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1.
J Nutr ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D. RESULTS: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for maternal postpartum weight retention and excessive neonatal adiposity, especially in women with overweight or obesity. Whether lifestyle interventions to reduce excess GWG also reduce 12-month maternal postpartum weight retention and infant weight-for-length z score is unknown. Randomized controlled trials from the LIFE-Moms consortium investigated lifestyle interventions that began in pregnancy and tested whether there was benefit through 12 months on maternal postpartum weight retention (i.e., the difference in weight from early pregnancy to 12 months) and infant-weight-for-length z scores. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In LIFE-Moms, women (N = 1150; 14.1 weeks gestation at enrollment) with overweight or obesity were randomized within each of seven trials to lifestyle intervention or standard care. Individual participant data were combined and analyzed using generalized linear mixed models with trial entered as a random effect. The 12-month assessment was completed by 83% (959/1150) of women and 84% (961/1150) of infants. RESULTS: Compared with standard care, lifestyle intervention reduced postpartum weight retention (2.2 ± 7.0 vs. 0.7 ± 6.2 kg, respectively; difference of -1.6 kg (95% CI -2.5, -0.7; p = 0.0003); the intervention effect was mediated by reduction in excess GWG, which explained 22% of the effect on postpartum weight retention. Lifestyle intervention also significantly increased the odds (OR = 1.68 (95% CI, 1.26, 2.24)) and percentage of mothers (48.2% vs. 36.2%) at or below baseline weight at 12 months postpartum (yes/no) compared with standard care. There was no statistically significant treatment group effect on infant anthropometric outcomes at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with standard care, lifestyle interventions initiated in pregnancy and focused on healthy eating, increased physical activity, and other behavioral strategies resulted in significantly less weight retention but similar infant anthropometric outcomes at 12 months postpartum in a large, diverse US population of women with overweight and obesity.

3.
J Hepatol ; 71(3): 594-602, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Excess liver iron content is common and is linked to the risk of hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. We aimed to identify genetic variants influencing liver iron content and use genetics to understand its link to other traits and diseases. METHODS: First, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 8,289 individuals from UK Biobank, whose liver iron level had been quantified by magnetic resonance imaging, before validating our findings in an independent cohort (n = 1,513 from IMI DIRECT). Second, we used Mendelian randomisation to test the causal effects of 25 predominantly metabolic traits on liver iron content. Third, we tested phenome-wide associations between liver iron variants and 770 traits and disease outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 3 independent genetic variants (rs1800562 [C282Y] and rs1799945 [H63D] in HFE and rs855791 [V736A] in TMPRSS6) associated with liver iron content that reached the GWAS significance threshold (p <5 × 10-8). The 2 HFE variants account for ∼85% of all cases of hereditary haemochromatosis. Mendelian randomisation analysis provided evidence that higher central obesity plays a causal role in increased liver iron content. Phenome-wide association analysis demonstrated shared aetiopathogenic mechanisms for elevated liver iron, high blood pressure, cirrhosis, malignancies, neuropsychiatric and rheumatological conditions, while also highlighting inverse associations with anaemias, lipidaemias and ischaemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: Our study provides genetic evidence that mechanisms underlying higher liver iron content are likely systemic rather than organ specific, that higher central obesity is causally associated with higher liver iron, and that liver iron shares common aetiology with multiple metabolic and non-metabolic diseases. LAY SUMMARY: Excess liver iron content is common and is associated with liver diseases and metabolic diseases including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. We identified 3 genetic variants that are linked to an increased risk of developing higher liver iron content. We show that the same genetic variants are linked to higher risk of many diseases, but they may also be associated with some health advantages. Finally, we use genetic variants associated with waist-to-hip ratio as a tool to show that central obesity is causally associated with increased liver iron content.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2773, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235808

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Periodontite/genética , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genômica , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
J Nutr ; 149(6): 1047-1055, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-specificity of exploratory dietary patterns limits their generalizability in investigations with type 2 diabetes incidence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to derive country-specific exploratory dietary patterns, investigate their association with type 2 diabetes incidence, and replicate diabetes-associated dietary patterns in other countries. METHODS: Dietary intake data were used, assessed by country-specific questionnaires at baseline of 11,183 incident diabetes cases and 14,694 subcohort members (mean age 52.9 y) from 8 countries, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (mean follow-up time 6.9 y). Exploratory dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. HRs for incident type 2 diabetes were calculated by Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Diabetes-associated dietary patterns were simplified or replicated to be applicable in other countries. A meta-analysis across all countries evaluated the generalizability of the diabetes-association. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns per country/UK-center, of which overall 3 dietary patterns were diabetes-associated, were identified. A risk-lowering French dietary pattern was not confirmed across other countries: pooled HRFrance per 1 SD: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.10. Risk-increasing dietary patterns, derived in Spain and UK-Norfolk, were confirmed, but only the latter statistically significantly: HRSpain: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.22 and HRUK-Norfolk: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20. Respectively, this dietary pattern was characterized by relatively high intakes of potatoes, processed meat, vegetable oils, sugar, cake and cookies, and tea. CONCLUSIONS: Only few country/center-specific dietary patterns (3 of 18) were statistically significantly associated with diabetes incidence in this multicountry European study population. One pattern, whose association with diabetes was confirmed across other countries, showed overlaps in the food groups potatoes and processed meat with identified diabetes-associated dietary patterns from other studies. The study demonstrates that replication of associations of exploratory patterns with health outcomes is feasible and a necessary step to overcome population-specificity in associations from such analyses.

6.
Diabetologia ; 62(9): 1601-1615, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203377

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Here, we describe the characteristics of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) epidemiological cohorts at baseline and follow-up examinations (18, 36 and 48 months of follow-up). METHODS: From a sampling frame of 24,682 adults of European ancestry enrolled in population-based cohorts across Europe, participants at varying risk of glycaemic deterioration were identified using a risk prediction algorithm (based on age, BMI, waist circumference, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking status and parental history of type 2 diabetes) and enrolled into a prospective cohort study (n = 2127) (cohort 1, prediabetes risk). We also recruited people from clinical registries with type 2 diabetes diagnosed 6-24 months previously (n = 789) into a second cohort study (cohort 2, diabetes). Follow-up examinations took place at ~18 months (both cohorts) and at ~48 months (cohort 1) or ~36 months (cohort 2) after baseline examinations. The cohorts were studied in parallel using matched protocols across seven clinical centres in northern Europe. RESULTS: Using ADA 2011 glycaemic categories, 33% (n = 693) of cohort 1 (prediabetes risk) had normal glucose regulation and 67% (n = 1419) had impaired glucose regulation. Seventy-six per cent of participants in cohort 1 was male. Cohort 1 participants had the following characteristics (mean ± SD) at baseline: age 62 (6.2) years; BMI 27.9 (4.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose 5.7 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 5.9 (1.6) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 6.0 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h OGTT glucose 6.5 (2.0) mmol/l. In cohort 2 (diabetes), 66% (n = 517) were treated by lifestyle modification and 34% (n = 272) were treated with metformin plus lifestyle modification at enrolment. Fifty-eight per cent of participants in cohort 2 was male. Cohort 2 participants had the following characteristics at baseline: age 62 (8.1) years; BMI 30.5 (5.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose 7.2 (1.4) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 8.6 (2.8) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination, the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 7.9 (2.0) mmol/l; 2 h mixed-meal tolerance test glucose 9.9 (3.4) mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The IMI DIRECT cohorts are intensely characterised, with a wide-variety of metabolically relevant measures assessed prospectively. We anticipate that the cohorts, made available through managed access, will provide a powerful resource for biomarker discovery, multivariate aetiological analyses and reclassification of patients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

7.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(10): 682-690, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009939

RESUMO

Background: Identifying reliable predictors of long-term weight loss (LTWL) could lead to improved weight management. Objective: To identify some predictors of LTWL. Design: The DPP (Diabetes Prevention Program) was a randomized controlled trial that compared weight loss with metformin, intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS), or placebo. Its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) observed patients after the masked treatment phase ended. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00004992 and NCT00038727). Setting: 27 DPP and DPPOS clinics. Participants: Of the 3234 randomly assigned participants, 1066 lost at least 5% of baseline weight in the first year and were followed for 15 years. Measurements: Treatment assignment, personal characteristics, and weight. Results: After 1 year, 289 (28.5%) participants in the metformin group, 640 (62.6%) in the ILS group, and 137 (13.4%) in the placebo group had lost at least 5% of their weight. After the masked treatment phase ended, the mean weight loss relative to baseline that was maintained between years 6 and 15 was 6.2% (95% CI, 5.2% to 7.2%) in the metformin group, 3.7% (CI, 3.1% to 4.4%) in the ILS group, and 2.8% (CI, 1.3% to 4.4%) in the placebo group. Independent predictors of LTWL included greater weight loss in the first year in all groups, older age and continued metformin use in the metformin group, older age and absence of either diabetes or a family history of diabetes in the ILS group, and higher fasting plasma glucose levels at baseline in the placebo group. Limitation: Post hoc analysis; examination of nonrandomized subsets of randomized groups after year 1. Conclusion: Among persons with weight loss of at least 5% after 1 year, those originally randomly assigned to metformin had the greatest loss during years 6 to 15. Older age and the amount of weight initially lost were the most consistent predictors of LTWL maintenance. Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 42(6): 1027-1033, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal adverse effects occur in 20-30% of patients with metformin-treated type 2 diabetes, leading to premature discontinuation in 5-10% of the cases. Gastrointestinal intolerance may reflect localized high concentrations of metformin in the gut. We hypothesized that reduced transport of metformin via the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) could increase the risk of severe gastrointestinal adverse effects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 286 severe metformin-intolerant and 1,128 metformin-tolerant individuals from the IMI DIRECT (Innovative Medicines Initiative: DIabetes REsearCh on patient straTification) consortium. We assessed the association of patient characteristics, concomitant medication, and the burden of mutations in the SLC29A4 and SLC22A1 genes on odds of intolerance. RESULTS: Women (P < 0.001) and older people (P < 0.001) were more likely to develop metformin intolerance. Concomitant use of transporter-inhibiting drugs increased the odds of intolerance (odds ratio [OR] 1.72, P < 0.001). In an adjusted logistic regression model, the G allele at rs3889348 (SLC29A4) was associated with gastrointestinal intolerance (OR 1.34, P = 0.005). rs3889348 is the top cis-expression quantitative trait locus for SLC29A4 in gut tissue where carriers of the G allele had reduced expression. Homozygous carriers of the G allele treated with transporter-inhibiting drugs had more than three times higher odds of intolerance compared with carriers of no G allele and not treated with inhibiting drugs (OR 3.23, P < 0.001). Use of a genetic risk score derived from rs3889348 and SLC22A1 variants found that the odds of intolerance were more than twice as high in individuals who carry three or more risk alleles compared with those carrying none (OR 2.15, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that intestinal metformin transporters and concomitant medications play an important role in the gastrointestinal adverse effects of metformin.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1052, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837455

RESUMO

Mouth ulcers are the most common ulcerative condition and encompass several clinical diagnoses, including recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Despite previous evidence for heritability, it is not clear which specific genetic loci are implicated in RAS. In this genome-wide association study (n = 461,106) heritability is estimated at 8.2% (95% CI: 6.4%, 9.9%). This study finds 97 variants which alter the odds of developing non-specific mouth ulcers and replicate these in an independent cohort (n = 355,744) (lead variant after meta-analysis: rs76830965, near IL12A, OR 0.72 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.73); P = 4.4e-483). Additional effect estimates from three independent cohorts with more specific phenotyping and specific study characteristics support many of these findings. In silico functional analyses provide evidence for a role of T cell regulation in the aetiology of mouth ulcers. These results provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of a common, important condition.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores Imunológicos/genética , Úlceras Orais/genética , Estomatite Aftosa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlceras Orais/imunologia , Estomatite Aftosa/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
11.
Diabetes Care ; 42(4): 568-575, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the causal association between intake of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included 21,820 European individuals (9,686 diabetes cases) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study. Participants were genotyped, and rs4988235 (LCT-12910C>T), a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for lactase persistence (LP) that enables digestion of dairy sugar, i.e., lactose, was imputed. Baseline dietary intakes were assessed with diet questionnaires. We investigated the associations between imputed SNP dosage for rs4988235 and intake of dairy products and other foods through linear regression. Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates for the milk-diabetes relationship were obtained through a two-stage least squares regression. RESULTS: Each additional LP allele was associated with a higher intake of milk (ß 17.1 g/day, 95% CI 10.6-23.6) and milk beverages (ß 2.8 g/day, 95% CI 1.0-4.5) but not with intake of other dairy products. Other dietary intakes associated with rs4988235 included fruits (ß -7.0 g/day, 95% CI -12.4 to -1.7 per additional LP allele), nonalcoholic beverages (ß -18.0 g/day, 95% CI -34.4 to -1.6), and wine (ß -4.8 g/day, 95% CI -9.1 to -0.6). In instrumental variable analysis, LP-associated milk intake was not associated with diabetes (hazard ratioper 15 g/day 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: rs4988235 was associated with milk intake but not with intake of other dairy products. This MR study does not suggest that milk intake is associated with diabetes, which is consistent with previous observational and genetic associations. LP may be associated with intake of other foods as well, but owing to the modest associations, we consider it unlikely that this caused the observed null result.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418614

RESUMO

Background: Existing evidence for the prospective association of vitamin D status with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is focused almost exclusively on circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] without distinction between its subtypes: non-epimeric and epimeric 25(OH)D3 stereoisomers; and 25(OH)D2, the minor component of 25(OH)D. We aimed to investigate the prospective associations of circulating levels of the sum and each of these three metabolites with incident T2D. Methods: This analysis in the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study for T2D included 9671 incident T2D cases and 13562 subcohort members. Plasma vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry. We used multivariable Prentice-weighted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of T2D for each metabolite. Analyses were performed separately within country, and estimates combined across countries using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: The mean concentrations (standard deviation) of total 25(OH)D, non-epimeric 25(OH)D3, epimeric 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 were 41.1 (17.2), 40.7 (17.3), 2.13 (1.31), and 8.16 (6.52) nmol/L, respectively. Plasma total 25(OH)D and non-epimeric 25(OH)D3 were inversely associated with incident T2D [multivariable-adjusted HR per 1-SD=0.81 (95%CI: 0.77, 0.86) for both variables], while epimeric 25(OH)D3 was positively associated: per 1-SD HR=1.16 (1.09, 1.25). There was no statistically significant association with T2D for 25(OH)D2 [per 1-SD HR=0.94 (0.76, 1.18)]. Conclusions: Plasma non-epimeric 25(OH)D3 was inversely associated with incident T2D, consistent with it being the major metabolite contributing to total 25(OH)D. The positive association of the epimeric form of 25(OH)D3 with incident T2D provides novel information to assess the biological relevance of vitamin D epimerization and vitamin D subtypes in diabetes etiology.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the extent to which BMI after pregnancy adds to the elevated risk of postpregnancy type 2 diabetes in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) (preeclampsia or gestational hypertension). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study. In women aged 45-54 years without prior gestational diabetes mellitus, we investigated the interaction between BMI and HDP history on the risk of type 2 diabetes. For clinical and public health relevance, we focused on additive interaction. The main outcome measure was the relative excess risk due to interaction calculated from multivariable Cox proportional hazards models using normal weight as the reference group. RESULTS: In total, 6,563 (11.7%) of 56,159 participants had a history of HDP and 1,341 women developed type 2 diabetes during 436,333 person-years. BMI was a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes regardless of HDP history. However, there was evidence of an additive interaction between BMI and HDP for the risk of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.004). The attributable proportion of risk due to the interaction ranged from 0.12 (95% CI -0.22, 0.46) in women who were overweight to 0.36 (95% CI 0.13, 0.59) in women with obesity class I. CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining a healthy weight may be of even greater importance in women with a history of HDP, compared with other women with a history of only normotensive pregnancies, to reduce midlife risk of type 2 diabetes.

14.
Am J Hypertens ; 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are at increased risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. Offspring from pregnancies complicated by HDP also have worse cardiometabolic status in childhood and young adulthood, but the offspring risk of clinical hypertension in adulthood is largely unknown. METHODS: We studied 13,893 first-born adult offspring (49.4% female) who attended a structured population-based primary care visit (The Västerbotten Health Survey) at age 40 years in Sweden between 1994 and 2013. Data on maternal HDP were collected from a population-based birth register. We investigated the association between maternal HDP and the risk of adult offspring hypertension and worse cardiometabolic risk factor status utilizing multivariable log binomial and linear regression models. We also conducted a sibling comparison, which inherently accounted for familial factors shared by siblings (N=135). RESULTS: Offspring participants of women with HDP (N=383, 2.8%) had increased relative risk of hypertension (1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.38, 2.01) and also higher mean body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and worse 2h 75g oral glucose tolerance test result at age 40 years. No difference was observed for serum cholesterol. Point estimates for the cardiometabolic risk factors were attenuated in the sibling analyses. CONCLUSION: Offspring born to mothers with a history of HDP are on an adverse cardiometabolic trajectory, and should be considered as concomitant targets for primordial prevention of hypertension in the maternal post-pregnancy period.

15.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(8): e001947, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354344

RESUMO

In genotype-based recall (GBR) studies, people (or their biological samples) who carry genotypes of special interest for a given hypothesis test are recalled from a larger cohort (or biobank) for more detailed investigations. There are several GBR study designs that offer a range of powerful options to elucidate (1) genotype-phenotype associations (by increasing the efficiency of genetic association studies, thereby allowing bespoke phenotyping in relatively small cohorts), (2) the effects of environmental exposures (within the Mendelian randomization framework), and (3) gene-treatment interactions (within the setting of GBR interventional trials). In this review, we overview the literature on GBR studies as applied to cardiometabolic health outcomes. We also review the GBR approaches used to date and outline new methods and study designs that might enhance the utility of GBR-focused studies. Specifically, we highlight how GBR methods have the potential to augment randomized controlled trials, providing an alternative application for the now increasingly accepted Mendelian randomization methods usually applied to large-scale population-based data sets. Further to this, we consider how functional and basic science approaches alongside GBR designs offer intellectually intriguing and potentially powerful ways to explore the implications of alterations to specific (and potentially druggable) biological pathways.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 39(44): 3961-3969, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169657

RESUMO

Aims: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) accounts for 10% of adult mortality in Western populations. We aim to identify potential loci associated with SCA and to identify risk factors causally associated with SCA. Methods and results: We carried out a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) for SCA (n = 3939 cases, 25 989 non-cases) to examine common variation genome-wide and in candidate arrhythmia genes. We also exploited Mendelian randomization (MR) methods using cross-trait multi-variant genetic risk score associations (GRSA) to assess causal relationships of 18 risk factors with SCA. No variants were associated with SCA at genome-wide significance, nor were common variants in candidate arrhythmia genes associated with SCA at nominal significance. Using cross-trait GRSA, we established genetic correlation between SCA and (i) coronary artery disease (CAD) and traditional CAD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, and diabetes), (ii) height and BMI, and (iii) electrical instability traits (QT and atrial fibrillation), suggesting aetiologic roles for these traits in SCA risk. Conclusions: Our findings show that a comprehensive approach to the genetic architecture of SCA can shed light on the determinants of a complex life-threatening condition with multiple influencing factors in the general population. The results of this genetic analysis, both positive and negative findings, have implications for evaluating the genetic architecture of patients with a family history of SCA, and for efforts to prevent SCA in high-risk populations and the general community.

17.
Diabetes ; 67(10): 1911-1922, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237159

RESUMO

The detailed characterization of human biology and behaviors is now possible at scale owing to innovations in biomarkers, bioimaging, and wearable technologies; "big data" from electronic medical records, health insurance databases, and other platforms becoming increasingly accessible; and rapidly evolving computational power and bioinformatics methods. Collectively, these advances are creating unprecedented opportunities to better understand diabetes and many other complex traits. Identifying hidden structures within these complex data sets and linking these structures to outcome data may yield unique insights into the risk factors and natural history of diabetes, which in turn may help optimize the prevention and management of the disease. This emerging area is broadly termed "precision medicine." In this Perspective, we give an overview of the evidence and barriers to the development and implementation of precision medicine in type 2 diabetes. We also discuss recently presented paradigms through which complex data might enhance our understanding of diabetes and ultimately our ability to tackle the disease more effectively than ever before.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 17(1): 124, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are at increased risk of early onset cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate the extent to which HDP is also associated with midlife development of T2D and hypertension above and beyond established risk factors. METHODS: We included parous women who attended population-based structured clinical visits at age 50 and 60 years in Sweden 1991-2013 (N = 6587). Women with prior diabetes mellitus, stroke, or ischemic heart disease at age 50 years were excluded. Data on reproductive history were collected from registries. To study the association between history of HDP and the between-visits development of T2D, hypertension, and clinical risk factors of cardiometabolic disease (body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and total cholesterol), we utilized multivariable adjusted regression models (logistic, log binomial, and linear regression, respectively). Models included data on outcome risk factors at age 50 years, e.g. BMI, 75 g 2 h oral glucose tolerance test result, and mean arterial pressure, respectively. RESULTS: Between ages 50 and 60 years, 5.8% of initially disease-free women developed T2D and 31.6% developed hypertension. History of HDP was associated with increased risk of developing T2D between age 50 and 60 years even when adjusting for risk factors, including BMI, at age 50 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.98). By contrast, the higher risk of developing hypertension observed in women with history of HDP (relative risk (RR) 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.78) was attenuated when adjusted for risk factors (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.94-1.25). Participants with a history of HDP had higher mean BMI and blood pressure at age 50 years, with levels roughly corresponding to those observed at age 60 years in unaffected women. CONCLUSIONS: Women with history of HDP are not only at higher risk of cardiometabolic disease during their reproductive years, but HDP is also associated with midlife T2D development above and beyond established risk factors.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal hemodynamics in pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and birth weight, which in turn is associated with offspring cardiovascular disease later in life. We therefore sought to quantify the extent to which birth weight is associated with cardiac structure and function in adolescence. METHODS: Participants (N=1,964, 55% females) from a UK birth cohort were examined with echocardiography at mean age 17.7 years (SD 0.3). Birth weight z-scores for sex and gestational age were used. Linear regression models were adjusted for several potential confounders, including maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), maternal age, maternal level of education, and smoking during pregnancy. RESULTS: Higher birth weight was associated with lower E/A (mean difference -0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI); -0.043 to -0.005) and E/e' (-0.05; 95% CI -0.10; -0.0006) and also associated with higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (0.38 g/m2.7 ; 95% CI 0.09; 0.67). There was no or inconsistent evidence of associations with relative wall thickness, left atrial diameter, and measurements of systolic function. Further analyses suggested that the association between birth weight and LVMI was mainly driven by an association observed in participants born small for gestational age and it was also abolished when risk factors in adolescence were accounted for. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight adjusted for sex and gestational age was associated with differences in measures of diastolic function in adolescence but the observed associations were small. It remains to be determined the extent to which these associations translate into increased susceptibility to cardiovascular disease later in life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(9): 1396-1404, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of varied lifestyle intervention programs designed to ameliorate excess gestational weight gain (GWG) in pregnant women with overweight or obesity compared with standard care, including effects on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Seven clinical centers conducted separate randomized clinical trials to test different lifestyle intervention strategies to modify GWG in diverse populations. Eligibility criteria, specific outcome measures, and assessment procedures were standardized across trials. The results of the separate trials were combined using an individual-participant data meta-analysis. RESULTS: For the 1,150 women randomized, the percent with excess GWG per week was significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the standard care group (61.8% vs. 75.0%; odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.52 [0.40 to 0.67]). Total GWG from enrollment to 36 weeks' gestation was also lower in the intervention group (8.1 ± 5.2 vs. 9.7 ± 5.4 kg; mean difference: -1.59 kg [95% CI:-2.18 to -0.99 kg]). The results from the individual trials were similar. The intervention and standard care groups did not differ in preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, or birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral lifestyle interventions focusing primarily on diet and physical activity among women with overweight and obesity resulted in a significantly lower proportion of women with excess GWG. This modest beneficial effect was consistent across diverse intervention modalities in a large, racially and socioeconomically diverse US population of pregnant women.

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