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Pflege ; 32(6): 324-333, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576771


The potential of technological assistance to support distance caregiving - literature review and empirical results Abstract. Background: Due to demographic change, increasing labour mobility and changing family patterns, social relationships often exist over long distances. Supporting relatives over a distance is therefore a highly topical issue but still little discussed, also in Germany and Switzerland. Aim: The project "DiCa" (2016 - 2019) with an interdisciplinary research team from Germany (EH Ludwigsburg) and Switzerland (Careum School of Health, Zurich) aims to investigate different dimensions of "Distance Caregiving". This paper deals with the possible use of new technologies to support these care arrangements. Methods: Based on a literature review, qualitative interviews were conducted with "Distance Carers" and partner companies in Germany to investigate the use of new technologies in the context of "Distance Caregiving". Results: There are initial approaches concerning technical solutions in home care and in companies. So far communication options via telephone and smartphone and flexible working time and workplace regulations have played an important role. However, the potential of new technologies does not seem to be fully explored. Conclusions: In order to make the most of the various possibilities of innovative technologies in the context of "Distance Caregiving" for those affected but also for companies, well-researched information and independent advice and counseling are required for all parties involved in the care process.

Tecnologia Biomédica , Cuidadores , Invenções , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Humanos
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(6): 552-556, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535187


BACKGROUND: Caregiving from a distance is understudied as well as rarely sociopolitically debated in Germany. Accordingly, distance caregiving is a type of informal care work that has been little acknowledged in social law. OBJECTIVE: This article addresses the issue of how aware sociopolitical experts in Germany are of distance caregiving. Moreover, it points out the challenges the experts perceive in the legal framework and which solutions they can identify. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Guided interviews were conducted with six experts from sociopolitical areas in Germany with points of connection to care politics (ministries, associations, organizations). The interviews were analyzed based on the method of summarizing qualitative content analysis (according to Mayring). RESULTS: Even though distance caregiving has played a minor role among the sociopolitical experts, they were aware of individual aspects of this topic, mostly based on having been personally affected. Due to this experience they argued for a broader understanding of care including for example organizational support. They criticized the lack of sociopolitical consideration of distance caregivers and among other things demanded a functioning local support system. CONCLUSION: The interviews indicated a specific and personal awareness of distance caregiving; however, the findings pointed to stronger criticism of the overall situation regarding caregiving relatives. Thus, despite all recent reforms in distance caregiving there is still a need for action on the topic of caregiving relatives.

Cuidadores , Política , Telemedicina , Alemanha , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(6): 529-536, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492973


BACKGROUND: The support of relatives living far away in terms of distance caregiving between children and their parents has gained in importance in Europe. At the same time, little is known about these care arrangements based on representative European survey data. OBJECTIVE: This article is concerned with the following questions: which statements are possible in Europe about the prevalence of persons caring for at least one parent from a geographical distance? Which forms of support are provided and which other specific socioeconomic and health-related aspects characterize these care situations? In this respect special attention is paid to differences to relatives who provide help close to their parents who are in need of care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) from the sixth wave of the survey in 2015 were used to perform a descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The analysis showed that distance caregiving is more than a marginal phenomenon in Europe with a prevalence of 11% for a relatively close terminology (over 100 km distance between locations) and 23% for a broader terminology (over 25 km); however, the various countries are very different in terms of prevalence. The findings also point to some significant differences in terms of resources, care tasks and quality of life compared to caregivers in the same household. In light of these dynamically developing distance caregiving arrangements, this article can provide further discussion, critical reflection, and advancement to the operationalization of informal care.

Envelhecimento , Cuidadores , Família , Aposentadoria , Telemedicina , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/organização & administração
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(6): 521-528, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444551


BACKGROUND: Demographic change, increasing work mobility as well as changed family patterns lead to social relationships over long distances; however, support from relatives from a distance is hardly debated in the German-speaking region. The project "DiCa" (2016-2019) studies various dimensions of long-distance caregiving. OBJECTIVE: This article presents the state of the art in research on specific characteristics of care arrangements from a distance. In addition, it presents the underlying challenges, strategies, and supportive as well as hindering conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic literature review. RESULTS: These studies, conducted largely in the Anglo-American region, draw a clear picture of who distance caregivers are (in general well-educated daughters or daughters-in-law) and that they make a substantial contribution to care in terms of organization, coordination, and emotional support in addition to visits. Distance impedes the flow of information about the health condition of the person in need of care and limits the possibilities to react to the needs at short notice or in crisis situations. Distance caregivers are often faced by financial as well as emotional burdens due to the care situation and lack of control even if there are some support strategies and compatibility between care and occupation, e.g. emergency management, local support networks, flexible working arrangements. CONCLUSION: In the German-speaking region, pertinent studies on long-distance caregiving are missing. Internationally, the numbers of cases are not always clear and there is a lack of sound knowledge on the assessment of the care arrangements on the part of the distance caregiver, the actual role of the distance, specific barriers, conflicts, effective strategies and solution options. This applies to people in family homecare as well primary care facilities and employers.

Cuidadores , Família , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Humanos , Telecomunicações
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 50(5): 399-409, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600609


The objective of this article is a state-of-the-art analysis and critical reflection of the status quo of gerontologically oriented study programs in higher education in Germany. The major impulse for writing this article was provided by the newly established working group "Gerontological Education", which was inaugurated at the joint annual conference of sections III and IV of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics in Mannheim in 2015. A systematic review of gerontological study programs shows that the number of such programs has increased in Germany over the past decade. At the same time there has been a dynamic development across the country whereby well-established programs were closed and new ones were initiated. New study programs were primarily initiated at universities of applied sciences and private universities. A tendency away from explicit gerontology programs towards other academic disciplines (e.g. sociology, social work, psychology, sports, health and rehabilitation sciences) in combination with gerontological contents can be observed. These degree programs are rooted in their respective disciplines and focus primarily on health and social issues. Given the heterogeneity of study programs the working group "Gerontological Education" could become a new forum for leaders of such programs, students, alumni and employers of gerontologists for critical reflection and further development of gerontological quality benchmarks.

Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Geriatria/educação , Pesquisa Biomédica , Educação , Alemanha , Humanos , Universidades
Talanta ; 65(2): 324-30, 2005 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18969802


Conventional immunoassays on microtiterplates are very useful analytical tools in environmental analysis, but the long assay times, usually in the range of hours, are a drawback. To overcome this disadvantage, the development of fast (express) assay formats is described, which use polyelectrolytes as carriers. Two semi-homogeneous immunochemical methods, namely the polyelectrolyte-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and the express-FIIAA (flow injection immunoaffinity analysis) for the analysis of the herbicide atrazine were set-up. Using polyclonal antisera for atrazine, the following results were obtained. Standard curves for atrazine showed a linear range from 3 to 100mugl(-1) in polyelectrolyte-ELISA and 0.3-100mugl(-1) in express-FIIAA. The test midpoints in polyelectrolyte-ELISA and express-FIIAA were 12 and 5mugl(-1), respectively. The duration time of the immunochemical reaction was in both assays 15min, but the total assay time differed (30min (polyelectrolyte-ELISA) and 18min (express-FIIAA)). A significant difference between the formats could be observed in the number of samples that can be determined per day. The polyelectrolyte-ELISA can handle samples in parallel on a microtiterplate (usually 20/plate), whereas in the express-FIIAA the samples are automatically analysed one after another. This first demonstration of these techniques shows the potential of these methods, but also their limitations.