characterized the airway microbiome with a 16S rRNA-based approach. WGS was performed to reconstruct intrapatient strain phylogenies. RESULTS: In two patients, we found rapid and large increases in resistance to meropenem and ceftazidime. Phylogenetic reconstruction of strain relationships revealed that resistance shifts are probably due to de novo evolution and/or the selection of resistant subpopulations. We observed high interindividual variation in the reduction of bacterial load, microbiome composition and antibiotic resistance. CONCLUSIONS: We show that CF-associated P. aeruginosa populations can quickly respond to antibiotic therapy and that responses are patient specific. Thus, resistance evolution can be a direct consequence of treatment, and drug efficacy can be lost much faster than usually assumed. The consideration of these patient-specific rapid resistance shifts can help to improve treatment of CF-associated infections, for example by deeper sampling of bacteria for diagnostics, repeated monitoring of pathogen susceptibility and switching between drugs.

17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 105, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral mucosa has an important role in maintaining barrier integrity at the gateway to the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Smoking is a strong environmental risk factor for the common oral inflammatory disease periodontitis and oral cancer. Cigarette smoke affects gene methylation and expression in various tissues. This is the first epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) that aimed to identify biologically active methylation marks of the oral masticatory mucosa that are associated with smoking. RESULTS: Ex vivo biopsies of 18 current smokers and 21 never smokers were analysed with the Infinium Methylation EPICBeadChip and combined with whole transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq; 16 mio reads per sample) of the same samples. We analysed the associations of CpG methylation values with cigarette smoking and smoke pack year (SPY) levels in an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Nine CpGs were significantly associated with smoking status, with three CpGs mapping to the genetic region of CYP1B1 (cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily B member 1; best p = 5.5 × 10-8) and two mapping to AHRR (aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor; best p = 5.9 × 10-9). In the SPY analysis, 61 CpG sites at 52 loci showed significant associations of the quantity of smoking with changes in methylation values. Here, the most significant association located to the gene CYP1B1, with p = 4.0 × 10-10. RNA-Seq data showed significantly increased expression of CYP1B1 in smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 2.2 × 10-14), together with 13 significantly upregulated transcripts. Six transcripts were significantly downregulated. No differential expression was observed for AHRR. In vitro studies with gingival fibroblasts showed that cigarette smoke extract directly upregulated the expression of CYP1B1. CONCLUSION: This study validated the established role of CYP1B1 and AHRR in xenobiotic metabolism of tobacco smoke and highlights the importance of epigenetic regulation for these genes. For the first time, we give evidence of this role for the oral masticatory mucosa.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219489, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318902

RESUMO

The global obesity epidemic constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality challenging public health care systems worldwide. Thus, a better understanding of its pathophysiology and the development of novel therapeutic options are urgently needed. Recently, alterations of the intestinal microbiome in the obese have been discussed as a promoting factor in the pathophysiology of obesity and as a contributing factor to related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The present pilot study investigated the effect of a structured weight loss program on fecal microbiota in obese type 2 diabetics. Twelve study subjects received a low-calorie formula diet for six weeks, followed by a nine week food reintroduction and stabilization period. Fecal microbiota were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of stool samples at baseline, after six weeks and at the end of the study after fifteen weeks. All study subjects lost weight continuously throughout the program. Changes in fecal microbiota were most pronounced after six weeks of low-calorie formula diet, but reverted partially until the end of the study. However, the gut microbiota phylogenetic diversity increased persistently. The abundance of Collinsella, which has previously been associated with atherosclerosis, decreased significantly during the weight loss program. This study underlines the impact of dietary changes on the intestinal microbiome and further demonstrates the beneficial effects of weight loss on gut microbiota. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02970838.

19.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 50(5): 580-589, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-centre studies reported alterations of faecal microbiota in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). As regional factors may affect microbial communities, it is unclear if a microbial signature of PSC exists across different geographical regions. AIM: To identify a robust microbial signature of PSC independent of geography and environmental influences. METHODS: We included 388 individuals (median age, 47 years; range, 15-78) from Germany and Norway in the study, 137 patients with PSC (n = 75 with colitis), 118 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 133 healthy controls. Faecal microbiomes were analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1-V2). Differences in relative abundances of single taxa were subjected to a meta-analysis. RESULTS: In both cohorts, microbiota composition (beta-diversity) differed between PSC patients and controls (P < 0.001). Random forests classification discriminated PSC patients from controls in both geographical cohorts with an average area under the curve of 0.88. Compared to healthy controls, many new cohort-spanning alterations were identified in PSC, such as an increase of Proteobacteria and the bile-tolerant genus Parabacteroides, which were detected independent from geographical region. Associated colitis only had minor effects on microbiota composition, suggesting that PSC itself drives the faecal microbiota changes observed. CONCLUSION: Compared to healthy controls, numerous microbiota alterations are reproducible in PSC patients across geographical regions, clearly pointing towards a microbiota composition that is shaped by the disease itself and not by environmental factors. These reproducibly altered microbial populations might provide future insights into the pathophysiology of PSC.

20.
Gut ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) display an altered colonic microbiome compared with healthy controls. However, little is known on the bile duct microbiome and its interplay with bile acid metabolism in PSC. METHODS: Patients with PSC (n=43) and controls without sclerosing cholangitis (n=22) requiring endoscopic retrograde cholangiography were included prospectively. Leading indications in controls were sporadic choledocholithiasis and papillary adenoma. A total of 260 biospecimens were collected from the oral cavity, duodenal fluid and mucosa and ductal bile. Microbiomes of the upper alimentary tract and ductal bile were profiled by sequencing the 16S-rRNA-encoding gene (V1-V2). Bile fluid bile acid composition was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and validated in an external cohort (n=20). RESULTS: The bile fluid harboured a diverse microbiome that was distinct from the oral cavity, the duodenal fluid and duodenal mucosa communities. The upper alimentary tract microbiome differed between PSC patients and controls. However, the strongest differences between PSC patients and controls were observed in the ductal bile fluid, including reduced biodiversity (Shannon entropy, p=0.0127) and increase of pathogen Enterococcus faecalis (FDR=4.18×10-5) in PSC. Enterococcus abundance in ductal bile was strongly correlated with concentration of the noxious secondary bile acid taurolithocholic acid (r=0.60, p=0.0021). CONCLUSION: PSC is characterised by an altered microbiome of the upper alimentary tract and bile ducts. Biliary dysbiosis is linked with increased concentrations of the proinflammatory and potentially cancerogenic agent taurolithocholic acid.

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