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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15192, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645637

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that genes play a substantial role in determining a person's susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment. The existing studies on this subject have different results, which may be caused by difficulties in determining the phenotype or the limited number of participants involved. Here, we have gathered the largest sample to date (discovery n = 9,675; replication n = 10,963; validation n = 356,141), and examined phenotypes that represented low/mid and high frequency hearing loss on the pure tone audiogram. We identified 7 loci that were either replicated and/or validated, of which 5 loci are novel in hearing. Especially the ILDR1 gene is a high profile candidate, as it contains our top SNP, is a known hearing loss gene, has been linked to age-related hearing impairment before, and in addition is preferentially expressed within hair cells of the inner ear. By verifying all previously published SNPs, we can present a paper that combines all new and existing findings to date, giving a complete overview of the genetic architecture of age-related hearing impairment. This is of importance as age-related hearing impairment is highly prevalent in our ageing society and represents a large socio-economic burden.

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 117: 122-128, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382133

RESUMO

Psychomotor symptoms are core features of melancholic depression. This study investigates whether psychomotor disturbance predicts the outcome of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and how the treatment modulates psychomotor disturbance. In 73 adults suffering from major depressive disorder psychomotor functioning was evaluated before, during and after ECT using the observer-rated CORE measure and objective measures including accelerometry and a drawing task. Regression models were fitted to assess the predictive value of melancholic depression (CORE ≥ 8) and the psychomotor variables on ECT outcome, while effects on psychomotor functioning were evaluated through linear mixed models. Patients with CORE-defined melancholic depression (n = 41) had a 4.9 times greater chance of reaching response than those (n = 24) with non-melancholic depression (Chi-Square = 7.5, P = 0.006). At baseline, both higher total CORE scores (AUC = 0.76; P = 0.001) and needing more cognitive (AUC = 0.78; P = 0.001) and motor time (AUC = 0.76; P = 0.003) on the drawing task corresponded to superior ECT outcomes, as did lower daytime activity levels (AUC = 0.76) although not significantly so after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. A greater CORE-score reduction in the first week of ECT was associated with higher ECT effectiveness. ECT reduced CORE-assessed psychomotor symptoms and improved activity levels only in those patients showing the severer baseline retardation. Although the sample was relatively small, psychomotor symptoms were clearly associated with beneficial outcome of ECT in patients with major depression, indicating that monitoring psychomotor deficits can help personalise treatment.

3.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(8): e787-e795, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hearing outcomes of cochlear implantation in different age groups by using data collected in the HEARRING registry. METHODS: A multicenter study. Data of 146 patients were collected in a HEARRING registry. Patients were divided into three different age groups; ≤ 55 years old (age group 1, n = 66), 56 to 69 years old (age group 2, n = 45), and ≥ 70 years old (age group 3, n = 35). Speech in quiet (SPIQ), speech in noise (SPIN), and hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI19) scores were evaluated for the different age groups at different test moments (preoperatively, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mo after first fitting). RESULTS: A statistically significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between preoperative scores and the scores on all the follow-up moments across all age groups. For SPIQ and SPIN, none of the time points showed a statistically significant age effect (p = 0.88 and p = 0.89). For HISQUI19 scores, a statistically significant age effect was found at 12 months after first fitting. The oldest age group scored significantly lower on the HISQUI19 compared with the youngest age group. CONCLUSION: Hearing outcomes of adult cochlear implant users of different age groups were evaluated. The SPIQ and SPIN tests showed no significant differences between the different age groups. Nevertheless, the youngest group scored significantly better on self -perceived benefit (HISQUI19) with a cochlear implant compared with the oldest age group.Further research is needed to receive more insight into cochlear implantation in the elderly and its implications on rehabilitating and supporting this expanding older population.

4.
Bipolar Disord ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cytokines are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms by kynurenine pathway activation. Kynurenine metabolites affect neurotransmission and can cause neurotoxicity. We measured inflammatory markers in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and studied their relation to kynurenine metabolites and mood. METHODS: Patients with BD suffering from an acute mood episode were assigned to the depressive (n = 35) or (hypo)manic (n = 32) subgroup. Plasma levels of inflammatory markers [cytokines, C-reactive protein] and kynurenine metabolites [tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), quinolinic acid (QA), kynurenic acid (KYNA)] were measured on 6 time points during 8 months follow-up. Biological marker levels in patients were compared to controls (n = 35) and correlated to scores on mood scales. Spearman correlations and linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twenty patients of the manic subgroup, 29 of the depressive subgroup, and 30 controls completed the study. The manic subgroup had a rapid remission of mood symptoms, but in the depressive subgroup subsyndromal symptoms persisted. No differences in inflammation were found between groups. A strong correlation between tumor necrosis factor-α and KYN, KYN/TRP, 3-HK and QA (ρ > 0.60) was specific for the manic group, but only at baseline (during mania). The depressive subgroup had a lower neuroprotective ratio (KYNA/3-HK, P = .0004) and a strong association between interferon-y and kynurenine pathway activation (P < .0001). KYNA was low in both patient groups versus controls throughout the whole follow-up (P = .0008). CONCLUSIONS: Mania and chronic depressive symptoms in BD are accompanied by a strong interaction between inflammation and a potentially neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism.

5.
J ECT ; 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The presence of psychotic symptoms is an important predictor of responsiveness to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This study investigates whether a continuous severity measure, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), is a more accurate predictor. METHODS: Depression severity was assessed before and after the ECT course using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in 31 patients with psychotic depression and 34 depressed patients without psychotic symptoms. Logistic regression models for MADRS response and remission were fitted, with either the PDAS total score or the dichotomous predictors "absence/presence of psychotic symptoms" as the independent variables. Age, episode duration, and treatment resistance were added as covariates. RESULTS: Both the asserted presence of psychotic symptoms and a higher PDAS total score reflected MADRS response (areas under the curve, 0.83 and 0.85, respectively), with MADRS remission also being predicted by the presence of psychotic symptoms and higher PDAS scores (areas under the curves, 0.86 and 0.84, respectively). Age was a contributor to these prediction models, with response and remission rates being highest in the older patients. Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale scores decreased significantly during ECT: at end point, 81.5% of the patients showed significant response and 63.9% had achieved remission. CONCLUSIONS: The PDAS indeed accurately predicts response to and remission after ECT in (psychotic) depression and most pronouncedly so in older patients but seems to have no clear advantage over simply verifying the presence of psychotic symptoms. This could be the consequence of a ceiling effect, as ECT was extremely effective in patients with psychotic depression.ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier: NCT02562846.

6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(4): 1001-1006, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968248

RESUMO

Otosclerosis is a common form of hearing loss (HL) due to abnormal remodeling of the otic capsule. The genetic causes of otosclerosis remain largely unidentified. Only mutations in a single gene, SERPINF1, were previously published in patients with familial otosclerosis. To unravel the contribution of genetic variation in this gene to otosclerosis, this gene was re-sequenced in a large population of otosclerosis patients and controls. Resequencing of the 5' and 3' UTRs, coding regions, and exon-intron boundaries of SERPINF1 was performed in 1604 unrelated otosclerosis patients and 1538 unscreened controls, and in 62 large otosclerosis families. Our study showed no enrichment of rare variants, stratified by type, in SERPINF1 in patients versus controls. Furthermore, the c.392C > A (p.Ala131Asp) variant, previously reported as pathogenic, was identified in three patients and four controls, not replicating its pathogenic nature. We could also not find evidence for a pathogenic role in otosclerosis for 5' UTR variants in the SERPINF1-012 transcript (ENST00000573763), described as the major transcript in human stapes. Furthermore, no rare variants were identified in the otosclerosis families. This study does not support a pathogenic role for variants in SERPINF1 as a cause of otosclerosis. Therefore, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown and will undoubtedly be the focus of future studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Otosclerose/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Serpinas/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
7.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2133-2145, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993897

RESUMO

In addition to its implication in hereditary hearing loss, the Gasdermin E (GSDME) gene is also a tumor suppressor involved in cancer progression through programmed cell death. GSDME epigenetic silencing through methylation has been shown in some cancer types, but studies are yet to fully explore its diagnostic/prognostic potential in colorectal cancer on a large-scale. We used public data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to investigate differences in GSDME methylation and expression between colorectal cancer and normal colorectal tissue, and between left- and right-sided colorectal cancers in 432 samples. We also explored GSDME's diagnostic capacity as a biomarker for colorectal cancer. We observed differential methylation in all 22 GSDME CpGs between tumor and normal tissues, and in 18 CpGs between the left- and right-sided groups. In the cancer tissue, putative promoter probes were hypermethylated and gene body probes were hypomethylated, while this pattern was inversed in normal tissues. Both putative promoter and gene body CpGs correlated well together but formed distinct methylation patterns with the putative promoter exhibiting the most pronounced methylation differences between tumor and normal tissues. Clinicopathological parameters, excluding age, did not show any effect on CpG methylation. Although the methylation of 5 distinct probes was a good predictor of gene expression, we could not identify an association between GSDME methylation and expression in general. Survival analysis showed no association between GSDME methylation and expression on 5-year patient survival. Through logistic regression, we identified a combination of 2 CpGs, that can discriminate between cancer and normal tissue with high accuracy (AUC = 0.95) irrespective of age and tumor stage. We also validated our model in 3 external methylation datasets, from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and similar results were reached. Our results suggest that GSDME is a promising biomarker for the detection of colorectal cancer.

8.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 104(6): 613-621, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726512

RESUMO

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a common, late-onset bone disorder characterized by focal increase of bone turnover. Mutations in the SQSTM1 gene are found in up to 40% of patients and recent GWAS have led to novel associations with several loci. RIN3, the candidate gene located at the associated 14q32 locus, has recently been studied in a British cohort to elucidate its contribution to the pathogenesis. In this study, we performed a genetic screening of RIN3 in an unrelated cohort to validate these findings and to further explore genetic variation in this gene in the context of PDB. In our screening, we examined the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the exonic regions and the intron-exon boundaries of the gene in a control cohort and a patient cohort. Our findings show clustering of variation similar to the British cohort and support a protective role for common genetic variation (rs117068593, p.R279C) in the proline-rich region and a functionally relevant role for rare genetic variation in the domains that mediate binding and activation of its interaction partner, Rab5. Additive regression models, fitted for the common variants, validated the association of the rs117068593 variant with the disease (OR+/+ 0.315; OR+/- 0.562). In addition, our analyses revealed a potentially modifying effect of this variant on the age of onset of the disease. In conclusion, our findings support the involvement of genetic variation in RIN3 in PDB and suggest a role for RIN3 as a potential modifier of the age of onset of the disease.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2028, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765714

RESUMO

Cecropia species are traditionally used in Latin American folk medicine and are available as food supplements with little information warranting their quality. The optimum conditions for the extraction of chlorogenic acid (CA), total flavonoids (TF) and flavonolignans (FL) from leaves of Cecropia species were determined using a fractional factorial design (FFD) and a central composite design (CCD). A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was validated for the quantification of CA, TF and FL, following the ICH guidelines. Quantitative and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also performed. The extraction-optimization methodology enabled us developing an appropriate extraction process with a time-efficient execution of experiments. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the proposed model. The validation parameters for all chemical markers of the quantification method were satisfactory. The results revealed that the method had excellent selectivity, linearity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision were below than 2 and 5%, respectively) and accuracy (98-102%). The limits of detection and quantification were at nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL) level. In conclusion, the simultaneous quantification of chemical markers using the proposed method is an appropriate approach for species discrimination and quality evaluation of Cecropia sp.

10.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 38(2): 801-808, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644573

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is an established minimally invasive therapy for functional disorders of the pelvic organs in which electrodes are stimulated in proximity of the sacral spinal nerves. Reprogramming of the electrodes is regularly required and is based on the sensory response. This study assesses the repeatability of a pelvic chart and grading system to enable a more objective assessment of the sensory response upon electrode stimulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 26 SNM patients, with OAB or NOUR, assessment of the sensory response was done using the sensory threshold (ST) and a pelvic chart with 1 cm2 coordinates, each coordinate corresponding with a dermatome and location of sensation (LoS). A grading system was developed based upon the ST and LoS. Repeatability of ST was assessed using a two-way mixed effects, absolute agreement, single rater/measurement intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and displayed using a correlation and Bland Altman plot. Repeatability of dermatomes, LoS, and grading system was assessed using kappa correlation coefficient. RESULTS: On average, 1.55 ± 0.85 coordinates were used to point out the area where the stimulation was perceived. The mean amount of coordinates between the area pointed at during the first and second measurement was 0.47 ± 0.74. ST showed excellent repeatability (ICC 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.94, P < 0.001). Dermatomes, LoS and grading system showed a substantial to almost perfect agreement (κ = 0.740-0.833, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The pelvic chart and grading system, using the sensory response upon electrode stimulation, are repeatable tools and can be used to assist in follow up and troubleshooting of SNM patients.

11.
Trials ; 20(1): 32, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chronic, subjective tinnitus are on a quest to find a cure or any form of alleviation for their persistent complaint. Current recommended therapy forms provide psychotherapeutic interventions that are intended to train the patient how to deal with the tinnitus sound. Pharmaceutical managements are used to reduce secondary effects of the tinnitus sound such as sleep deprivation, emotional and concentration difficulties, but these treatments do not cure the tinnitus. Recent studies have shown that Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) significantly improves the quality of life for tinnitus patients. Furthermore, several studies have reported that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) relieves a substantial amount of distress by changing dysfunctional cognitions. However, when the tinnitus causes great interference with daily functioning, these treatment methods are not always sufficiently effective. Recent insights show that Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) is a highly effective therapy for medically unexplained symptoms such as chronic pain and phantom pain. In scientific research, tinnitus is compared to phantom limb pain. Starting from tinnitus as a phantom percept we therefore aim to demonstrate that the operating mechanisms of EMDR may also be an effective treatment method for patients with subjective tinnitus. The aim of this randomized controlled study with blind evaluator is to examine the effect of EMDR compared to CBT in chronic tinnitus patients. To our knowledge, there are no other studies that evaluate both methods simultaneously. METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 166 patients with subjective, chronic, non-pulsatile tinnitus will be randomized in two treatment groups: TRT + CBT versus TRT + EMDR. The experimental group will receive the bimodal therapy TRT/EMDR and the active control group will receive the bimodal therapy TRT/CBT. Evaluations will take place at baseline before therapy, at the end of the treatment and 3 months after therapy. The score on the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) will be used as the primary outcome measurement. Secondary outcome measurements are the Visual Analogue Scale of Loudness (VAS), Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ), psychoacoustic measurements and event-related potentials (ERP). DISCUSSION: The objective is to evaluate whether the bimodal therapy TRT and EMDR can provide faster and/or more relief from the annoyance experienced in chronic tinnitus patients' daily lives compared to the bimodal therapy TRT and CBT. So far there has been no prospective, randomized controlled, clinical trial with blind evaluator that compares CBT and EMDR as a treatment for tinnitus. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03114878 . April 14, 2017.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares , Audição , Zumbido/terapia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Doença Crônica , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eletroencefalografia , Potencial Evocado P300 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicoacústica , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Zumbido/diagnóstico , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Zumbido/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether state-associated changes in microglial activity, measured with translocator-protein positron emission tomography (TSPO PET), can be identified in psychosis patients through longitudinal evaluation of their regional tracer uptake over the clinical course from acute psychosis to post-treatment follow-up, and comparison to healthy controls. We also evaluated the relation between tracer uptake, clinical symptoms and peripheral immunological markers. METHOD: Second-generation radioligand [18F]-PBR111 TSPO PET-CT was used for longitudinal dynamic imaging in 14 male psychosis patients and 17 male age-matched healthy control subjects. Patients were first scanned during an acute psychotic episode followed by a second scan after treatment. Prior genotyping of subjects for the rs6917 polymorphism distinguished high- and mixed-affinity binders. The main outcome was regional volume of distribution (VT), representing TSPO binding. Plasma concentrations of CRP, cytokines and kynurenines were measured at each timepoint. RESULTS: We found a significant three-way interaction between time of scan, age and cohort (cortical grey matter F6.50, p.020). Age-dependent differences in VT existed between cohorts during the psychotic state, but not at follow-up. Patients' relative change in VT over time correlated with age (cortical grey matter Pearson's r.574). PANSS positive subscale scores correlated with regional VT during psychosis (cortical grey matter r.767). Plasma CRP and quinolinic acid were independently associated with lower VT. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a differential age-dependent pattern of TSPO binding from psychosis to follow-up in our cohort of male psychosis patients. We recommend future TSPO PET studies in psychosis patients to differentiate between clinical states and consider potential age-related effects.

13.
Front Neurol ; 9: 887, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410464

RESUMO

Introduction: Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS) is a condition characterized by a perception of self-motion in the absence of a stimulus, with two onset types: Motion-Triggered and Spontaneous. Currently, the pathophysiology is unknown and consequently, the therapeutic options are limited. One proposed treatment protocol, developed by Dai and colleagues is based on optokinetic stimulation, which aims to re-adapt the vestibular ocular reflex. This study aimed to reproduce the treatment protocol developed by Dai and colleagues and to assess if a placebo effect is present in the treatment protocol and lastly, aimed to further investigate the treatment on MdDS patient outcomes. Method: Twenty-five MdDS patients (13 Motion-Triggered and 12 Spontaneous) were exposed to 5 consecutive days of optokinetic treatment (consisting of exposure to optokinetic stimuli with head movements). Eleven of these 25 patients were also exposed to 2 days of a sham treatment prior to the OKN treatment. Posturography measurements and reported symptoms [e.g., using the visual analog scale (VAS)] of patients were assessed throughout the treatment. Posturography data of the patients was compared with the data of 20 healthy controls. Results: No placebo effect was recorded with any changes in postural data and VAS scale. After the optokinetic treatment, a significant improvement in postural control was observed in 48% of patients, of whom 70% were of the Motion-Triggered subtype (p-values: Area under the Curve-Anterior Posterior < 0.001; Area under the Curve-Medio Lateral p < 0.001, Confidence Ellipse Area (CEA) < 0.001, Velocity < 0.001). Conclusion: The protocol was effective in approximately half of the MdDS patients that took part in the study, with no placebo effect recorded. The Motion-Triggered group responded better to treatment than the Spontaneous group. In addition to this, this study indicates that the greatest postural changes occur within the first 3 days of treatment, suggesting that a shorter protocol is possible. Overall, these findings support what was previously observed in Dai's studies, that optokinetic stimulation can reduce and ease self-motion perception in those with MdDS. Thus, validating the reproducibility of this protocol, suggesting that a consistent and uncomplicated implementation across treatment centers is possible.

14.
Prenat Diagn ; 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the replacement of karyotyping by chromosomal microarray (CMA) in invasive prenatal diagnosis, new challenges have arisen. By building a national database, we standardize the classification and reporting of prenatally detected copy number variants (CNVs) across Belgian genetic centers. This database, which will link genetic and ultrasound findings with postnatal development, forms a unique resource to investigate the pathogenicity of variants of uncertain significance and to refine the phenotypic spectrum of pathogenic and susceptibility CNVs. METHODS: The Belgian MicroArray Prenatal (BEMAPRE) consortium is a collaboration of all genetic centers in Belgium. We collected data from all invasive prenatal procedures performed between May 2013 and July 2016. RESULTS: In this three-year period, 13 266 prenatal CMAs were performed. By national agreement, a limited number of susceptibility CNVs and no variants of uncertain significance were reported. Added values for using CMA versus conventional karyotyping were 1.8% in the general invasive population and 2.7% in cases with an ultrasound anomaly. Of the reported CNVs, 31.5% would have remained undetected with non-invasive prenatal test as the first-tier test. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a national database for prenatal CNV data allows for a uniform reporting policy and the investigation of the prenatal and postnatal genotype-phenotype correlation.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350094

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to compare oxidative stress and immune biomarkers between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and controls without ADHD. A case-control comparison between 57 paediatric (6-12 years) untreated ADHD patients from the Antwerp University Hospital and 69 controls without ADHD from random schools in Flanders, Belgium, was conducted. Erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) and plasma lipid-soluble antioxidants (retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, ß-carotene, and co-enzyme Q10) were determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC with fluorescence detection, plasma cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (INF)-γ) and immunoglobulins (IgE, IgG and IgM) by flow cytometry and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels by ELISA assay. Dietary habits were determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Plasma MDA levels were on average 0.031 µM higher in patients than in controls (p < 0.05), and a trend for higher urinary 8-OHdG was observed. Erythrocyte GSH and plasma retinyl palmitate levels, as well as IgG and IgE levels, were higher in patients than in controls as well (on average 93.707 µg/ml, 0.006 µg/ml, 301.555 µg/ml and 125.004 µg/ml, resp., p < 0.05). Finally, a trend for lower plasma IL-5 levels was observed. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the difference in GSH levels remained statistically significant (nominally significant for retinyl palmitate), while significance was lost for MDA, IgG and IgE levels. Dietary habits do not appear to cause the observed differences. These results point at the potential involvement of slight oxidative stress and immune disturbances in ADHD.

16.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 138(6): 605-614, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential role of the Maudsley Staging Method (MSM) in the prediction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) outcome in severely depressed adults. METHOD: Between August 2015 and August 2017, 73 consecutive patients with a major depressive episode (DSM-IV-TR) scheduled for ECT were recruited. Prior to their first ECT session, the MSM was completed to assess the level of therapy resistance. To determine the reduction in depression severity and response and remission rates, symptom severity was assessed at baseline and within one week after the last ECT session using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17). RESULTS: The percentage of symptom reduction following ECT was best predicted by the MSM episode duration and depression severity factors (R2 completer sample 0.24). Episode duration alone was the best predictor of remission (area under the ROC curve for completers: 0.72). Adding age to the models increased their predictive capacity. CONCLUSION: An adapted version of the MSM gauging shorter episode duration, more severe depressive symptoms and older age is significantly associated with ECT effectiveness in adults with severe recurrent depression and is thus highly suitable for use in clinical practice, promoting the shared treatment decision-making process.

17.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize new molecular factors implicated in a hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP) family and otosclerosis. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in a four-generation family presenting nonprogressive HCFP and mixed hearing loss (HL). MEPE was analyzed using either Sanger sequencing or molecular inversion probes combined with massive parallel sequencing in 89 otosclerosis families, 1604 unrelated affected subjects, and 1538 unscreened controls. RESULTS: Exome sequencing in the HCFP family led to the identification of a rare segregating heterozygous frameshift variant p.(Gln425Lysfs*38) in MEPE. As the HL phenotype in this family resembled otosclerosis, we performed variant burden and variance components analyses in a large otosclerosis cohort and demonstrated that nonsense and frameshift MEPE variants were significantly enriched in affected subjects (p = 0.0006-0.0060). CONCLUSION: MEPE exerts its function in bone homeostasis by two domains, an RGD and an acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated (ASARM) motif inhibiting respectively bone resorption and mineralization. All variants associated with otosclerosis are predicted to result in nonsense mediated decay or an ASARM-and-RGD-truncated MEPE. The HCFP variant is predicted to produce an ASARM-truncated MEPE with an intact RGD motif. This difference in effect on the protein corresponds with the presumed pathophysiology of both diseases, and provides a plausible molecular explanation for the distinct phenotypic outcome.

18.
Redox Biol ; 19: 301-317, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199819

RESUMO

Mutations in GJB2, the gene that encodes connexin 26 (Cx26), are the most common cause of sensorineural hearing impairment. The truncating variant 35delG, which determines a complete loss of Cx26 protein function, is the prevalent GJB2 mutation in several populations. Here, we generated and analyzed Gjb2+/- mice as a model of heterozygous human carriers of 35delG. Compared to control mice, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) worsened over time more rapidly in Gjb2+/- mice, indicating they were affected by accelerated age-related hearing loss (ARHL), or presbycusis. We linked causally the auditory phenotype of Gjb2+/- mice to apoptosis and oxidative damage in the cochlear duct, reduced release of glutathione from connexin hemichannels, decreased nutrient delivery to the sensory epithelium via cochlear gap junctions and deregulated expression of genes that are under transcriptional control of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a pivotal regulator of tolerance to redox stress. Moreover, a statistically significant genome-wide association with two genes (PRKCE and TGFB1) related to the Nrf2 pathway (p-value < 4â€¯× 10-2) was detected in a very large cohort of 4091 individuals, originating from Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, with hearing phenotype (including 1076 presbycusis patients and 1290 healthy matched controls). We conclude that (i) elements of the Nrf2 pathway are essential for hearing maintenance and (ii) their dysfunction may play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of human presbycusis.

19.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 30(11): 1297-1306, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical decline and cognitive degeneration characterise the ageing process. AIM: Physical parameters, performance and the functional indexes were studied in relation to age in healthy and cognitively impaired older persons to understand the interactions and changes during normal ageing, cognitive decline and progression to frailty. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was performed on a data registry of an ambulatory Memory Diagnosis Centre. The quantitative gait characteristics at usual pace, body composition parameters, disability scales (activity of daily living and instrumental activity of daily living) and Rockwood frailty index were compared in cognitively healthy (CHI), mild cognitively impaired, mildly and moderately demented < 80-years old and > 80-years old adults. RESULTS: Quality of gait deteriorated with age in CHI and cognitively impaired. Skeletal muscle mass index decreased when cognitive status worsened. Disability and frailty correlated with increasing cognitive impairment. Age, gender, cognitive impairment, body composition and Rockwood's Frailty scale had a combined forecasting effect, as well as the individual effect on the gait characteristics. Disability score, Frailty index, skeletal muscle mass and skeletal muscle mass index, gait speed, normalised mean step length and swing time variability in mildly demented < 80-years old adults mirrored the parameters in the CHI > 80-years old. CONCLUSION: Quantitative gait characteristics, muscle mass and disabilities change along with cognitive impairment, frailty and age. A more rapid physical ageing process accompanies cognitive decline. Therefore, gait characteristics should be age-referenced and studies on gait in older persons should include muscle mass, frailty and cognitive parameters.

20.
Neuron ; 99(4): 781-799.e10, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078578

RESUMO

Synapses are found in vast numbers in the brain and contain complex proteomes. We developed genetic labeling and imaging methods to examine synaptic proteins in individual excitatory synapses across all regions of the mouse brain. Synapse catalogs were generated from the molecular and morphological features of a billion synapses. Each synapse subtype showed a unique anatomical distribution, and each brain region showed a distinct signature of synapse subtypes. Whole-brain synaptome cartography revealed spatial architecture from dendritic to global systems levels and previously unknown anatomical features. Synaptome mapping of circuits showed correspondence between synapse diversity and structural and functional connectomes. Behaviorally relevant patterns of neuronal activity trigger spatiotemporal postsynaptic responses sensitive to the structure of synaptome maps. Areas controlling higher cognitive function contain the greatest synapse diversity, and mutations causing cognitive disorders reorganized synaptome maps. Synaptome technology and resources have wide-ranging application in studies of the normal and diseased brain.

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