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1.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e70, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349818

RESUMO

Tomasello's account of the origins and nature of moral obligation rightly emphasises the key roles of social relations and a cooperative sense of "we." However, we suggest that it overlooks the complexity of those social relations and the resulting prevalence of a divided "we" in moral social groups. We argue that the social identity dynamics that arise can lead to competing obligations in a single group, and this has implications for the evolution of obligation.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Identificação Social
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 41: e44, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064430

RESUMO

We welcome Doris's dual systems, social account of agency and self. However, we suggest that a level of affordances regarding agency is interpolated between those dual systems. We also suggest a need to consider joint ("we") agency in addition to individual ("I") agency, and we suggest a more fundamental role for culture in configuring both the values entering the dialogue that generates the sense of agency and self, and the nature of the dialogue itself.

3.
Front Psychol ; 8: 861, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676768

RESUMO

Conspiracy theories (CTs) are widespread ways by which people make sense of unsettling or disturbing cultural events. Belief in CTs is often connected to problematic consequences, such as decreased engagement with conventional political action or even political extremism, so understanding the psychological and social qualities of CT belief is important. CTs have often been understood to be "monological," displaying the tendency for belief in one conspiracy theory to be correlated with belief in (many) others. Explanations of monologicality invoke a nomothetical or "closed" mindset whereby mutually supporting beliefs based on mistrust of official explanations are used to interpret public events as conspiracies, independent of the facts about those events (which they may ignore or deny). But research on monologicality offers little discussion of the content of monological beliefs and reasoning from the standpoint of the CT believers. This is due in part to the "access problem": CT believers are averse to being researched because they often distrust researchers and what they appear to represent. Using several strategies to address the access problem we were able to engage CT believers in semi-structured interviews, combining their results with analysis of media documents and field observations to reconstruct a conspiracy worldview - a set of symbolic resources drawn on by CT believers about important dimensions of ontology, epistemology, and human agency. The worldview is structured around six main dimensions: the nature of reality, the self, the outgroup, the ingroup, relevant social and political action, and possible future change. We also describe an ascending typology of five types of CT believers, which vary according to their positions on each of these dimensions. Our findings converge with prior explorations of CT beliefs but also revealed novel aspects: A sense of community among CT believers, a highly differentiated representation of the outgroup, a personal journey of conversion, variegated kinds of political action, and optimistic belief in future change. These findings are at odds with the typical image of monological CT believers as paranoid, cynical, anomic and irrational. For many, the CT worldview may rather constitute the ideological underpinning of a nascent pre-figurative social movement.

4.
Appetite ; 116: 205-214, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28433776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of three interventions to increase the plain water consumption of children with unhealthy drinking habits, with an innovative approach combining the three layers of Installation Theory: embodied competences, affordances and social regulation. METHODS: 334 preschool children and their carers were allocated to three interventions: Control (control): no intervention, Information (info): online coaching sessions on water health benefits aiming at modifying embodied competences (knowledge), Information + Water Affordance (info + w): the same plus home delivery of small bottles of water. After three months, half of the info and info + w subjects were allocated to Social Regulation (+social) (on-line discussion forum) or no further intervention (-social). Intake of plain water and all other fluid types of the children were recorded by the carers 6 times over a year using an online 7-day fluid-specific dietary record. RESULTS: Over 1 year, all groups significantly increased daily water consumption by 3.0-7.8 times (+118 to +222 mL). Info + w + social and Info-social generated the highest increase in plain water intake after one year compared to baseline, by 7.8 times (+216 mL) and 6.7 times (+222 mL) respectively; both significantly exceeded the control (3.0 times, +118 mL), whilst the effect of info + w-social (5.0 times, +158 mL) and info + social (5.3 times, +198 mL) did not differ from that of control. All groups saw a decrease of sweetened beverages intake, again with info + w + social generating the largest decrease (-27%; -172 mL). No changes in other fluids or total fluid intake were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Sustainable increased water consumption can be achieved in children with unhealthy drinking habits by influencing representations, changing material affordances, and providing social regulation. Combining the three provided the strongest effect as predicted by Installation Theory.


Assuntos
Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Social , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Registros de Dieta , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 66 Suppl 3: 26-30, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26088044

RESUMO

On average, children and adults in developed countries consume too little water, which can lead to negative health consequences. In a one-year longitudinal field experiment in Poland, we compared the impact of three home-based interventions on helping children and their parents/caregivers to develop sustainable increased plain water consumption habits. Fluid consumption of 334 children and their caregivers were recorded over one year using an online specific fluid dietary record. They were initially randomly allocated to one of the three following conditions: Control, Information (child and carer received information on the health benefits of water), or Placement (in addition to information, free small bottles of still water for a limited time period were delivered at home). After three months, half of the non-controls were randomly assigned to Community (child and caregiver engaged in an online community forum providing support on water consumption). All conditions significantly increased the water consumption of children (by 21.9-56.7%) and of adults (by 22-89%). Placement + Community generated the largest effects. Community enhanced the impact of Placement for children and parents, as well as the impact of Information for parents but not children. The results suggest that the family setting offers considerable scope for successful installation of interventions encouraging children and caregivers to develop healthier consumption habits, in mutually reinforcing ways. Combining information, affordances, and social influence gives the best, and most sustainable, results.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Família , Adulto , Cuidadores , Criança , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pais , Polônia , Características de Residência , Apoio Social
6.
Front Psychol ; 4: 424, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23882235

RESUMO

Conspiracy theories (CTs) can take many forms and vary widely in popularity, the intensity with which they are believed and their effects on individual and collective behavior. An integrated account of CTs thus needs to explain how they come to appeal to potential believers, how they spread from one person to the next via communication, and how they motivate collective action. We summarize these aspects under the labels of stick, spread, and action. We propose the quasi-religious hypothesis for CTs: drawing on cognitive science of religion, social representations theory, and frame theory. We use cognitive science of religion to describe the main features of the content of CTs that explain how they come to stick: CTs are quasi-religious representations in that their contents, forms and functions parallel those found in beliefs of institutionalized religions. However, CTs are quasi-religious in that CTs and the communities that support them, lack many of the institutional features of organized religions. We use social representations theory to explain how CTs spread as devices for making sense of sudden events that threaten existing worldviews. CTs allow laypersons to interpret such events by relating them to common sense, thereby defusing some of the anxiety that those events generate. We use frame theory to explain how some, but not all CTs mobilize collective counter-conspiratorial action by identifying a target and by proposing credible and concrete rationales for action. We specify our integrated account in 13 propositions.

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