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1.
J Ultrasound Med ; 39(12): 2389-2403, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that: (1) fetal frontal horn (FH) morphology and their proximity to the cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) can assist in suspecting complete agenesis of the corpus callosum (cACC) and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (pACC) earlier than known indirect ultrasound (US) findings; (2) FHs assist in differentiating a true CSP from a pseudocavum; and (3) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in learning FH morphology and pseudocavum etiology. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with cACC and 9 with pACC were identified on an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review. Of the 41 cases, 40 had prenatal US, and 21 had prenatal MRI; 17 had follow-up neonatal US, and 14 had follow-up neonatal MRI. Variables evaluated retrospectively were the presence of a CSP or a pseudocavum, ventricle size and shape, and FH shape (comma, trident, parallel, golf club, enlarged, or fused). Displacement between the inferior edge of the FH and the midline or cavum/pseudocavum was measured. RESULTS: Fetal FHs had an abnormal shape in 77% ≤20 weeks' gestation, 86% ≤24 weeks, and 90% >24 weeks. Frontal horns were laterally displaced greater than 2 mm in 85% ≤20 weeks, 91% ≤24 weeks, and 95% >24 weeks. The CSP was absent in 100% of cACC cases and 78% of pACC cases, and a pseudocavum was present in 88% of cACC cases and 78% of pACC cases across gestation. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed US pseudocavums to be focal interhemispheric fluid or an elevated/dilated third ventricle. CONCLUSIONS: Frontal horns assist in assessing ACC ≤24 weeks and throughout gestation. Pseudocavums, often simulating CSPs, are common in ACC. Frontal horn lateral displacement and abnormal morphology, recognized by MRI correlations, are helpful in differentiating a pseudocavum from a true CSP. A normal CSP should not be cleared on screening US unless normally shaped FHs are seen directly adjacent to it.


Assuntos
Corpo Caloso , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Septo Pelúcido/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645153

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe the multidisciplinary approaches to placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) across five tertiary care centers that comprise the University of California fetal Consortium (UCfC) and to identify potential best practices. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of all cases of pathologically confirmed invasive placenta delivered from 2009 to 2014 at UCfC. Differences in intraoperative management and outcomes based on prenatal suspicion were compared. Interventions assessed included ureteral stent use, intravascular balloon use, anesthetic type, gynecologic oncology (Gyn Onc) involvement, and cell saver use. Intervention variation by institution was also assessed. Analyses were adjusted for final pathologic diagnosis. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney's U-test were used as appropriate. Binary logistic regression and multivariable linear regression were used to adjust for confounders. Results: One hundred and fifty-one cases of pathologically confirmed invasive placenta were identified, of which 82% (123) were suspected prenatally. There was no correlation between the degree of invasion on prenatal imaging and use of each intervention. Ureteral stents were placed in 33% (41) of cases and did not reduce GU injury. Intravascular balloons were placed in 29% (36) of cases and were associated with shorter OR time (161 versus 236 min, p < .01) and lower estimated blood loss (EBL) (1800 versus 2500 ml, p < .01). General endotracheal anesthesia (GETA) was used in 70% (86). EBL did not differ between GETA and regional anesthesia. Gyn Onc was involved in 58% (71) of cases and EBL adjusted for final pathology was reduced with their involvement (2200 versus 2250 ml, p = .02) while OR time and intraoperative complications did not differ. Cell saver was used in 20% (24) and was associated with longer OR time (296 versus 200 min, p < .01). Use of cell saver was not associated with a difference in EBL or number of units of packed red cells transfused. All analyses were adjusted for pathologic severity of invasion. Conclusions: Intravascular interventions such as uterine artery balloons and the inclusion of Gynecologic Oncologists as part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating PAS reduce EBL. Additionally, the placement of intravascular balloons may reduce OR time. No significant differences were seen in outcomes when comparing the use of ureteral stents, general anesthesia, or institutions. A team of experienced operators with a standard approach may be more significant than specific practices.

3.
Ultrasound Q ; 35(1): 21-29, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516729

RESUMO

This study evaluates the impact of extended cardiac views on examination time, repeat imaging, and anomaly detection before and after implementation of 76811 guidelines (American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Consensus 2014). It is a retrospective study of singleton pregnancies undergoing detailed ultrasound imaging at 18 weeks' gestation or greater before and after the protocol change in an academic, tertiary care fetal center. Views required prior to 2014: 4-chamber, left outflow tract, right outflow tract. Additional views required after 2014: bicaval, aortic arch, 3-vessel, and 3-vessel trachea. Fetuses with known anomalies were excluded. Rates of detection of congenital heart disease (CHD), examination completion, repeat examination recommendation, fetal echocardiogram recommendation, completion by body mass index, and cardiac examination time were determined. Six hundred twenty-four subjects were included, 217 before and 407 after protocol change. Views obtained were as stated in the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine/Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine consensus. Detection of CHD was not improved. Examination times increased by 20% (6.4 vs 7.7 minutes, P < 0.05). Number of incomplete studies increased by 130% (11% to 26%, P < 0.05). Twice as many patients were referred for repeat examination (6% vs 13%, P < 0.05). Completion rates were negatively correlated with body mass index. Recommendations for fetal echocardiogram were unchanged (5% vs 6%, P = 0.6). Additional imaging did not increase detection rate of CHD (3% vs 2%, P = 0.3). Extended cardiac views resulted in increased examination time, more incomplete examinations, and more repeat examinations without changing detection rates of CHD.


Assuntos
Coração Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Consenso , Feminino , Coração Fetal/embriologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/embriologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Genet Med ; 21(6): 1339-1344, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410095

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Numerous etiologies may lead to nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), and the underlying cause often remains unclear. We aimed to determine the proportion of NIHF cases in which the etiology was clearly determined in a large, contemporary, and diverse cohort, as well as to describe the etiologies with a focus on genetic causes. METHODS: Retrospective review of NIHF cases between 2015 and 2017 from the five University of California Fetal-Maternal Consortium sites. Singleton pregnancies with prenatally diagnosed NIHF were included, and cases with maternal alloimmunization were excluded. Cases were categorized as being of confirmed, suspected, or unknown etiology. RESULTS: Sixty-five NIHF cases were identified. Forty-six percent (30/65) remained of unknown etiology, while 9.2% (6/65) had a suspected etiology and 44.6% (29/65) were of confirmed etiology. Among confirmed cases, 11 resulted from aneuploidy; 7 from fetal structural anomalies; 2 each from fetal arrhythmia, Noonan syndrome, and generalized lymphatic dysplasia; and 1 each from arthrogryposis, parvovirus, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, fetal goiter, and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. CONCLUSION: In this contemporary, multicenter study, the cause of prenatally diagnosed NIHF was confirmed in only 44% of cases, and a genetic etiology was found in only 25% of those that received standard of care genetic testing.


Assuntos
Hidropisia Fetal/etiologia , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aneuploidia , California , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
5.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; 35(2): 242-9, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26930156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We estimated risks of late preterm (LP, 34°(/7)-36(6/7) weeks) delivery and neonatal respiratory and non-respiratory morbidity in women with mild and severe hypertension, in both low-risk and high-risk (history of chronic hypertension, preeclampsia (PE), or insulin-dependent diabetes in current pregnancy) cohorts. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of two Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network randomized trials of aspirin to prevent PE. Women with non-anomalous singleton gestations delivered at ≥34 weeks were divided into three groups: normotensive, mild PE/gestational hypertension (GH), and severe PE/GH. Primary outcomes were respiratory (respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), or intubation) and non-respiratory (intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, small for gestational age (SGA) <10%, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, perinatal death, pulmonary hypertension, seizures, and 5 min Apgar <5) morbidity. Associations between LP delivery and risks of respiratory and non-respiratory morbidity were evaluated by fitting log-Binomial regression models before and after adjusting potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 2781 women in the low-risk trial, mild and severe hypertension were diagnosed in 8.5% (n = 235) and 3.3% (n = 92), respectively. Respiratory morbidity was similar in all groups. Risks of non-respiratory morbidity were higher in the severe PE/GH group compared with normotensive women (28.3% vs. 16.8%, risk ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1, 2.1). When restricting the analysis to late preterm infants, this risk was no longer present. Of the 1542 women in the high-risk trial, mild and severe hypertension were present in 16.6% (n = 256) and 11.9% (n = 184), respectively. Respiratory morbidity was again similar. Risks of non-respiratory morbidity were also not significantly increased in the high-risk cohort. CONCLUSION: In both low- and high-risk women, mild PE/GH at ≥34 weeks is not associated with an increased risk of neonatal morbidity compared with normotensive women. Increased risk of composite neonatal morbidity related to severe PE/GH is confined to the subgroup of infants with non-respiratory morbidity, and disappears when including only late preterm infants.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Dev Dyn ; 237(12): 3927-39, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19035354

RESUMO

Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that modulate cell adhesion, migration, and signaling. Multiple integrin chains contribute to development and morphogenesis of a given tissue. Here, we analyze the expression of Drosophila integrin alpha chains in the ovarian follicular epithelium, a model for tissue morphogenesis and cell migration. We find expression throughout development of the beta chain, betaPS. Alpha chains, however, exhibit both spatial and temporal expression differences. alphaPS1 and alphaPS2 integrins are detected during early and mid-oogenesis on apical, lateral, and basal membranes with the betaPS chain, whereas alphaPS3-family integrins (alphaPS3, alphaPS4, alphaPS5) are expressed in anterior cells late in oogenesis. Surprisingly, we find that alphaPS3-family integrins are dispensable for dorsal appendage morphogenesis but play a role in the final length of the egg, suggesting redundant functions of integrins in a simple tissue. We also demonstrate roles for alphaPS3betaPS integrin in border cell migration and in stretch cells.


Assuntos
Drosophila/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Animais , Movimento Celular , Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/classificação , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/genética , Oogênese , Ovário/citologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Regulação para Cima
7.
J Biol Chem ; 283(37): 25576-25588, 2008 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18641393

RESUMO

The thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 (TRalpha) exhibits a dual role as an activator or repressor of its target genes in response to thyroid hormone (T(3)). Previously, we have shown that TRalpha, formerly thought to reside solely in the nucleus bound to DNA, actually shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. An important aspect of the shuttling activity of TRalpha is its ability to exit the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex. TRalpha export is not sensitive to treatment with the CRM1-specific inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) in heterokaryon assays, suggesting a role for an export receptor other than CRM1. Here, we have used a combined approach of in vivo fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments, in vitro permeabilized cell nuclear export assays, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays to investigate the export pathway used by TRalpha. We show that, in addition to shuttling in heterokaryons, TRalpha shuttles rapidly in an unfused monokaryon system as well. Furthermore, our data show that TRalpha directly interacts with calreticulin, and point to the intriguing possibility that TRalpha follows a cooperative export pathway in which both calreticulin and CRM1 play a role in facilitating efficient translocation of TRalpha from the nucleus to cytoplasm.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/metabolismo , Carioferinas/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores alfa dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos
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