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1.
Vet Sci ; 9(4)2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448650

RESUMO

Colibacillosis is the most common bacterial disease in poultry and it is caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), which is assigned to various O-serogroups. Previous studies have shown that APEC strains are more often related to certain O-serogroups such asO78, O2 and O1. E. coli has been reported to act either as a primary or secondary agent in complicating other infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of and characterize the O-serogroups of E. coli strains isolated from commercial layer and layer breeder flocks showing macroscopic lesions of colibacillosis and increased or normal mortality in Greece. Furthermore, we attempted to assess the interaction between infectious agents such as Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), infectious bronchitis (IBV) and infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) with E. coli infections in layer flocks with increased mortality. Our study revealed that in addition to the common serogroups (O78, O2), many other, and less common serogroups were identified, including O111. The O78, O111 and O2 serogroups were frequently detected in flocks with lesions of colibacillosis and increased mortality whereas O2, O88 and O8 were reported more commonly in birds with colibacillosis lesions but normal mortality rates. These data provide important information for colibacillosis monitoring and define preventative measures, especially by using effective vaccination programs because E. coli vaccines are reported to mainly offer homologous protection. Finally, concerning the association of the four tested infectious agents with E. coli mortality, our study did not reveal a statistically significant effect of the above infectious agents tested with E. coli infection mortality.

2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403349

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is among the most devastating diseases affecting the pig industry. Despite vaccines having been available for decades, the remarkable genetic variability of this virus, leading to poor cross-protection, has limited their efficacy, and other measures must be adopted to effectively control the viral circulation. Some recent studies have investigated the factors involved in viral spreading and persistence, at least at the local level. However, despite the topic's relevance, no statistically grounded evidence is currently available evaluating the variables more involved in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) epidemiological success at a broader scale, such as the European scale. In the present study, an extensive phylodynamic and phylogeographic analysis was performed on more than 1000 ORF5 sequences to investigate the history, dynamics and spreading patterns of PRRSV within European borders. Moreover, several potential predictors, representative of swine population features and trade, human population, economy and geographic characteristics, were evaluated through a specifically designed generalized linear model (GLM) to assess their weight on viral migration rate between countries over time. Although pig stock density, mean PRRSV strain genetic diversity, investments in agriculture (including a likely role of vaccination) and farmer education were involved to a certain extent, the major determinant was proven to be by far the live pig trade. Providing a robust depiction of PRRSV European molecular epidemiology patterns and determinants, the present study could contribute to a more rational allocation of limited resources based on an effective prioritization of control measures.

3.
Avian Pathol ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35261311

RESUMO

Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) economically affects the global poultry industry causing respiratory and reproductive disorders. Considering the paucity of data on aMPV occurrence in European free-ranging avifauna, a molecular survey was conducted on wild birds of 23 species belonging to the orders Anseriformes, Charadriiformes or Passeriformes, captured alive and sampled in Northeast Italy as part of the national avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance activities. A total of 492 oropharyngeal swabs, collected from 2007-2010, all AIV-negative, were screened from aMPV by subtype-specific qRT-PCR. An aMPV-C strain, named aMPV/C/IT/Wigeon/758/07, was found in a wintering young Eurasian wigeon (Mareca penelope) sampled in November 2007. The matrix, fusion, and attachment glycoprotein genes of the detected strain were subsequently amplified by specific independent RT-PCRs, then sequenced, and compared in a phylogenetic framework with known aMPV homologous sequences retrieved from GenBank. Close genetic relationships were found between the aMPV/C/IT/Wigeon/758/07 strain and subtype C Eurasian lineage strains isolated in the late 1990s in French domestic ducks, suggesting epidemiological links. Eurasian wigeons are medium/long-range migrant dabbling ducks that move along the Black Sea/Mediterranean flyway; our finding might, therefore, be related to migratory bridges between countries. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of aMPV subtype C in Italy and backdates the aMPV-C circulation to 2007. Moreover, the results suggest the susceptibility of Eurasian wigeons to aMPV. Broader investigations are needed to assess the role of wild ducks and the significance of the wildfowl/poultry interface in aMPV-C epidemiology. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSWild birds live-captured in Italy were tested for aMPV detection and characterization.aMPV-C Eurasian lineage was found for the first time in a wintering Eurasian wigeon.Migratory birds could be involved in the aMPV epidemiology.

4.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268189

RESUMO

Members of the genus Circovirus have been identified in several host species. While initially considered host-specific, there is growing evidence of their presence in unexpected hosts. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) is no exception, having been reported in animals belonging to different orders, including carnivores. Recently, PCV-2 was detected in domestic pigs, warthogs and antelopes in Namibia. Considering the potential contact between these populations and wild carnivores, the presence of PCV-2 was investigated in 32 black-backed jackals (Lupulella mesomelas) shot between February and July 2021 as part of predator control operations in Namibia. Two lung lymph nodes tested positive for PCV-2 by PCR, confirming the broader-than-expected PCV-2 host tropism and the susceptibility of canids. Sequence analysis demonstrated a close association between the PCV-2s identified in the jackals and PCV-2b strains collected from South African domestic pigs. Although several hypotheses regarding the source of the jackal's infection are proposed, further studies should be performed to properly assess how PCV-2 is acquired and maintained in the wild and its potential impact on wild and domestic species.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35049758

RESUMO

Thanks to recent developments in molecular methods, many new species have been discovered within the genus Circovirus, which comprises viruses of veterinary relevance found in a broad range of hosts. In particular, several circoviruses are known to infect birds, often causing immunosuppression and feathering disorders. Nonetheless, nothing is known about their circulation in birds of prey. In this study, samples from 61 birds of prey representing ten different species, recovered by a wildlife rescue centre in Southern Italy, were taken at necropsy and analysed by PCR with pan-Circovirus primers. Only one sample, collected from a tawny owl (Strix aluco), tested positive. Its genome, sequenced by primer walking, displays the typical features of circoviruses. Based on demarcation criteria, the detected strain qualifies as a novel species, which was named "tawny owl-associated circovirus" (ToCV). Phylogenetically, ToCV clustered with mammalian rather than avian circoviruses, and its closeness to a rodent circovirus suggests that its host may have been a micromammal eaten by the tawny owl. On the other hand, its detection in the spleen fits with the tropism of other avian circoviruses. Little can be therefore said on its biology and pathogenicity, and further efforts are needed to better characterize its epidemiology.

6.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062285

RESUMO

Porcine circoviruses (PCVs) are distributed in swine herds worldwide and represent a threat to the health of domestic pigs and the profits of the swine industry. Currently, four PCV species, including PCV-1, PCV-2, PCV-3 and PCV-4, have been identified in China. Considering the ubiquitous characteristic of PCVs, the new emerged PCV-4 and the large scale of swine breeding in China, an overall analysis on codon usage bias for Chinese PCV sequences was performed by using the major proteins coding sequences (ORF1 and ORF2) to better understand the relationship of these viruses with their host. The data from genome nucleotide frequency composition and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis revealed an overrepresentation of AT pair and the existence of a certain codon usage bias in all PCVs. However, the values of an effective number of codons (ENC) revealed that the bias was of low magnitude. Principal component analysis, ENC-plot, parity rule two analysis and correlation analysis suggested that natural selection and mutation pressure were both involved in the shaping of the codon usage patterns of PCVs. However, a neutrality plot revealed a stronger effect of natural selection than mutation pressure on codon usage patterns. Good host adaptation was also shown by the codon adaptation index analysis for all these viruses. Interestingly, obtained data suggest that PCV-4 might be more adapted to its host compared to other PCVs. The present study obtained insights into the codon usage pattern of PCVs based on ORF1 and ORF2, which further helps the understanding the molecular evolution of these swine viruses.


Assuntos
Circovirus/genética , Uso do Códon , Sus scrofa/virologia , Animais , China , Circovirus/fisiologia , Códon , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Adaptação ao Hospedeiro , Mutação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Seleção Genética , Sus scrofa/genética
7.
Arch Virol ; 167(1): 207-211, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826000

RESUMO

Archival swine DNA samples from Indonesia and Mongolia, some of which were previously shown to be positive for African swine fever virus, were screened for the presence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) and porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) by PCR. Samples from both countries were positive for PCV-2 (three from Mongolia and two from Indonesia), while none were positive for PCV-3. The PCV-2 amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PCV-2 strains belonged to four different genotypes: PCV-2a (Mongolia), PCV-2b (Mongolia and Indonesia), PCV-2d (Indonesia), and PCV-2g (Mongolia). This is the first report of ASFV/PCV-2 coinfection in pigs and the first report of the presence of PCV-2 in Mongolia.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Infecções por Circoviridae , Circovirus , Coinfecção , Doenças dos Suínos , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Coinfecção/veterinária , Filogenia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
9.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960778

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is probably the most relevant viral disease affecting pig farming. Despite the remarkable efforts paid in terms of vaccination administration and biosecurity, eradication and long-term control have often been frustrated. Unfortunately, few studies are currently available that objectively link, using a formal statistical approach, viral molecular epidemiology to the risk factors determining the observed scenario. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to filling this knowledge gap taking advantage of the advancements in the field of phylodynamics. Approximately one-thousand ORF7 sequences were obtained from strains collected between 2004 and 2021 from the largest Italian pig company, which implements strict compartmentalization among independent three-sites (i.e., sow herds, nurseries and finishing units) pig flows. The history and dynamics of the viral population and its evolution over time were reconstructed and linked to managerial choices. The viral fluxes within and among independent pig flows were evaluated, and the contribution of other integrated pig companies and rurally risen pigs in mediating such spreading was investigated. Moreover, viral circulation in Northern Italy was reconstructed using a continuous phylogeographic approach, and the impact of several environmental features on PRRSV strain persistence and spreading velocity was assessed. The results demonstrate that PRRSV epidemiology is shaped by a multitude of factors, including pig herd management (e.g., immunization strategy), implementation of strict-independent pig flows, and environmental features (e.g., climate, altitude, pig density, road density, etc.) among the others. Small farms and rurally raised animals also emerged as a potential threat for larger, integrated companies. These pieces of evidence suggest that none of the implemented measures can be considered effective alone, and a multidimensional approach, ranging from individual herd management to collaboration and information sharing among different companies, is mandatory for effective infection control.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Itália/epidemiologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogeografia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/classificação , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Suínos
10.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 767887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966807

RESUMO

Oral melanoma is a common canine tumor whose prognosis is considered ominous, but poorly predicted by histology alone. In the present study the gene and protein expression of Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) and Fragile-X-mental retardation-related protein1 (FXR1), both reported as related to metastatic potential in different tumors, were investigated in canine oral melanoma. The main aim of the study was to confirm and quantify the presence of LTA4H and FXR1 genes and protein in oral melanomas. A secondary aim was to investigate their association with histologic prognostic criteria (mitotic count, Ki-67 index). Formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded canine oral melanomas (36) were collected and histopathological evaluation carried out. Immunolabelling for LTA4H and FXR1 and Ki-67 were performed. RT-PCR evaluated LTA4H and FXR1 gene expressions. Histologically, most tumors were epithelioid cell melanomas (19/36) and were amelanotic, mildly or moderately pigmented (5, 12 and 13/36 respectively), only 6 were highly pigmented. Mitotic count ranged 1-106, Ki-67 index ranged 4.5-52.3. Thirty-two (32/32) melanomas immunolabelled for LTA4H and 33/34 for FXR1. RT-PCR values ranged 0.76-5.11 ΔCt for LTA4H and 0.22-6.24 ΔCt for FXR1. Molecular and immunohistochemical expression of both LTA4H and FXR1 did not statically correlate with mitotic count or Ki-67 index. The present study demonstrates LTA4H and FXR1 gene and protein in canine oral melanoma, however their expression is apparently unrelated to histopathologic prognostic criteria. Although LTA4H and FXR1 seem unrelated to tumor behavior, their extensive expression in the present cohort of cases suggest that they may play a role in canine oral melanoma oncogenesis.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827914

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus GI-23 lineage, although described approximately two decades ago in the Middle East, has recently drawn remarkable attention and is considered an "emerging" lineage due to its current spread to several other regions, including Europe. Despite the relevance, no comprehensive studies are available investigating its epidemiologic and evolutionary pattern. The present phylodynamic study was designed to fill this gap, benefitting from a collection of freely available GI-23 sequences and ad-hoc generated European ones. After a relatively ancient origin in the Middle East, likely in the first half of the previous century, GI-23 circulated largely undetected or underdiagnosed for a long time in this region, likely causing little damage, potentially because of low virulence coupled with limited development of avian industry in the considered years and regions and insufficient diagnostic activity. The following development of the poultry industry and spread to other countries led to a progressive but slow increase of viral population size between the late '90s and 2010. An increase in viral virulence could also be hypothesized. Of note, a big recombinant cluster, likely originating in the Middle East but spreading thereafter, especially to Europe through Turkey, demonstrated a much-marked increase in viral population size compared to previously circulating variants. The extensive available GI-23 sequence datasets allowed to demonstrate several potential epidemiological links among African, Asian, and European countries, not described for other IBV lineages. However, differently from previously investigated IBV lineages, its spread appears to primarily involve neighbouring countries and those with strong economic and political relationships. It could thus be speculated that frequent effective contacts among locations are necessary for efficient strain transmission. Some countries appear to play a major role as a "bridge" among less related locations, being Turkey the most relevant example. The role of vaccination in controlling the viral population was also tentatively evaluated. However, despite some evidence suggesting such an effect, the bias in sequence and data availability and the variability in the applied vaccination protocols prevent robust conclusions and warrant further investigations.

12.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832558

RESUMO

For several years after its discovery, Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) represented a major threat to the swine industry through economic losses due to the associated clinical syndromes, decreased production performances in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals and disease management costs. Widespread vaccination administration has largely reduced the impact of this infection and represents the most effective control measure. The efficacy of vaccination is threatened by the emergence of novel (or uncommon) PCV-2 genotypes. In addition to domestic pigs, PCV-2 has been detected in several other species, a fact which could have an impact on new variant emergence and maintenance. Considering this, the present study assessed the distribution of the minor PCV-2c genotype in non-Suidae ungulates in Namibia. Red hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama) (n = 44), kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (n = 10) and oryxes (Oryx gazella) (n = 54), whose mediastinal lymph nodes were sampled after slaughtering during the period 2019-2021, were included in the study. Two oryxes (3.7%; 95% CI = 0.45-12.75%) were PCV-2-positive by PCR. Complete genome sequence was obtained for the two samples identifying them as PCV-2c genotype. The sequences were identical and shared a high percentage of identity (~99.9%) with those recently obtained from warthogs living in the same area. The present study confirms the presence of the PCV-2c genotype (previously considered extinct) in Namibian wild animal populations and demonstrates greater than expected PCV-2 host plasticity. Because of the role these niches can have in the maintenance and evolution of minor PCV-2 genotypes, more extensive and dedicated studies should be performed to prepare authorities to promptly react to potential emerging threats from these viruses.

13.
Vet Res Commun ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750750

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) has been associated with an assortment of clinical conditions in pigs and has been reported in many countries worldwide. In Africa there is no data on the presence of PCV-3. In this study, DNA samples collected from 91 pigs between 2011 and 2019 in nine of the ten provinces of Mozambique in the context of African swine fever (ASF) monitoring were further screened for the presence of PCV-3. Of these samples, 7 (7.5%) animals were positive for PCV-3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein gene (ORF2) of the PCV-3s provided evidence of epidemiological links with PCV-3s identified in North and South America, Asia, and Europe. This is the first identification of PCV-3 in Mozambique (and Africa) and the first evidence of co-infection of PCV-3 and ASF virus. It should provide a starting point for further investigations into the presence and impact of PCV-3 in Africa.

14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812571

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is associated with several disease syndromes in domestic pigs that have a significant impact on global pig production and health. Currently, little is known about the status of PCV-2 in Africa. In this study, a total of 408 archived DNA samples collected from pigs in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia between 2000 and 2018 were screened by PCR for the presence of PCV-2. Positive amplicons of the gene encoding the viral capsid protein (ORF2) were sequenced to determine the genotypes circulating in each country. Four of the nine currently known genotypes of PCV-2 were identified (i.e. PCV-2a, PCV-2b, PCV-2d and PCV-2 g) with more than one genotype being identified in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Mozambique, Senegal and Zambia. Additionally, a phylogeographic analysis which included 38 additional ORF2 gene sequences of PCV-2s previously identified in Mozambique, Namibia and South Africa from 2014 to 2016 and 2019 to 2020 and available in public databases, demonstrated the existence of several African-specific clusters and estimated the approximate time of introduction of PCV-2s into Africa from other continents. This is the first in-depth study of PCV-2 in Africa and it has important implications for pig production at both the small-holder and commercial farm level on the continent.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16464, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385578

RESUMO

Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is one the most relevant pathogens of domestic mink, where it can cause significant economic losses, and wild species, which are considered a threat to mink farms. Despite their relevance, many aspects of the origin, evolution, and geographic and host spreading patterns of AMDV have never been investigated on a global scale using a comprehensive biostatistical approach. The present study, benefitting from a large dataset of sequences collected worldwide and several phylodynamic-based approaches, demonstrates the ancient origin of AMDV and its broad, unconstrained circulation from the initial intercontinental spread to the massive among-country circulation, especially within Europe, combined with local persistence and evolution. Clear expansion of the viral population size occurred over time until more effective control measures started to be applied. The role of frequent changes in epidemiological niches, including different hosts, in driving the high nucleotide and amino acid evolutionary rates was also explored by comparing the strengths of selective pressures acting on different populations. The obtained results suggest that the viral passage among locations and between wild and domesticated animals poses a double threat to farm profitability and animal welfare and health, which is particularly relevant for endangered species. Therefore, further efforts must be made to limit viral circulation and to refine our knowledge of factors enhancing AMDV spread, particularly at the wild-domestic interface.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/fisiologia , Filogeografia , Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/genética , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Vison , Mutação
16.
Pathogens ; 10(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451466

RESUMO

Canine circovirus (CanineCV) is a recently identified virus affecting both domestic and wild carnivores, including foxes, sometimes in presence of severe clinical signs. Its circulation in wild animals can thus represent a potential threat for endangered species conservation and an infection source for dogs. Nevertheless, no data were available on its circulation in the Alps region of Northern Italy. In the present study, samples collected from 186 foxes in the period 2009-2020 from Valle d'Aosta and Veneto regions were tested using a real-time PCR assay, demonstrating a viral circulation of approximatively 2-5%, depending on the considered regions. Two complete or almost complete genome sequences were obtained, highlighting that the detected strains were part of a so defined "fox only" clade, which suggests that, despite common contact opportunities, Alps foxes are not involved in frequent transmission events to domestic dogs. Such genetic isolation could be at least partially attributed to some sort of independent evolution occurred in the foxes, leading to species barrier. Additionally, CanineCV strains in foxes from Italy were unexpectedly related to those previously identified in foxes from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian area. Combining the history of fox distribution in Europe since the last glacial maximum (LGM) with the viral history allowed us to speculate a long-standing coexistence between European canine circovirus and this host, justifying the peculiar geographic distribution and evolutionary paths of the fox infecting clade.

17.
Pathogens ; 10(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451480

RESUMO

Vaccination against porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) is a common practice all over the world. Vaccines can prevent PCV-2-systemic disease (PCV-2-SD) outbreaks but not PCV-2 infection, which can be detectable in a percentage of vaccinated animals. Occasionally, PCV-2-SD is diagnosed in vaccinated farms. The objective of this study was to genotype the PCV-2 strains detected in vaccinated animals diagnosed with PCV-2-SD. Additionally, the evolution of the frequency of PCV-2 genotype detection at Spanish, European, and world levels was assessed. Fifty cases diagnosed as PCV-2-SD between 2009 and 2020 were included in this study. PCV-2 genotype was determined by sequencing the Cap gene region. Among them, only PCV-2b (23/50, 46%) and PCV-2d (27/50, 54%) genotypes were detected. Although the frequency of detection of these two genotypes was similar, their temporal distribution was different. Whereas most PCV-2b sequences (17/23, 74%) were detected between 2009 and 2012, PCV-2d sequences were obtained from 2013 to 2020. Indeed, a predominance of the PCV-2d genotype was observed from 2013 onwards, a trend also noticed at European and world levels. The results suggest that detection of particular genotypes in vaccinated animals probably reflects the general prevalence of the genotypes over time rather than genotype-specific vaccine-immunity escaping.

18.
Vet Sci ; 8(8)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437467

RESUMO

The control of infectious bronchitis (IB) is essential in intensive broiler production and is pursued through strict biosecurity and mass vaccination. Despite effective and routinely adopted, hatchery spray vaccination has been hypothesized to affect chicks' body temperature and wellbeing. Recently, gel administration has been proposed as an alternative and proved feasible in experimental settings. In this study, IBV spray and gel vaccination methods were compared in field conditions. One hundred birds from the same hatch were enrolled in the study and vaccinated, half by spray and half by gel, with 793B and Mass vaccines. After vaccination, rectal temperature was measured and vaccine intake assessed. The two groups were housed for 35 days in separate pens and swabs and blood samples were collected at multiple time points for genotype-specific molecular analyses and serology, respectively. The temperature was significantly lower in spray-vaccinated chicks 10 min and an hour after administration. A similar trend in 793B titres was observed in both groups, while the Mass vaccine was detected later but persisted longer in gel-vaccinated chicks. No differences were observed in mean antibody titres. Compared to spray, gel administration appears equally effective and less impactful on body temperature, thus supporting its application for IBV vaccination.

19.
Avian Pathol ; 50(4): 357-365, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313501

RESUMO

Despite the efforts to achieve a consistent classification scheme based on the complete S1 gene, the genetic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often performed on partial S1 regions due to economic and time constraints in the diagnostic routine. Sanger sequencing remains the most common and cost-effective option even if the analysis of samples where multiple field and vaccine strain populations coexist can lead to partial or misleading results. The present study aimed to evaluate the different diagnostic outcomes of three commonly used RT-PCR methods targeting two regions of the S1 gene. A possible bias in IBV detection and characterization was investigated in relation to the adopted method, the strain concentration as well as their ratio in mixed samples. Thirty samples were prepared by artificially mixing two vaccine strains, combined at different ratios and selected among four different IBV lineages, i.e. GI-1 (Mass), GI-13 (793/B), GI-19 (QX), GI-23 (Israeli Variant 2). Sequence analysis was conducted both manually and with bioinformatic methods. The result agreement among methods, replicates and analysis approaches was statistically evaluated. Consistent results emerged among the three assays, with a few discrepancies likely caused by primer affinity and target amount. This study confirms the complexity of IBV strain identification and highlights the importance of evaluating and updating the available diagnostic assays for a reliable detection of all circulating IBV strains.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Biologia Computacional , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética
20.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 681354, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222404

RESUMO

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus enzootically maintained in birds. However, it can incidentally infect other species, leading to sometimes severe clinical consequences like in horses and especially human beings. Despite the topic relevance, the presence and distribution of WNV are currently unknown in Namibia. Several countries implement surveillance systems based on virus detection in birds, mosquitoes, and vertebrate species including horses. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by serologically evaluating WNV exposure in Namibian donkeys, whose population is remarkably bigger than the horse one. Forty-seven out of 260 sampled animals showed neutralizing antibodies against WNV (18.07% [95% CI = 13.59-23.30%]), demonstrating its circulation in all country territory, although, with apparent regional differences. On the contrary, no association with animal age or sex could be identified. The present study demonstrates the widespread presence of WNV in Namibia as well as the practical utility and effectiveness of donkeys as sentinels for infection surveillance. Due to clinical relevance, vaccination campaigns should be considered for horses of high economic or genetic value. Additionally, the burden of WNV infection on human health should be carefully evaluated.

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