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1.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-7, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have validated FFQ estimates of dietary glycaemic index (GI) and load (GL). We investigated how well our estimates of overall GI and GL from FFQs correlate with estimates from repeated 24 h recall data to validate overall GI and GL in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). DESIGN: The AHS-2 is a prospective population-based cohort of 95 873 Seventh-day Adventist adult church members enrolled from 2002 to 2007 to investigate diet, cancer and mortality. SETTING: A 204-item FFQ was used to assess race- and gender-specific validity of GI and GL and 24 h recall data, from the calibration sub-study, were used as the reference. PARTICIPANTS: The 734 calibration study participants were randomly selected by church and included approximately equal numbers of blacks and whites but were otherwise similar to the whole cohort with respect to gender, age, education and vegetarian status. RESULTS: The deattenuated correlation coefficients for overall GI ranged from 0·19 (95 % CI -0·06, 0·53) in black men to 0·46 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·60) in black women, with both non-black men and women falling between those values (0·45 (95 % CI 0·35, 0·65) and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·27, 0·57), respectively). GL correlations were somewhat higher for all study participants. When looking at the entire cohort, the deattenuated validity correlation value for overall GI was (r 0·38, 95 % CI 0·36, 0·47) and GL was (r 0·39, 95 % CI 0·34, 0·49). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the cautious use of our FFQ in epidemiological studies when assessing associations of overall GI and GL with disease risk. However, observed differences by race should be considered when interpreting results.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266012

RESUMO

We sought to determine if DNA methylation patterns differed between vegans and non-vegetarians in the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort. Genome-wide DNA methylation derived from buffy coat was profiled in 62 vegans and 142 non-vegetarians. Using linear regression, methylation of CpG sites and genes was categorized or summarized according to various genic/intergenic regions and CpG island-related regions, as well as the promoter. Methylation of genes was measured as the average methylation of available CpG's annotated to the nominated region of the respective gene. A permutation method defining the null distribution adapted from Storey et al. was used to adjust for false discovery. Differences in methylation of several CpG sites and genes were detected at a false discovery rate < 0.05 in region-specific and overall analyses. A vegan diet was associated predominantly with hypomethylation of genes, most notably methyltransferase-like 1 (METTL1). Although a limited number of differentially methylated features were detected in the current study, the false discovery method revealed that a much larger proportion of differentially methylated genes and sites exist, and could be detected with a larger sample size. Our findings suggest modest differences in DNA methylation in vegans and non-vegetarians, with a much greater number of detectable significant differences expected with a larger sample.

3.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(4): 341-351, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies have controversially suggested that prostate cancer, the most common cancer among Western men, is less common among those with a high intake of tomato products and lycopene. We examine multivariable associations between the intake of tomatoes and lycopene, and risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: In a prospective study of 27,934 Adventist men without prevalent cancer, Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to address the objectives. Dietary measurement error was partially corrected with regression calibration. RESULTS: 1226 incident cases of prostate cancer, 355 of them aggressive, were identified during 7.9 years of follow-up. Consumption of canned and cooked tomatoes more than four times a week was associated with a HR = 0.72 (95% CI 0.55, 0.94, P = 0.02) comparing to risk in those never consuming this food. Treating this as a continuous variable, adjusting for confounders, produces a similar result, HR = 0.86 (95% CI 0.75, 0.99), comparing 64 g/day with zero intakes (questionnaire data). Regression calibration, although less precise, suggests a yet stronger and statistically significant inverse relationship, comparing a 24-h dietary recall intake of 71 g/day canned and cooked tomato product, with zero intake. Uncalibrated multivariable-adjusted competing risk analyses do not find differences in tomato associations between aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancers although power for aggressive cancers is limited. CONCLUSION: Consumption of canned and cooked tomatoes may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. These products contain more available lycopene. However, an observational study cannot exclude confounding by some unidentified, prostate cancer preventive factor. Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03615599.


Assuntos
Licopeno/administração & dosagem , Lycopersicon esculentum , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Protestantismo , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(2): nzaa008, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064447

RESUMO

Background: Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a functional biomarker of vitamin B-12 status but limited information is available on its prevalence in US vegetarians. Objectives: The study examines the prevalence of plasma MMA ≥0.27 µmol/L in those consuming vegetarian diets, its associations with vitamin B-12 intake and biomarkers, and the modifying effect of vegetarian patterns on these associations. Methods: In this cross-sectional study (n = 785), concentrations of MMA, vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), and homocysteine (Hcy) were determined in participants of the calibration substudy of the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Vitamin B-12 intake from food, fortified food, and supplements was assessed by six 24-h recalls. Regression models were used to estimate ORs of having high MMA as related to vitamin B-12 status biomarkers, vitamin B-12 intake, and dietary pattern. Results: The prevalence of low vitamin B-12 status defined by serum vitamin B-12 <148 pmol/L, holoTC <35 pmol/L, MMA ≥0.27 and ≥0.37 µmol/L, or Hcy ≥15 µmol/L, and the OR of having high MMA did not differ by dietary pattern, possibly due to intake from fortified food and supplements. Total daily vitamin B-12 intake in the second tertile range of 4.4-14.5 µg/d reduced the likelihood of elevated MMA by 69%; and a doubling of vitamin B-12 intake was associated with a 4.3% decrease in plasma MMA. The association between log plasma MMA and biomarkers was modified by diet, with the vegan pattern showing an ∼3-fold stronger association with log serum vitamin B-12 and Hcy than did the nonvegetarian pattern. Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin B-12 intake <2.0 µg/d was 15.2% in vegans, 10.6% in lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and 6.5% in nonvegetarians. Given the irreversible neurological consequences of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, the importance of regular supplemental vitamin B-12 intake in adult and elderly individuals is stressed.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between soy, dairy intakes and breast cancer risk are inconsistent. No studies exist with large numbers of dairy consumers and soy consumers to assess mutual confounding. METHODS: The study cohort contains 52 795 North American women, initially free of cancer, followed for 7.9 years (29.7% were Black). Dietary intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires and, for 1011 calibration study subjects, from six structured 24-h dietary recalls. Incident invasive breast cancers were detected mainly by matching with cancer registries. Analyses used multivariable proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The participants (mean age of 57.1 years) experienced 1057 new breast cancer cases during follow-up. No clear associations were found between soy products and breast cancer, independently of dairy. However, higher intakes of dairy calories and dairy milk were associated with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.40] and 1.50 (95% CI 1.22-1.84), respectively, comparing 90th to 10th percentiles of intakes. Full fat and reduced fat milks produced similar results. No important associations were noted with cheese and yogurt. Substituting median intakes of dairy milk users by those of soy milk consumers was associated with HR of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.55-0.85). Similar-sized associations were found among pre- and post-menopausal cases, with CIs also excluding the null in estrogen receptor (ER+, ER-), and progesterone receptor (PR+) cancers. Less biased calibrated measurement-error adjusted regressions demonstrated yet stronger, but less precise, HRs and CIs that still excluded the null. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intakes of dairy milk were associated with greater risk of breast cancer, when adjusted for soy intake. Current guidelines for dairy milk consumption could be viewed with some caution.

7.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cancer ; 126(5): 1102-1111, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that Adventists, who often follow vegetarian diets, live longer and have lower risks for many cancers than others, but there are no national data and little published comparative data for black subjects. METHODS: This study compared all-cause mortality and cancer incidence between the nationally inclusive Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) and nonsmokers in US Census populations: the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) and its Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results substudy. Analyses used proportional hazards regression adjusting for age, sex, race, cigarette smoking history, and education. RESULTS: All-cause mortality and all-cancer incidence in the black AHS-2 population were significantly lower than those for the black NLMS populations (hazard ratio [HR] for mortality, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.69; HR for incidence, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.88). When races were combined, estimated all-cause mortality was also significantly lower in the AHS-2 population at the age of 65 years (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.69) and at the age of 85 years (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.75-0.81), as was cancer mortality; this was also true for the rate of all incident cancers combined (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.67-0.74) and the rates of breast, colorectal, and lung cancers. Survival curves confirmed the mortality results and showed that among males, AHS-2 blacks survived longer than white US subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Substantially lower rates of all-cause mortality and cancer incidence among Adventists have implications for the effects of lifestyle and perhaps particularly diet on the etiology of these health problems. Trends similar to those seen in the combined population are also found in comparisons of black AHS-2 and NLMS subjects.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Protestantismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 312-321, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intake of specific amino acids (AA) has been associated with cardiovascular health, but amino acids are consumed together as dietary protein. Here we investigated the association between identified patterns of amino acid intake and cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: A total of 2216 cardiovascular deaths among 79 838 men and women from the Adventist Health Study-2 were included in our analysis. Baseline dietary patterns based on the participants' amino acids intakes were derived by factor analysis. Using Cox regression analyses, we estimated multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and other dietary components. RESULTS: Three patterns of amino acids were identified. Factor 1 was positively associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality [hazard ratio (HR)Q5-Q1: 1.62, 98.75% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 2.28; P-trend <0.001]; and Factors 2 and 3 were inversely associated with CVD mortality (HR Q5-Q1 Factor 2: 0.74, 98.75% CI: 0.53, 1.04; P-trend <0.01 and HR Q5-Q1 Factor 3: 0.65, 98.75% CI: 0.44, 0.95; P-trend <0.05]. The associations with Factor 1 (with high loadings on indispensable amino acids such as branched chain amino acids, lysine, methionine) and Factor 3 (with high loadings on non-indispensable amino acids, namely arginine, glycine, aspartate+asparagine) remained significant after further adjustment for nutrient intake and for the five protein source patterns identified previously (HR Q5-Q1: 1.56 (0.99, 2.45) and 0.55 (0.35, 0.85); P-trends < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Indispensable AA have a positive and some non-indispensable AA have a negative, independent, strong association with the risk of cardiovascular mortality.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Aminoácidos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
ASAIO J ; 66(7): 774-779, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577625

RESUMO

The effect of blood group on heart transplant list mortality in the era of continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (VADs) is unknown. We sought to examine mortality from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database, with focus on mortality among VAD versus non-VAD recipients according to blood group. The UNOS database from 2007 to 2015 was evaluated to compare the rates of waitlist mortality or delisting for clinical worsening at 1-year postlisting among various blood types based on the presence or absence of durable continuous VAD. Patients with pulsatile VAD, temporary VAD, or with incomplete data were excluded. A total of 16,803 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 2,663 had a HeartMate II or HeartWare VAD implanted before listing or by 365th day of listing. The rate of adverse events on the waitlist, irrespective of VAD, was highest among group O patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, p < 0.001). The use of VAD was associated with significant relative risk reduction (OR 0.43, p < 0.001) in waitlist adverse events among all patients, with relative risk reduction that overall did not vary by blood group. Among VAD recipients, waitlist adverse events were similar across all blood types. Among listed patients, there is a significantly higher adverse event rate in group O patients compared with others, irrespective of VAD use. With implantation of continuous flow HeartMate II or HeartWare VAD, all blood groups experience similar relative benefit and similar rates of adverse events. All patients, but particularly those with blood group O, eligible for VAD as a bridge to transplant should be considered for VAD placement.

11.
Adv Nutr ; 10(Suppl_4): S284-S295, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728496

RESUMO

Epidemiologic cohort studies enrolling a large percentage of vegetarians have been highly informative regarding the nutritional adequacy and possible health effects of vegetarian diets. The 2 largest such cohorts are the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford (EPIC-Oxford) and the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). These cohorts are described and their findings discussed, including a discussion of where findings appear to diverge. Although such studies from North America and the United Kingdom have been important, the large majority of the world's vegetarians live in other regions, particularly in Asia. Findings from recent cohort studies of vegetarians in East and South Asia are reviewed, particularly the Tzu Chi Health Study and Indian Migration Study. Important considerations for the study of the health of vegetarians in Asia are discussed. Vegetarian diets vary substantially, as may associated health outcomes. Cohort studies remain an important tool to better characterize the health of vegetarian populations around the globe.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Saúde da População , Ásia , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte , Plantas , Vegetarianos
12.
J Nutr ; 149(10): 1870-1871, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570946
13.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 1950-1955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that may predict heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and associated mortality. BACKGROUND: HFrEF following OLT is a poorly understood phenomenon, reported in 3% to 7% of transplanted patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 176 consecutive patients who underwent OLT from 2010 to 2017. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify associations between cardiovascular risk factors and perioperative variables with post-OLT HFrEF, defined as reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction of at least 10% and left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% with acute heart failure symptoms. Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression (with inverse probability weighting by propensity scores) was used to evaluate effects of HFrEF on 1-year mortality. RESULTS: Of the176 patients, 14% developed HFrEF with a median of 5 days. History of heart failure (OR 10.99, 2.15-56.09; P = .04) and intraoperative transfusion of greater than 11 units of packed red blood cells (OR 3.377, 1.025-11.13; P = .045) were associated with increased incidence of HFrEF. Pre-transplant hemoglobin greater than 8.5 g/dL (OR 0.252, CI 0.0954- 0.665; P = .05) was protective against HFrEF. Thirty-three percent of HFrEF group died within 1 year (HR 7.36, 2.57-21.12; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acute HFrEF post-OLT is 14% and is associated with a 7-fold increase in 1-year mortality. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and stress-induced cardiomyopathy maybe the underlying mechanisms. Our study identified risk factors associated with post-OLT HFrEF and should provide additional guidance for risk stratification of patients undergoing OLT.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/etiologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Incidência , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(12): 1263-1278, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all Ptrend < .01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, >40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; Ptrend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; Ptrend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/etiologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares Extra-Hepáticos , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/etiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Ex-Fumantes , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia
16.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875776

RESUMO

Associations of low-to-moderate consumption of red and processed meat with mortality would add to the evidence of possible adverse effects of these common foods. This study aims to investigate the association of red and processed meat intake with mortality. The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) is a prospective cohort study of ~96,000 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited in the US and Canada between 2002 and 2007. The final analytic sample after exclusions was 72,149. Cox proportional hazards regression was used and hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Diet was assessed by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), calibrated using six 24-h dietary recalls. Mortality outcome data were obtained from the National Death Index. During a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, there were 7961 total deaths, of which 2598 were Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) deaths and 1873 were cancer deaths. Unprocessed red meat was associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.07⁻1.31) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.05⁻1.50). Processed meat alone was not significantly associated with risk of mortality. The combined intake of red and processed meat was associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11⁻1.36) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12⁻1.60). These findings suggest moderately higher risks of all-cause and CVD mortality associated with red and processed meat in a low meat intake population.


Assuntos
Dieta/mortalidade , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Nutr ; 149(4): 667-675, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in food composition, nutrient intake, and various health outcomes have been reported for vegetarians and non-vegetarians in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether biomarkers of dietary intake also differed between individuals classified as vegetarian (vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) and non-vegetarians based on patterns of consumption of meat, dairy, and eggs. METHODS: Fasting plasma, overnight urine, and adipose tissue samples were collected from a representative subset of AHS-2 participants classified into 5 diet groups (vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, non-vegetarian) who also completed food-frequency questionnaires. Diet-related biomarkers including carotenoids, isoflavones, enterolactone, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins were analyzed in 840 male and female participants. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between diet pattern and biomarker abundance, comparing each of 4 vegetarian dietary groups to non-vegetarians, and adjusted mean values were calculated. Bonferroni correction was applied to control for multiple testing. RESULTS: Vegans had higher plasma total carotenoid concentrations (1.6-fold, P < 0.0001), and higher excretion of urinary isoflavones (6-fold, P < 0.0001) and enterolactone (4.4-fold) compared with non-vegetarians. Vegans had lower relative abundance of saturated fatty acids including myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, and stearic acids (P < 0.0001). Vegans had higher linoleic acid (18:2ω-6) relative to non-vegetarians (23.3% compared with 19.1%) (P < 0.0001), and a higher proportion of total ω-3 fatty acids (2.1% compared with 1.6%) (P < 0.0001). Results overall were similar but less robust for lacto-ovo- and pesco-vegetarians. 1-Methylhistidine was 92% lower in vegans, and lower in lacto-ovo- and pesco-vegetarians by 90% and 80%, respectively, relative to non-vegetarians (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: AHS-2 participants following vegan, and lacto-ovo- or pesco-vegetarian diet patterns have significant differences in plasma, urine, and adipose tissue biomarkers associated with dietary intakes compared with those who consume a non-vegetarian diet. These findings provide some validation for the prior classification of dietary groups within the AHS-2 cohort.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Dieta , Vegetarianos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Am J Health Promot ; 33(6): 869-875, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize plant-based dietary practices and examine their relationship with body mass index (BMI) in Hispanic/Latino Seventh-day Adventists (SDA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of data among Hispanics/Latinos in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). SETTING: The AHS-2 is a cohort of SDA adults (n = 96 592) in North America. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3475 Hispanics/Latinos who provided demographic, dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle data at enrollment. MEASURES: Plant-based dietary practices were determined from food frequency questionnaire; BMI, demographic, and lifestyle data were assessed by questionnaire. ANALYSIS: In linear regression analysis, plant-based diets were modeled as dummy variables with nonvegetarian as the referent group and log(BMI) as the outcome adjusted for age, sex, education, exercise, nativity, alcohol use, smoking, and energy intake. RESULTS: We identified 202 vegans, 664 vegetarians, 409 pesco-vegetarians, 227 semi-vegetarians, and 1973 nonvegetarians. Compared to the nonvegetarian referent (BMI = 27.50), estimated BMI were lower among vegans (23.58, P < .0001), vegetarians (25.24, P < .0001), pesco-vegetarians (26.36, P = .0002), and semi-vegetarians (26.69, P = .130). Other factors associated with lower BMI were being female (P = .001), nativity (Mexico, P = .002; South America, P < .0001; Caribbean, P = .004), having a college degree or higher (P = .01), exercise (P < .0001), and never smoked (P = .0006). CONCLUSION: Hispanic/Latino SDAs who consumed plant-based diets had lower BMI than nonvegetarians. The application of a plant-based diet as practiced by the Hispanic/Latino Adventists in this population may have public health impact on US Hispanic/Latinos.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Vegetariana , Hispano-Americanos , Protestantismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(5): 1121-1128, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30329007

RESUMO

Background: Meat intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is not clear if egg intake is associated with T2D risk because purported associations may be due to concurrent consumption of eggs with meat. Objective: Our aim was to differentiate any associations between meat and egg consumption and the risk of T2D. Design: In this longitudinal study, 55,851 participants of the Adventist Health Study 2 who were free of diabetes provided demographic, anthropometric, and dietary data at baseline. Meat and egg intakes were assessed with a validated quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Responses to 2 follow-up questionnaires determined incident T2D cases. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was used to determine relations between meat and egg intake and incident T2D. Results: T2D cases identified during a mean 5.3 y of follow-up totaled 2772. Meat intake of >0 to <25 g/d, ≥25 to <70 g/d, and ≥70 g/d significantly increased the risk of T2D compared with no meat intake (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.44; OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.61; and OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.96, respectively; P-trend < 0.0001). Egg intake compared with no egg intake was not associated with T2D risk. A significant meat-egg interaction (P = 0.019) showed that within every category of egg intake, there was an incremental rise in T2D risk as meat intake increased. However, within categories of meat intake, increasing egg intake did not increase the risk of T2D except among nonmeat-eaters consuming ≥5 eggs/wk (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.12). Conclusions: Meat consumption, but not egg consumption, is independently associated with T2D risk. Egg intake seems not to increase T2D risk further with meat intake. Our findings suggest that the purported egg-T2D risk relation in US populations may be biased due to failure to investigate egg-meat interactions. Further investigations are needed to ascertain T2D risk among nonmeat-eaters with high egg intakes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Carne/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(5): 1603-1612, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618018

RESUMO

Background: Current evidence suggests that plant and animal proteins are intimately associated with specific large nutrient clusters that may explain part of their complex relation with cardiovascular health. We aimed at evaluating the association between specific patterns of protein intake with cardiovascular mortality. Methods: We selected 81 337 men and women from the Adventist Health Study-2. Diet was assessed between 2002 and 2007, by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns based on the participants' protein consumption were derived by factor analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and dietary components. Results: There were 2276 cardiovascular deaths during a mean follow-up time of 9.4 years. The HRs for cardiovascular mortality were 1.61 [98.75% confidence interval (CI), 1.12 2.32; P-trend < 0.001] for the 'Meat' protein factor and 0.60 (98.75% CI, 0.42 0.86; P-trend < 0.001) for the 'Nuts & Seeds' protein factor (highest vs lowest quintile of factor scores). No significant associations were found for the 'Grains', 'Processed Foods' and 'Legumes, Fruits & Vegetables' protein factors. Additional adjustments for the participants' vegetarian dietary pattern and nutrients related to cardiovascular disease outcomes did not change the results. Conclusions: Associations between the 'Meat' and 'Nuts & Seeds' protein factors and cardiovascular outcomes were strong and could not be ascribed to other associated nutrients considered to be important for cardiovascular health. Healthy diets can be advocated based on protein sources, preferring low contributions of protein from meat and higher intakes of plant protein from nuts and seeds.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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