Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1900, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312976

RESUMO

The terrestrial carbon sink has significantly increased in the past decades, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The current synthesis of process-based estimates of land and ocean sinks requires an additional sink of 0.6 PgC yr-1 in the last decade to explain the observed airborne fraction. A concurrent global fire decline was observed in association with tropical agriculture expansion and landscape fragmentation. Here we show that a decline of 0.2 ± 0.1 PgC yr-1 in fire emissions during 2008-2014 relative to 2001-2007 also induced an additional carbon sink enhancement of 0.4 ± 0.2 PgC yr-1 attributable to carbon cycle feedbacks, amounting to a combined sink increase comparable to the 0.6 PgC yr-1 budget imbalance. Our results suggest that the indirect effects of fire, in addition to the direct emissions, is an overlooked mechanism for explaining decadal-scale changes in the land carbon sink and highlight the importance of fire management in climate mitigation.

2.
Nature ; 575(7781): 180-184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695210

RESUMO

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is targeted for emissions mitigation by the US state of California and other jurisdictions worldwide1,2. Unique opportunities for mitigation are presented by point-source emitters-surface features or infrastructure components that are typically less than 10 metres in diameter and emit plumes of highly concentrated methane3. However, data on point-source emissions are sparse and typically lack sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to guide their mitigation and to accurately assess their magnitude4. Here we survey more than 272,000 infrastructure elements in California using an airborne imaging spectrometer that can rapidly map methane plumes5-7. We conduct five campaigns over several months from 2016 to 2018, spanning the oil and gas, manure-management and waste-management sectors, resulting in the detection, geolocation and quantification of emissions from 564 strong methane point sources. Our remote sensing approach enables the rapid and repeated assessment of large areas at high spatial resolution for a poorly characterized population of methane emitters that often appear intermittently and stochastically. We estimate net methane point-source emissions in California to be 0.618 teragrams per year (95 per cent confidence interval 0.523-0.725), equivalent to 34-46 per cent of the state's methane inventory8 for 2016. Methane 'super-emitter' activity occurs in every sector surveyed, with 10 per cent of point sources contributing roughly 60 per cent of point-source emissions-consistent with a study of the US Four Corners region that had a different sectoral mix9. The largest methane emitters in California are a subset of landfills, which exhibit persistent anomalous activity. Methane point-source emissions in California are dominated by landfills (41 per cent), followed by dairies (26 per cent) and the oil and gas sector (26 per cent). Our data have enabled the identification of the 0.2 per cent of California's infrastructure that is responsible for these emissions. Sharing these data with collaborating infrastructure operators has led to the mitigation of anomalous methane-emission activity10.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metano/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , California , Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Metano/química , Metano/metabolismo , Gás Natural , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/métodos , Petróleo , Águas Residuárias
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(44): 22393-22398, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611384

RESUMO

Photosynthesis of the Amazon rainforest plays an important role in the regional and global carbon cycles, but, despite considerable in situ and space-based observations, it has been intensely debated whether there is a dry-season increase in greenness and photosynthesis of the moist tropical Amazonian forests. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which is emitted by chlorophyll, has a strong positive linear relationship with photosynthesis at the canopy scale. Recent advancements have allowed us to observe SIF globally with Earth observation satellites. Here we show that forest SIF did not decrease in the early dry season and increased substantially in the late dry season and early part of wet season, using SIF data from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), which has unprecedented spatial resolution and near-daily global coverage. Using in situ CO2 eddy flux data, we also show that cloud cover rarely affects photosynthesis at TROPOMI's midday overpass, a time when the forest canopy is most often light-saturated. The observed dry-season increases of forest SIF are not strongly affected by sun-sensor geometry, which was attributed as creating a pseudo dry-season green-up in the surface reflectance data. Our results provide strong evidence that greenness, SIF, and photosynthesis of the tropical Amazonian forest increase during the dry season.


Assuntos
Clorofila/química , Floresta Úmida , Imagens de Satélites/métodos , Estações do Ano , Luz Solar , Absorção de Radiação , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila/efeitos da radiação , Fluorescência , Fotossíntese , Imagens de Satélites/normas
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(24): 11640-11645, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138693

RESUMO

Northern hemisphere evergreen forests assimilate a significant fraction of global atmospheric CO2 but monitoring large-scale changes in gross primary production (GPP) in these systems is challenging. Recent advances in remote sensing allow the detection of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) emission from vegetation, which has been empirically linked to GPP at large spatial scales. This is particularly important in evergreen forests, where traditional remote-sensing techniques and terrestrial biosphere models fail to reproduce the seasonality of GPP. Here, we examined the mechanistic relationship between SIF retrieved from a canopy spectrometer system and GPP at a winter-dormant conifer forest, which has little seasonal variation in canopy structure, needle chlorophyll content, and absorbed light. Both SIF and GPP track each other in a consistent, dynamic fashion in response to environmental conditions. SIF and GPP are well correlated (R 2 = 0.62-0.92) with an invariant slope over hourly to weekly timescales. Large seasonal variations in SIF yield capture changes in photoprotective pigments and photosystem II operating efficiency associated with winter acclimation, highlighting its unique ability to precisely track the seasonality of photosynthesis. Our results underscore the potential of new satellite-based SIF products (TROPOMI, OCO-2) as proxies for the timing and magnitude of GPP in evergreen forests at an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Clorofila/fisiologia , Clima , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorescência , Florestas , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Luz Solar
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(8): 2805-2813, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733299

RESUMO

Atmospheric methane plays a major role in controlling climate, yet contemporary methane trends (1982-2017) have defied explanation with numerous, often conflicting, hypotheses proposed in the literature. Specifically, atmospheric observations of methane from 1982 to 2017 have exhibited periods of both increasing concentrations (from 1982 to 2000 and from 2007 to 2017) and stabilization (from 2000 to 2007). Explanations for the increases and stabilization have invoked changes in tropical wetlands, livestock, fossil fuels, biomass burning, and the methane sink. Contradictions in these hypotheses arise because our current observational network cannot unambiguously link recent methane variations to specific sources. This raises some fundamental questions: (i) What do we know about sources, sinks, and underlying processes driving observed trends in atmospheric methane? (ii) How will global methane respond to changes in anthropogenic emissions? And (iii), What future observations could help resolve changes in the methane budget? To address these questions, we discuss potential drivers of atmospheric methane abundances over the last four decades in light of various observational constraints as well as process-based knowledge. While uncertainties in the methane budget exist, they should not detract from the potential of methane emissions mitigation strategies. We show that net-zero cost emission reductions can lead to a declining atmospheric burden, but can take three decades to stabilize. Moving forward, we make recommendations for observations to better constrain contemporary trends in atmospheric methane and to provide mitigation support.

6.
Science ; 362(6418)2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498098

RESUMO

Chevallier showed a column CO2 ([Formula: see text]) anomaly of ±0.5 parts per million forced by a uniform net biosphere exchange (NBE) anomaly of 2.5 gigatonnes of carbon over the tropical continents within a year, so he claimed that the inferred NBE uncertainties should be larger than presented in Liu et al We show that a much concentrated NBE anomaly led to much larger [Formula: see text] perturbations.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 644: 982-993, 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743895

RESUMO

Geological hydrocarbon gas seepage is a major global source of atmospheric methane, ethane and propane as greenhouse gases and photochemical pollutants. Natural gas seepage is generally related to faults and associated fracture intensification domains that provide conduits for natural gas from reservoir rocks to migrate upward and enter the atmosphere. In this study, we compare the case of intense gas seepage stemming directly from source rocks, mostly organic-rich fractured black shales in western New York State (NYS) versus areas with rare seepage in the more southern regions of the Appalachian Basin and the Midwest USA. In addition to thermogenic methane, western NYS shale gas seeps emit ethane and propane with C2+3 gas concentrations reaching up to 35 vol%. Fractures in NYS developed, reactivated and maintained permeability for gas as a result of Quaternary glaciation and post-glacial basin uplift. In contrast, the Appalachian regions farther south and the southern Midwest regions experienced less glacial loading and unloading than in NYS, resulting in less recent natural fracturing, as witnessed by the rarity of seepage on surface outcrops and in caves overlying gas-bearing shales and coals. The historical literature suggests that early western NYS drilling and production of oil and gas diminished shale gas pressure and resulted in declining gas seepage rates. Our survey documented 12 active western NYS natural gas seeps, whereas >32 seeps have been reported or documented since the 17th century. Preliminary tests showed that SCIAMACHY satellite data did not detect atmospheric methane anomalies over western NYS seeps.

8.
Science ; 358(6360)2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29026011

RESUMO

The 2015-2016 El Niño led to historically high temperatures and low precipitation over the tropics, while the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) was the largest on record. Here we quantify the response of tropical net biosphere exchange, gross primary production, biomass burning, and respiration to these climate anomalies by assimilating column CO2, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, and carbon monoxide observations from multiple satellites. Relative to the 2011 La Niña, the pantropical biosphere released 2.5 ± 0.34 gigatons more carbon into the atmosphere in 2015, consisting of approximately even contributions from three tropical continents but dominated by diverse carbon exchange processes. The heterogeneity of the carbon-exchange processes indicated here challenges previous studies that suggested that a single dominant process determines carbon cycle interannual variability.

9.
New Phytol ; 215(4): 1594-1608, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28664542

RESUMO

Recent advances in the retrieval of Chl fluorescence from space using passive methods (solar-induced Chl fluorescence, SIF) promise improved mapping of plant photosynthesis globally. However, unresolved issues related to the spatial, spectral, and temporal dynamics of vegetation fluorescence complicate our ability to interpret SIF measurements. We developed an instrument to measure leaf-level gas exchange simultaneously with pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) and spectrally resolved fluorescence over the same field of view - allowing us to investigate the relationships between active and passive fluorescence with photosynthesis. Strongly correlated, slope-dependent relationships were observed between measured spectra across all wavelengths (Fλ , 670-850 nm) and PAM fluorescence parameters under a range of actinic light intensities (steady-state fluorescence yields, Ft ) and saturation pulses (maximal fluorescence yields, Fm ). Our results suggest that this method can accurately reproduce the full Chl emission spectra - capturing the spectral dynamics associated with changes in the yields of fluorescence, photochemical (ΦPSII), and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). We discuss how this method may establish a link between photosynthetic capacity and the mechanistic drivers of wavelength-specific fluorescence emission during changes in environmental conditions (light, temperature, humidity). Our emphasis is on future research directions linking spectral fluorescence to photosynthesis, ΦPSII, and NPQ.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análise , Fotossíntese , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Solo/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Terminologia como Assunto
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(21): 5367-5372, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416668

RESUMO

Methane is the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and its atmospheric burden has more than doubled since 1850. Methane concentrations stabilized in the early 2000s and began increasing again in 2007. Neither the stabilization nor the recent growth are well understood, as evidenced by multiple competing hypotheses in recent literature. Here we use a multispecies two-box model inversion to jointly constrain 36 y of methane sources and sinks, using ground-based measurements of methane, methyl chloroform, and the C13/C12 ratio in atmospheric methane (δ13CH4) from 1983 through 2015. We find that the problem, as currently formulated, is underdetermined and solutions obtained in previous work are strongly dependent on prior assumptions. Based on our analysis, the mathematically most likely explanation for the renewed growth in atmospheric methane, counterintuitively, involves a 25-Tg/y decrease in methane emissions from 2003 to 2016 that is offset by a 7% decrease in global mean hydroxyl (OH) concentrations, the primary sink for atmospheric methane, over the same period. However, we are still able to fit the observations if we assume that OH concentrations are time invariant (as much of the previous work has assumed) and we then find solutions that are largely consistent with other proposed hypotheses for the renewed growth of atmospheric methane since 2007. We conclude that the current surface observing system does not allow unambiguous attribution of the decadal trends in methane without robust constraints on OH variability, which currently rely purely on methyl chloroform data and its uncertain emissions estimates.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(35): 9734-9, 2016 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27528660

RESUMO

Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit [Formula: see text] 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through [Formula: see text] 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. With the observed confirmation of a lognormal emission distribution, this airborne observing strategy and its ability to locate previously unknown point sources in real time provides an efficient and effective method to identify and mitigate major emissions contributors over a wide geographic area. With improved instrumentation, this capability scales to spaceborne applications [Thompson DR, et al. (2016) Geophys Res Lett 43(12):6571-6578]. Further illustration of this potential is demonstrated with two detected, confirmed, and repaired pipeline leaks during the campaign.

12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 21(9): 3469-77, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25881891

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that satellite retrievals of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provide useful information on terrestrial photosynthesis or gross primary production (GPP). Here, we have incorporated equations coupling SIF to photosynthesis in a land surface model, the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model version 4 (NCAR CLM4), and have demonstrated its use as a diagnostic tool for evaluating the calculation of photosynthesis, a key process in a land surface model that strongly influences the carbon, water, and energy cycles. By comparing forward simulations of SIF, essentially as a byproduct of photosynthesis, in CLM4 with observations of actual SIF, it is possible to check whether the model is accurately representing photosynthesis and the processes coupled to it. We provide some background on how SIF is coupled to photosynthesis, describe how SIF was incorporated into CLM4, and demonstrate that our simulated relationship between SIF and GPP values are reasonable when compared with satellite (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite; GOSAT) and in situ flux-tower measurements. CLM4 overestimates SIF in tropical forests, and we show that this error can be corrected by adjusting the maximum carboxylation rate (Vmax ) specified for tropical forests in CLM4. Our study confirms that SIF has the potential to improve photosynthesis simulation and thereby can play a critical role in improving land surface and carbon cycle models.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fluorescência , Modelos Biológicos , Ciclo do Carbono , Luz Solar
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(9): 2788-93, 2015 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25730847

RESUMO

Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate-carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biotic and abiotic factors operating mainly through changes in vegetation phenology and physiological processes. However, it is still unclear how plant phenology and physiology can be integrated to explain the spatiotemporal variability of terrestrial GPP. Based on analyses of eddy-covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000-2010 and the spatial GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r(2) = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r(2) = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy-covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation in annual GPP is better explained by that in GPPmax than CUP. These findings indicate that terrestrial GPP is jointly controlled by ecosystem-level plant phenology and photosynthetic capacity, and greater understanding of GPPmax and CUP responses to environmental and biological variations will, thus, improve predictions of GPP over time and space.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas , South Dakota
14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 21(5): 1762-76, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25472464

RESUMO

Terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle feedbacks will significantly impact future climate, but their responses are highly uncertain. Models and tipping point analyses suggest the tropics and arctic/boreal zone carbon-climate feedbacks could be disproportionately large. In situ observations in those regions are sparse, resulting in high uncertainties in carbon fluxes and fluxes. Key parameters controlling ecosystem carbon responses, such as plant traits, are also sparsely observed in the tropics, with the most diverse biome on the planet treated as a single type in models. We analyzed the spatial distribution of in situ data for carbon fluxes, stocks and plant traits globally and also evaluated the potential of remote sensing to observe these quantities. New satellite data products go beyond indices of greenness and can address spatial sampling gaps for specific ecosystem properties and parameters. Because environmental conditions and access limit in situ observations in tropical and arctic/boreal environments, use of space-based techniques can reduce sampling bias and uncertainty about tipping point feedbacks to climate. To reliably detect change and develop the understanding of ecosystems needed for prediction, significantly, more data are required in critical regions. This need can best be met with a strategic combination of remote and in situ data, with satellite observations providing the dense sampling in space and time required to characterize the heterogeneity of ecosystem structure and function.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Plantas/química , Imagens de Satélites/métodos , Clorofila/análise , Lignina/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Imagens de Satélites/tendências
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 20(10): 3103-21, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24909755

RESUMO

Determining the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is a critical step in closing the Earth's carbon budget. Dynamical global vegetation models (DGVMs) provide mechanistic insight into GPP variability but diverge in predicting the response to climate in poorly investigated regions. Recent advances in the remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) opens up a new possibility to provide direct global observational constraints for GPP. Here, we apply an optimal estimation approach to infer the global distribution of GPP from an ensemble of eight DGVMs constrained by global measurements of SIF from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). These estimates are compared to flux tower data in N. America, Europe, and tropical S. America, with careful consideration of scale differences between models, GOSAT, and flux towers. Assimilation of GOSAT SIF with DGVMs causes a redistribution of global productivity from northern latitudes to the tropics of 7-8 Pg C yr(-1) from 2010 to 2012, with reduced GPP in northern forests (~3.6 Pg C yr(-1) ) and enhanced GPP in tropical forests (~3.7 Pg C yr(-1) ). This leads to improvements in the structure of the seasonal cycle, including earlier dry season GPP loss and enhanced peak-to-trough GPP in tropical forests within the Amazon Basin and reduced growing season length in northern croplands and deciduous forests. Uncertainty in predicted GPP (estimated from the spread of DGVMs) is reduced by 40-70% during peak productivity suggesting the assimilation of GOSAT SIF with models is well-suited for benchmarking. We conclude that satellite fluorescence augurs a new opportunity to quantify the GPP response to climate drivers and the potential to constrain predictions of carbon cycle evolution.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plantas/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Europa (Continente) , Fluorescência , Modelos Teóricos , América do Norte , Fotossíntese , Estações do Ano , América do Sul , Astronave , Luz Solar
17.
J Exp Bot ; 65(15): 4065-95, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24868038

RESUMO

Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) has been used for decades to study the organization, functioning, and physiology of photosynthesis at the leaf and subcellular levels. ChlF is now measurable from remote sensing platforms. This provides a new optical means to track photosynthesis and gross primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Importantly, the spatiotemporal and methodological context of the new applications is dramatically different compared with most of the available ChlF literature, which raises a number of important considerations. Although we have a good mechanistic understanding of the processes that control the ChlF signal over the short term, the seasonal link between ChlF and photosynthesis remains obscure. Additionally, while the current understanding of in vivo ChlF is based on pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) measurements, remote sensing applications are based on the measurement of the passive solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which entails important differences and new challenges that remain to be solved. In this review we introduce and revisit the physical, physiological, and methodological factors that control the leaf-level ChlF signal in the context of the new remote sensing applications. Specifically, we present the basis of photosynthetic acclimation and its optical signals, we introduce the physical and physiological basis of ChlF from the molecular to the leaf level and beyond, and we introduce and compare PAM and SIF methodology. Finally, we evaluate and identify the challenges that still remain to be answered in order to consolidate our mechanistic understanding of the remotely sensed SIF signal.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análise , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Biomassa , Clorofila A , Fluorescência , Folhas de Planta/química , Estações do Ano
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(14): E1327-33, 2014 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24706867

RESUMO

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50-75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle.


Assuntos
Clorofila/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Fluorescência , Modelos Teóricos
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 368(1625): 20120376, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23878340

RESUMO

The African humid tropical biome constitutes the second largest rainforest region, significantly impacts global carbon cycling and climate, and has undergone major changes in functioning owing to climate and land-use change over the past century. We assess changes and trends in CO2 fluxes from 1901 to 2010 using nine land surface models forced with common driving data, and depict the inter-model variability as the uncertainty in fluxes. The biome is estimated to be a natural (no disturbance) net carbon sink (-0.02 kg C m⁻² yr⁻¹ or -0.04 Pg C yr⁻¹, p < 0.05) with increasing strength fourfold in the second half of the century. The models were in close agreement on net CO2 flux at the beginning of the century (σ1901 = 0.02 kg C m⁻² yr⁻¹), but diverged exponentially throughout the century (σ2010 = 0.03 kg C m⁻² yr⁻¹). The increasing uncertainty is due to differences in sensitivity to increasing atmospheric CO2, but not increasing water stress, despite a decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature. However, the largest uncertainties were associated with the most extreme drought events of the century. These results highlight the need to constrain modelled CO2 fluxes with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and extreme climatic events, as the uncertainties will only amplify in the next century.


Assuntos
Chuva , Árvores , Clima Tropical , África , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Sequestro de Carbono , Mudança Climática/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Modelos Biológicos , Árvores/metabolismo
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 280(1761): 20130171, 2013 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23760636

RESUMO

It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Árvores/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Desidratação , Fluorescência , Modelos Biológicos , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , América do Sul , Astronave , Luz Solar , Clima Tropical
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA