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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813662

RESUMO

To advance understanding of the heterogeneity in the course of ADHD, joint symptom trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity from childhood to young adulthood were modelled and associated with genetic, demographic, and clinical characteristics. Data were obtained from the NeuroIMAGE cohort which includes 485 individuals with ADHD, their 665 siblings, and 399 typically developing children. Trajectories were based on scores of the Conners Parent Rating Scale Revised and estimated over seven homogeneous age bins (from 5 to 28 years) using parallel process latent class growth analysis on data collected across 2-4 time points. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression was used to identify characteristics that differentiated between the derived classes. A seven-class solution revealed "severe combined stable" (4.8%), "severe combined decreasing" (13%), "severe inattentive stable" (4.8%), "moderate combined increasing" (7.5%), "moderate combined decreasing" (12.7%), "stable mild" (12.9%), and "stable low" (44.3%) classes. Polygenic risk for depression, ADHD diagnosis, ADHD medication use, IQ, comorbid symptom levels (foremost oppositional behaviour), and functional impairment levels differentiated classes with similar ADHD symptom levels in childhood but a diverging course thereafter. The course of ADHD is highly heterogeneous, with stable, decreasing, and increasing trajectories. Overall, severe symptom levels in childhood are associated with elevated-to-severe symptom levels in adolescence and young adulthood, despite substantial symptom reductions. Beyond symptom severity in childhood, genetic, demographic, and clinical characteristics distinguish the heterogeneous course.

2.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 311: 111282, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780745

RESUMO

A significant proportion of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show persistence into adulthood. The genetic and neural correlates of ADHD in adolescents versus adults remain poorly characterized. We investigated ADHD polygenic risk score (PRS) in relation to previously identified gray matter (GM) patterns, neurocognitive, and symptom findings in the same ADHD sample (462 adolescents & 422 adults from the NeuroIMAGE and IMpACT cohorts). Significant effects of ADHD PRS were found on hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms in adolescents, hyperactivity symptom in adults, but not GM volume components. A distinct PRS effect between adolescents and adults on individual ADHD symptoms is suggested.

3.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is often found comorbid with other neurodevelopmental disorders across the impulsivity-compulsivity spectrum, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as most prevalent. This points to the possibility of a common etiological thread along an impulsivity-compulsivity continuum. METHODS: Investigating the shared genetic basis across TS, ADHD, ASD, and OCD, we undertook an evaluation of cross-disorder genetic architecture and systematic meta-analysis, integrating summary statistics from the latest genome-wide association studies (93,294 individuals, 6,788,510 markers). RESULTS: As previously identified, a common unifying factor connects TS, ADHD, and ASD, while TS and OCD show the highest genetic correlation in pairwise testing among these disorders. Thanks to a more homogeneous set of disorders and a targeted approach that is guided by genetic correlations, we were able to identify multiple novel hits and regions that seem to play a pleiotropic role for the specific disorders analyzed here and could not be identified through previous studies. In the TS-ADHD-ASD genome-wide association study single nucleotide polymorphism-based and gene-based meta-analysis, we uncovered 13 genome-wide significant regions that host single nucleotide polymorphisms with a high posterior probability for association with all three studied disorders (m-value > 0.9), 11 of which were not identified in previous cross-disorder analysis. In contrast, we also identified two additional pleiotropic regions in the TS-OCD meta-analysis. Through conditional analysis, we highlighted genes and genetic regions that play a specific role in a TS-ADHD-ASD genetic factor versus TS-OCD. Cross-disorder tissue specificity analysis implicated the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland axis in TS-ADHD-ASD. CONCLUSIONS: Our work underlines the value of redefining the framework for research across traditional diagnostic categories.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 159, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750765

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with altered functioning in multiple cognitive domains and neural networks. This paper offers an overarching biological perspective across these. We applied a novel strategy that extracts functional connectivity modulations in the brain across one (Psingle), two (Pmix) or three (Pall) cognitive tasks and compared the pattern of modulations between participants with ADHD (n-89), unaffected siblings (n = 93) and controls (n = 84; total N = 266; age range = 8-27 years). Participants with ADHD had significantly fewer Pall connections (modulated regardless of task), but significantly more task-specific (Psingle) connectivity modulations than the other groups. The amplitude of these Psingle modulations was significantly higher in ADHD. Unaffected siblings showed a similar degree of Pall connectivity modulation as controls but a similar degree of Psingle connectivity modulation as ADHD probands. Pall connections were strongly reproducible at the individual level in controls, but showed marked heterogeneity in both participants with ADHD and unaffected siblings. The pattern of reduced task-generic and increased task-specific connectivity modulations in ADHD may be interpreted as reflecting a less efficient functional brain architecture due to a reduction in the ability to generalise processing pathways across multiple cognitive domains. The higher amplitude of unique task-specific connectivity modulations in ADHD may index a more "effortful" coping strategy. Unaffected siblings displayed a task connectivity profile in between that of controls and ADHD probands, supporting an endophenotype view. Our approach provides a new perspective on the core neural underpinnings of ADHD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder. Neuroanatomic heterogeneity limits our understanding of ADHD's etiology. This study aimed to parse heterogeneity of ADHD and to determine whether patient subgroups could be discerned based on subcortical brain volumes. METHODS: Using the large ENIGMA-ADHD Working Group dataset, four subsamples of 993 boys with and without ADHD and to subsamples of 653 adult men, 400 girls, and 447 women were included in analyses. We applied exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to seven subcortical volumes in order to constrain the complexity of the input variables and ensure more stable clustering results. Factor scores derived from the EFA were used to build networks. A community detection (CD) algorithm clustered participants into subgroups based on the networks. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors (basal ganglia, limbic system, and thalamus) in boys and men with and without ADHD. Factor structures for girls and women differed from those in males. Given sample size considerations, we concentrated subsequent analyses on males. Male participants could be separated into four communities, of which one was absent in healthy men. Significant case-control differences of subcortical volumes were observed within communities in boys, often with stronger effect sizes compared to the entire sample. As in the entire sample, none were observed in men. Affected men in two of the communities presented comorbidities more frequently than those in other communities. There were no significant differences in ADHD symptom severity, IQ, and medication use between communities in either boys or men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that neuroanatomic heterogeneity in subcortical volumes exists, irrespective of ADHD diagnosis. Effect sizes of case-control differences appear more pronounced at least in some of the subgroups.

6.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113795, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582524

RESUMO

Reversal learning deficits following reward and punishment processing are observed across disruptive behaviors (DB) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and have been associated with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, it remains unknown to what extent these altered reinforcement sensitivities are linked to the co-occurrence of oppositional traits, ADHD symptoms, and CU traits. Reward and punishment sensitivity and perseverative behavior were therefore derived from a probabilistic reversal learning task to investigate reinforcement sensitivity in participants with DB (n=183, ODD=62, CD=10, combined=57, age-range 8-18), ADHD (n=144, age-range 11-28), and controls (n=191, age-range 8-26). The SNAP-IV and Conners rating scales were used to assess oppositional and ADHD traits. The Inventory of CU traits was used to assess CU traits. Decreased reward sensitivity was associated with ADHD symptom severity (p=0.018) if corrected for oppositional symptoms. ADHD symptomatology interacted with oppositional behavior on perseveration (p=0.019), with the former aggravating the effect of oppositional behavior on perseveration and vice versa. Within a pooled sample, reversal learning alterations were associated with the severity of ADHD symptoms, underpinned by hyposensitivity to reward and increased perseveration. These results show ADHD traits, as opposed to oppositional behavior and CU traits, is associated with decreased reward-based learning in adolescents and adults.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misconceptions about ADHD stigmatize affected people, reduce credibility of providers, and prevent/delay treatment. To challenge misconceptions, we curated findings with strong evidence base. METHODS: We reviewed studies with more than 2,000 participants or meta-analyses from five or more studies or 2,000 or more participants. We excluded meta-analyses that did not assess publication bias, except for meta-analyses of prevalence. For network meta-analyses we required comparison adjusted funnel plots. We excluded treatment studies with waiting-list or treatment as usual controls. From this literature, we extracted evidence-based assertions about the disorder. RESULTS: We generated 208 empirically supported statements about ADHD. The status of the included statements as empirically supported is approved by 79 authors from 27 countries and 6 continents. The contents of the manuscript are endorsed by 362 people who have read this document and agree with its contents. CONCLUSIONS: Many findings in ADHD are supported by meta-analysis. These allow for firm statements about the nature, course, outcome causes, and treatments for disorders that are useful for reducing misconceptions and stigma.

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526822

RESUMO

Different psychiatric disorders and symptoms are highly correlated in the general population. A general psychopathology factor (or "P-factor") has been proposed to efficiently describe this covariance of psychopathology. Recently, genetic and neuroimaging studies also derived general dimensions that reflect densely correlated genomic and neural effects on behaviour and psychopathology. While these three types of general dimensions show striking parallels, it is unknown how they are conceptually related. Here, we provide an overview of these three general dimensions, and suggest a unified interpretation of their nature and underlying mechanisms. We propose that the general dimensions reflect, in part, a combination of heritable 'environmental' factors, driven by a dense web of gene-environment correlations. This perspective calls for an update of the traditional endophenotype framework, and encourages methodological innovations to improve models of gene-brain-environment relationships in all their complexity. We propose concrete approaches, which by taking advantage of the richness of current large databases will help to better disentangle the complex nature of causal factors underlying psychopathology.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 82, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526765

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children world-wide. Of these, two-thirds continue to have impairing symptoms of ADHD into adulthood. Although a large literature implicates structural brain differences of the disorder, it is not clear if adults with ADHD have similar neuroanatomical differences as those seen in children with recent reports from the large ENIGMA-ADHD consortium finding structural differences for children but not for adults. This paper uses deep learning neural network classification models to determine if there are neuroanatomical changes in the brains of children with ADHD that are also observed for adult ADHD, and vice versa. We found that structural MRI data can significantly separate ADHD from control participants for both children and adults. Consistent with the prior reports from ENIGMA-ADHD, prediction performance and effect sizes were better for the child than the adult samples. The model trained on adult samples significantly predicted ADHD in the child sample, suggesting that our model learned anatomical features that are common to ADHD in childhood and adulthood. These results support the continuity of ADHD's brain differences from childhood to adulthood. In addition, our work demonstrates a novel use of neural network classification models to test hypotheses about developmental continuity.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci significantly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from the GWAS, can be used to assess genetic overlap between ADHD and other traits. Using ADHD samples from several international sites, we derived PRS for ADHD from the recent GWAS to test whether genetic variants that contribute to ADHD also influence two cognitive functions that show strong association with ADHD: attention regulation and response inhibition, captured by reaction time variability (RTV) and commission errors (CE). METHODS: The discovery GWAS included 19 099 ADHD cases and 34 194 control participants. The combined target sample included 845 people with ADHD (age: 8-40 years). RTV and CE were available from reaction time and response inhibition tasks. ADHD PRS were calculated from the GWAS using a leave-one-study-out approach. Regression analyses were run to investigate whether ADHD PRS were associated with CE and RTV. Results across sites were combined via random effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: When combining the studies in meta-analyses, results were significant for RTV (R2 = 0.011, ß = 0.088, p = 0.02) but not for CE (R2 = 0.011, ß = 0.013, p = 0.732). No significant association was found between ADHD PRS and RTV or CE in any sample individually (p > 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: We detected a significant association between PRS for ADHD and RTV (but not CE) in individuals with ADHD, suggesting that common genetic risk variants for ADHD influence attention regulation.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 576, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495439

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood psychiatric disorder often comorbid with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). Here, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of ADHD comorbid with DBDs (ADHD + DBDs) including 3802 cases and 31,305 controls. We identify three genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 1, 7, and 11. A meta-analysis including a Chinese cohort supports that the locus on chromosome 11 is a strong risk locus for ADHD + DBDs across European and Chinese ancestries (rs7118422, P = 3.15×10-10, OR = 1.17). We find a higher SNP heritability for ADHD + DBDs (h2SNP = 0.34) when compared to ADHD without DBDs (h2SNP = 0.20), high genetic correlations between ADHD + DBDs and aggressive (rg = 0.81) and anti-social behaviors (rg = 0.82), and an increased burden (polygenic score) of variants associated with ADHD and aggression in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs. Our results suggest an increased load of common risk variants in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs, which in part can be explained by variants associated with aggressive behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456050

RESUMO

Genomewide association studies have found significant genetic correlations among many neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast, we know much less about the degree to which structural brain alterations are similar among disorders and, if so, the degree to which such similarities have a genetic etiology. From the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium, we acquired standardized mean differences (SMDs) in regional brain volume and cortical thickness between cases and controls. We had data on 41 brain regions for: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), epilepsy, major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). These data had been derived from 24,360 patients and 37,425 controls. The SMDs were significantly correlated between SCZ and BD, OCD, MDD, and ASD. MDD was positively correlated with BD and OCD. BD was positively correlated with OCD and negatively correlated with ADHD. These pairwise correlations among disorders were correlated with the corresponding pairwise correlations among disorders derived from genomewide association studies (r = 0.494). Our results show substantial similarities in sMRI phenotypes among neuropsychiatric disorders and suggest that these similarities are accounted for, in part, by corresponding similarities in common genetic variant architectures.

14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 55, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462198

RESUMO

Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidases II (cNT5-II) are an evolutionary conserved family of 5'-nucleotidases that catalyze the intracellular hydrolysis of nucleotides. In humans, the family is encoded by five genes, namely NT5C2, NT5DC1, NT5DC2, NT5DC3, and NT5DC4. While very little is known about the role of these genes in the nervous system, several of them have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we tested whether manipulating neuronal expression of cNT5-II orthologues affects neuropsychiatric disorders-related phenotypes in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We investigated the brain expression of Drosophila orthologues of cNT5-II family (dNT5A-CG2277, dNT5B-CG32549, and dNT5C-CG1814) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Using the UAS/Gal4 system, we also manipulated the expression of these genes specifically in neurons. The knockdown was subjected to neuropsychiatric disorder-relevant behavioral assays, namely light-off jump reflex habituation and locomotor activity, and sleep was measured. In addition, neuromuscular junction synaptic morphology was assessed. We found that dNT5A, dNT5B, and dNT5C were all expressed in the brain. dNT5C was particularly enriched in the brain, especially at pharate and adult stages. Pan-neuronal knockdown of dNT5A and dNT5C showed impaired habituation learning. Knockdown of each of the genes also consistently led to mildly reduced activity and/or increased sleep. None of the knockdown models displayed significant alterations in synaptic morphology. In conclusion, in addition to genetic associations with psychiatric disorders in humans, altered expression of cNT5-II genes in the Drosophila nervous system plays a role in disease-relevant behaviors.

15.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(4): 903-913, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341993

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder in childhood and identifying risk factors associated with developing ADHD during childhood and adolescence is relevant from a clinical and epidemiological point of view. This work examines (a) whether overweight/obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with increased ADHD symptoms in childhood (cross-sectional analysis), and (b) whether overweight/obesity and low CRF levels during childhood predict increased ADHD symptoms in adolescence (longitudinal analysis). Data were examined from a longitudinal study of Estonian inhabitants who took part in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) in 1998 and 1999 (baseline age 9 years), who were re-evaluated 6 years later as part of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS). CRF was determined via an incremental maximal cycle-ergometer test, overweight/obesity was based on body mass index (BMI), and the 7-point af Klinteberg Hyperactivity Scale was used to assess ADHD symptoms at both time points. In the cross-sectional analysis, children with overweight/obesity were at greater risk of ADHD symptoms compared to underweight/normal weight children, as were those unfit compared to fit children (OR = 1.92 and 95%CI = 1.02-3.55, and OR = 1.84 and 95%CI = 1.13-2.98, respectively). The cross-sectional association between BMI and ADHD symptoms was mediated by CRF (z = 2.116, 42.9%; P = .034). The longitudinal analysis showed being unfit in childhood was associated with a greater risk of increased ADHD symptoms 6 years later in adolescence (OR = 2.26 and 95%CI = 1.14-4.47), even after adjusting for baseline ADHD symptoms and BMI. Our result suggests that being unfit is an additional risk factor for increased ADHD symptoms during childhood and adolescence. The association between BMI and ADHD symptoms was mediated by CRF in the cross-sectional analysis, and no association was seen between overweight/obesity and increased ADHD symptoms.

16.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300665

RESUMO

Here we review the motivation for creating the enhancing neuroimaging genetics through meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium and the genetic analyses undertaken by the consortium so far. We discuss the methodological challenges, findings, and future directions of the genetics working group. A major goal of the working group is tackling the reproducibility crisis affecting "candidate gene" and genome-wide association analyses in neuroimaging. To address this, we developed harmonized analytic methods, and support their use in coordinated analyses across sites worldwide, which also makes it possible to understand heterogeneity in results across sites. These efforts have resulted in the identification of hundreds of common genomic loci robustly associated with brain structure. We have found both pleiotropic and specific genetic effects associated with brain structures, as well as genetic correlations with psychiatric and neurological diseases.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319511

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are continuously distributed in the general population, where both genetic and environmental factors play roles. Stressful life events (SLEs) have been associated with ADHD diagnosis, but the relationship between ADHD genetic liability, SLEs, and ADHD symptoms in healthy individuals is less clear. Using a sample of 1,531 healthy adults (average age 26.9 years; 55.8% female), we investigated relationships between ADHD polygenic risk scores (ADHD-PRSs), SLEs, and ADHD symptoms in a general population sample. Confirming earlier findings in an overlapping sample, all SLE-measures assessed (lifetime SLEs, recent SLEs, and childhood trauma (CT)) were significantly correlated with total ADHD, inattention (IA), and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) scores (r2 range = .08-.15; all p < .005). ADHD-PRSs was associated with HI (R2 best-fit = .37%), lifetime SLEs (R2 best-fit = .56%), and CT (R2 best-fit = .40%). Mediation analyses showed that lifetime SLEs partially mediated the association between ADHD-PRSs and HI (indirect effect: ß = 68.6, bias corrected accelerated 95% confident interval (BCa95%CI) [11.9, 131.0], p = .016, proportion mediated (PM ) =19.5%), with strongest effects contributed by CT (ß = 34.4, BCa95%CI [0.4, 76.5], p = .040, PM = 9.8%). On the other hand, HI partially mediated the association between the ADHD-PRSs and lifetime SLEs (ß = 42.9, BCa95%CI [7.3, 83.9], p = .014, PM = 18.8%). Our study observed a complex relationship of genetic and environmental risk factors contributing to ADHD symptoms in the healthy adult population.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147348

RESUMO

Disruptive behavior during childhood and adolescence is heterogeneous and associated with several psychiatric disorders. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups might help identify different underlying pathways and tailor treatment strategies. Children and adolescents (aged 8-18) with disruptive behaviors (N = 121) and healthy controls (N = 100) were included in a European multi-center cognition and brain imaging study. They were assessed via a battery of standardized semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. K-means cluster-model analysis was carried out to identify subgroups within the group with disruptive behaviors, based on clinical symptom profiles, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and proactive and reactive aggression. The resulting subgroups were then compared to healthy controls with regard to these clinical variables. Three distinct subgroups were found within the group with disruptive behaviors. The High CU Traits subgroup presented elevated scores for CU traits, proactive aggression and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, as well as a higher proportion of comorbidities (CD + oppositional defiant disorder + attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD and Affective Dysregulation subgroup showed elevated scores for internalizing and ADHD symptoms, as well as a higher proportion of females. The Low Severity subgroup had relatively low levels of psychopathology and aggressive behavior compared to the other two subgroups. The High CU Traits subgroup displayed more antisocial behaviors than the Low Severity subgroup, but did not differ when compared to the ADHD and Affective Dysregulation subgroup. All three subgroups differed significantly from the healthy controls in all the variables analyzed. The present study extends previous findings on subgrouping children and adolescents with disruptive behaviors using a multidimensional approach and describes levels of anxiety, affective problems, ADHD, proactive aggression and CU traits as key factors that differentiate conclusively between subgroups.

19.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 14: 562098, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132858

RESUMO

The short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism has been linked to reactive aggression in men, but this association is less consistent in females. Reactive aggression has been particularly described as a result of fear-driven defense to threat, but how this interaction between defensive behavior and aggression is expressed in S-allele carriers remains unknown. In order to explore this interplay between 5-HTTLPR genotype, defensive behavior and reactive aggression, we combined genotyping with objective measures of action tendencies toward angry faces in an approach-avoidance task (AAT) and reactive aggression in the Taylor aggression paradigm (TAP) in healthy females, N = 95. This study shows that female S-allele carriers in general display increased implicit reactive aggression (administering aversive white noise) toward opponents. Furthermore, we found that threat-avoidance tendencies moderate the association between 5-HTTLPR genotype and aggression displayed on the TAP. Together, these findings indicate a positive correlation between avoidance of angry faces in the AAT and reactive aggression in the TAP exclusively present in S-allele carriers.

20.
Neuropharmacology ; 184: 108370, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137342

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is highly prevalent in childhood and often persists into adulthood. Both genetic variants and environmental factors play a role in the onset and persistence of ADHD, and epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation are considered as a link for their interplay. To investigate this, we studied DNA methylation in 37 candidate genes by performing targeted bisulfite sequencing of DNA isolated from whole blood of N = 88 individuals diagnosed with adult ADHD and N = 91 unaffected individuals (mean age 34.2 years). Differentially methylated sites were assessed by generalized linear models testing ADHD status and ADHD symptoms, accounting for a methylation-based smoking score, age, sex, and blood cell count. DNA methylation of single sites within DRD4 and KLDR1 was associated with adult ADHD status, and multiple DNA methylation sites within TARBP1 were associated with ADHD symptoms in adulthood and childhood. Awaiting replication, findings of this pilot study point to TARBP1 as a new candidate gene for ADHD symptoms. Our work also stresses the need for research to further examine the effects of environmental factors, such as nicotine exposure, on epigenetic modifications associated with psychiatric traits.

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