Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 210
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103773, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561016

RESUMO

Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare autosomal dominant predisposition to hamartomatous polyps within the gastrointestinal tract, at high risk for malignant transformation. BMPR1A and SMAD4 loss-of-function variants account for 50% of the cases. More specifically, point mutations and structural abnormalities in BMPR1A lead to a highly penetrant yet variable phenotype of JPS. Intriguingly, in the developmental disorder caused by a recurrent 10q22.3q23.1 7 Mb deletion which includes BMPR1A, juvenile polyps have never been reported. We present the case of a young adult harboring this recurrent deletion, in a context of intellectual disability, ventricular septal defect and severe juvenile polyposis syndrome diagnosed at the age of 25 years, requiring a surgical preventive colectomy. She developed a gastric adenocarcinoma from which she died at the age of 32. We hypothesize that with the current available pangenomic CNV arrays, the diagnosis of 10q22.3q23.1 deletion is often made several years before the onset of the digestive phenotype, which could explain the absence of reports for juvenile polyps. This observation highlights the importance of an active digestive surveillance of patients with 10q22.3q23.1 deletion.

2.
Stem Cell Res ; 40: 101541, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522011

RESUMO

Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the presence of pathological intracellular deposits of Tau proteins. Six isoforms of Tau are expressed in the adult human brain, resulting from alternative splicing of the MAPT gene. Tau splicing is developmentally regulated such that only the smallest Tau isoform is expressed in fetal brain, contrary to the adult brain showing the expression of all 6 isoforms. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) technology has opened up new perspectives in human disease modeling, including tauopathies. However, a major challenge to in vitro recapitulation of Tau pathology in iPSC-derived neurons is their relative immaturity. In this study, we examined the switch in Tau splicing from fetal-only to all adult Tau isoforms during the differentiation of iPSC-derived neurons in a new 3D culture system. First, we showed that iPSC-induced neurons inside Matrigel-coated alginate capsules were able to differentiate into cortical neurons. Then, using a new assay that allowed both the qualitative and the quantitative analysis of all adult MAPT mRNA isoforms individually, we demonstrated that BrainPhys-maintained neurons expressed the 6 adult MAPT mRNA transcripts from 25 weeks of maturation, making this model highly suitable for modeling Tau pathology and therapeutic purposes.

3.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392351

RESUMO

During cortex development, fine interactions between pyramidal cells and migrating GABA neurons are required to orchestrate correct positioning of interneurons, but cellular and molecular mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Functional and age-specific expression of NMDA receptors by neonate endothelial cells suggests a vascular contribution to the trophic role of glutamate during cortical development. Associating functional and loss-of-function approaches, we found that glutamate stimulates activity of the endothelial proteases MMP-9 and t-PA along the pial migratory route (PMR) and radial cortical microvessels. Activation of MMP-9 was NMDAR-dependent and abrogated in t-PA-/- mice. Time-lapse recordings revealed that glutamate stimulated migration of GABA interneurons along vessels through an NMDAR-dependent mechanism. In Gad67-GFP mice, t-PA invalidation and in vivo administration of an MMP inhibitor impaired positioning of GABA interneurons in superficial cortical layers, whereas Grin1 endothelial invalidation resulted in a strong reduction of the thickness of the pial migratory route, a marked decrease of the glutamate-induced MMP-9-like activity along the PMR and a depopulation of interneurons in superficial cortical layers. This study supports that glutamate controls the vessel-associated migration of GABA interneurons by regulating the activity of endothelial proteases. This effect requires endothelial NMDAR and is t-PA-dependent. These neurodevelopmental data reinforce the debate regarding safety of molecules with NMDA-antagonist properties administered to preterm and term neonates.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2257-2262, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390136

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SMG9 deficiency is an extremely rare autosomal recessive condition originally described in three patients from two families harboring homozygous truncating SMG9 variants in a context of severe syndromic developmental disorder. To our knowledge, no additional patient has been described since this first report. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in a patient exhibiting a syndromic developmental delay and in her unaffected parents and report the phenotypic features. RESULTS: Our patient presented with a syndromic association of severe global developmental delay and diverse malformations, including cleft lip and palate, facial dysmorphic features, brain abnormalities, heart defect, growth retardation, and severe infections. She carried a novel SMG9 homozygous variant NM_019108.3:c.1177C>T, p.(Gln393*), while her unaffected parents were both heterozygous. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that bi-allelic truncating SMG9 variants cause a severe developmental syndrome including brain and heart malformations associated with facial dysmorphic features, severe growth and developmental delay with or without ophthalmological abnormalities, severe feeding difficulties, and life-threatening infections.

5.
Clin Chem ; 65(9): 1153-1160, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare copy number variations (CNVs) are a major cause of genetic diseases. Simple targeted methods are required for their confirmation and segregation analysis. We developed a simple and universal CNV assay based on digital PCR (dPCR) and universal locked nucleic acid (LNA) hydrolysis probes. METHODS: We analyzed the mapping of the 90 LNA hydrolysis probes from the Roche Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL). For each CNV, selection of the optimal primers and LNA probe was almost automated; probes were reused across assays and each dPCR assay included the CNV amplicon and a reference amplicon. We assessed the assay performance on 93 small and large CNVs and performed a comparative cost-efficiency analysis. RESULTS: UPL-LNA probes presented nearly 20000000 occurrences on the human genome and were homogeneously distributed with a mean interval of 156 bp. The assay accurately detected all the 93 CNVs, except one (<200 bp), with coefficient of variation <10%. The assay was more cost-efficient than all the other methods. CONCLUSIONS: The universal dPCR CNV assay is simple, robust, and cost-efficient because it combines a straightforward design allowed by universal probes and end point PCR, the advantages of a relative quantification of the target to the reference within the same reaction, and the high flexibility of the LNA hydrolysis probes. This method should be a useful tool for genomic medicine, which requires simple methods for the interpretation and segregation analysis of genomic variations.

6.
Brain ; 142(6): 1573-1586, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009047

RESUMO

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare neurogenetic disorder with diverse neuropsychiatric expression. Mutations in four genes cause autosomal dominant PFBC: SLC20A2, XPR1, PDGFB and PDGFRB. Recently, biallelic mutations in the MYORG gene have been reported to cause PFBC with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We screened MYORG in 29 unrelated probands negatively screened for the autosomal dominant PFBC genes and identified 11 families with a biallelic rare or novel predicted damaging variant. We studied the clinical and radiological features of 16 patients of these 11 families and compared them to that of 102 autosomal dominant PFBC patients carrying a mutation in one of the four known autosomal dominant PFBC genes. We found that MYORG patients exhibited a high clinical penetrance with a median age of onset of 52 years (range: 21-62) with motor impairment at the forefront. In particular, dysarthria was the presenting sign in 11/16 patients. In contrast to patients with autosomal dominant PFBC, 12/15 (80%) symptomatic patients eventually presented at least four of the following five symptoms: dysarthria, cerebellar syndrome, gait disorder of any origin, akinetic-hypertonic syndrome and pyramidal signs. In addition to the most severe clinical pattern, MYORG patients exhibited the most severe pattern of calcifications as compared to the patients from the four autosomal dominant PFBC gene categories. Strikingly, 12/15 presented with brainstem calcifications in addition to extensive calcifications in other brain areas (lenticular nuclei, thalamus, cerebellar hemispheres, vermis, ±cortex). Among them, eight patients exhibited pontine calcifications, which were observed in none of the autosomal dominant PFBC patients and hence appeared to be highly specific. Finally, all patients exhibited cerebellar atrophy with diverse degrees of severity on CT scans. We confirmed the existence of cerebellar atrophy by performing MRI voxel-based morphometry analyses of MYORG patients with autosomal dominant PFBC mutation carriers as a comparison group. Of note, in three families, the father carried small pallido-dentate calcifications while carrying the mutation at the heterozygous state, suggesting a putative phenotypic expression in some heterozygous carriers. In conclusion, we confirm that MYORG is a novel major PFBC causative gene and that the phenotype associated with such mutations may be recognized based on pedigree, clinical and radiological features.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(3): 1243-1255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909216

RESUMO

Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) accounts for 5-10% of all AD cases, with a heritability ranging between 92% to 100%. With the exception of rare mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 genes causing autosomal dominant EOAD, little is known about the genetic factors underlying most of the EOAD cases. In this study, we hypothesized that copy number variations (CNVs) in microRNA (miR) genes could contribute to risk for EOAD. miRs are short non-coding RNAs previously implicated in the regulation of AD-related genes and phenotypes. Using whole exome sequencing, we screened a series of 546 EOAD patients negative for autosomal dominant EOAD mutations and 597 controls. We identified 86 CNVs in miR genes of which 31 were exclusive to EOAD cases, including a duplication of the MIR138-2 locus. In functional studies in human cultured cells, we could demonstrate that miR-138 overexpression leads to higher Aß production as well as tau phosphorylation, both implicated in AD pathophysiology. These changes were mediated in part by GSK-3ß and FERMT2, a potential risk factor for AD. Additional disease-related genes were also prone to miR-138 regulation including APP and BACE1. This study suggests that increased gene dosage of MIR138-2 could contribute to risk for EOAD by regulating different biological pathways implicated in amyloid and tau metabolism. Additional studies are now required to better understand the role of miR-CNVs in EOAD.

8.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(8): 595-601, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779244

RESUMO

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is characterized by a translocation of the MYC oncogene that leads to the upregulation of MYC expression, cell growth and proliferation. It is well-established that MYC translocation is not a sufficient genetic event to cause BL. Next-generation sequencing has recently provided a comprehensive analysis of the landscape of additional genetic events that contribute to BL lymphomagenesis. Refractory BL or relapsing BL are almost always incurable as a result of the selection of a highly chemoresistant clonally related cell population. Conversely, a few BL recurrence cases arising from clonally distinct tumors have been reported and were associated with a favorable outcome similar to that reported for first-line treatment. Here, we used an unusual case of recurrent but clonally distinct EBV+ BL to highlight the key genetic events that drive BL lymphomagenesis. By whole exome sequencing, we established that ID3 gene was targeted by distinct mutations in the two clonally unrelated diseases, highlighting the crucial role of this gene during lymphomagenesis. We also detected a heterozygous E1021K PIK3CD mutation, thus increasing the spectrum of somatic mutations altering the PI3K signaling pathway in BL. Interestingly, this mutation is known to be associated with activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS). Finally, we also identified an inherited heterozygous truncating c.5791CT FANCM mutation that may contribute to the unusual recurrence of BL.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 268, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518751

RESUMO

This study aims at assessing the burden of rare (minor allele frequency < 1%) predicted damaging variants in the whole exome of 92 bipolar I disorder (BD) patients and 1051 controls of French ancestry. Patients exhibiting an extreme phenotype (earlier onset and family history of mood disorder) were preferentially included to increase the power to detect an association. A collapsing strategy was used to test the overall burden of rare variants in cases versus controls at the gene level. Only protein-truncating and predicted damaging missense variants were included in the analysis. Thirteen genes exhibited p values exceeding 10-3 and could be considered as potential risk factors for BD. Furthermore, the validity of the association was supported when the Exome Aggregation Consortium database non-Finnish European population was used as controls for eight of them. Their gene products are involved in various cerebral processes, some of which were previously implicated in BD and belong to pathways implicated in the therapeutic effect of lithium, the main mood stabilizer. However, exome-wide threshold for association study was not reached, emphasizing that larger samples are needed.

10.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 138, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541625

RESUMO

TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a ubiquitously expressed DNA-/RNA-binding protein that has been linked to numerous aspects of the mRNA life cycle. Similar to many RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 expression is tightly regulated through an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. Cell function and survival depend on the strict control of TDP-43 protein levels. TDP-43 has been identified as the major constituent of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). Several observations argue for a pathogenic role of elevated TDP-43 levels in these disorders. Modulation of the cycle of TDP-43 production might therefore provide a new therapeutic strategy. Using a Drosophila model mimicking key features of the TDP-43 autoregulatory feedback loop, we identified CG42724 as a genetic modulator of TDP-43 production in vivo. We found that CG42724 protein influences qualitatively and quantitatively the TDP-43 mRNA transcript pattern. CG42724 overexpression promotes the production of transcripts that can be efficiently released into the cytoplasm for protein translation. Importantly, we showed that TCERG1, the human homolog of the Drosophila CG42724 protein, also caused an increase of TDP-43 protein steady-state levels in mammalian cells. Therefore, our data suggest the possibility that targeting TCERG1 could be therapeutic in TDP-43 proteinopathies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo , Adesinas de Escherichia coli , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo F-H/metabolismo , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transfecção/métodos
11.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 109, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340542

RESUMO

Extreme microcephaly and rhombencephalosynapsis represent unusual pathological conditions, each of which occurs in isolation or in association with various other cerebral and or extracerebral anomalies. Unlike microcephaly for which several disease-causing genes have been identified with different modes of inheritance, the molecular bases of rhombencephalosynapsis remain unknown and rhombencephalosynapsis presents mainly as a sporadic condition consistent with de novo dominant variations. We report for the first time the association of extreme microcephaly with almost no sulcation and rhombencephalosynapsis in a fœtus for which comparative patient-parent exome sequencing strategy revealed a heterozygous de novo missense variant in the ADGRL2 gene. ADGRL2 encodes latrophilin 2, an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor whose exogenous ligand is α-latrotoxin. Adgrl2 immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed expression in the telencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon of mouse and chicken embryos. In human brain embryos and fœtuses, Adgrl2 immunoreactivity was observed in the hemispheric and cerebellar germinal zones, the cortical plate, basal ganglia, pons and cerebellar cortex. Microfluorimetry experiments evaluating intracellular calcium release in response to α-latrotoxin binding showed significantly reduced cytosolic calcium release in the fœtus amniocytes vs amniocytes from age-matched control fœtuses and in HeLa cells transfected with mutant ADGRL2 cDNA vs wild-type construct. Embryonic lethality was also observed in constitutive Adgrl2-/- mice. In Adgrl2+/- mice, MRI studies revealed microcephaly and vermis hypoplasia. Cell adhesion and wound healing assays demonstrated that the variation increased cell adhesion properties and reduced cell motility. Furthermore, HeLa cells overexpressing mutant ADGRL2 displayed a highly developed cytoplasmic F-actin network related to cytoskeletal dynamic modulation. ADGRL2 is the first gene identified as being responsible for extreme microcephaly with rhombencephalosynapsis. Increased cell adhesion, reduced cell motility and cytoskeletal dynamic alterations induced by the variant therefore represent a new mechanism responsible for microcephaly.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303537

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (ORLoF = 17.4 vs. ORMV = 1.6; p Het = 0.002). Hence, our approach allowed us to specify BC relative risks associated with deleterious-predicted variants in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and to add MAST1, POLH, RTEL1 and FANCI to the list of DNA repair genes possibly involved in BC susceptibility. We also highlight that different types of variants within the same gene can lead to different risk estimates.

13.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; : 1093526618799293, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193563

RESUMO

We report a male fetus with a 6.8 Mb deletion on chromosome 7p22.1p22.3 at 16 weeks of gestation. The fetus presented a heart-hand syndrome with great artery malposition, bilateral radial ray deficiency, a single pelvic kidney, and growth retardation. This deletion involves a minimal deleted region for cardiac malformation and the RAC1 gene, previously described in limb anomalies in mice. This fetus is the third human case with limb defects and RAC1 deletion.

14.
Eur J Cancer ; 101: 254-262, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), due to TP53 germline mutations, is characterised by a remarkably high incidence of multiple primary cancers (MPCs), and the key role of p53 in response to DNA damage questions the contribution of anticancer treatments to MPCs development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We first evaluated genotoxicity of X-rays and different classes of conventional chemotherapies, thanks to genotoxicity assays, based on the measurement of transcriptional response to DNA damage and performed in murine splenocytes, either exposed ex vivo or extracted from exposed mice. We then exposed a total of 208 Trp53Δ/Δ, wt/Δ or wt/wt mice to clinical doses of X-rays or genotoxic or non-genotoxic chemotherapies. Tumour development was monitored using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and pathological examination at death. RESULTS: X-rays and conventional chemotherapies, except mitotic spindle poisons, were found to be genotoxic in both p53 genotoxicity assays. Exposition to X-rays and the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide, analysed as genotoxic anticancer treatment, drastically increase the tumour development risk in Trp53Δ/Δ and wt/Δ mice (hazard ration [HR] = 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.2-8.8], p < 0.001*** and HR = 4.7, 95% CI [2.4-9.3], p < 0.001***, respectively). In contrast, exposure to the non-genotoxic mitotic spindle poison, docetaxel, had no impact on tumour development. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that radiotherapy and genotoxic chemotherapies significantly increase the risk of tumour development in a LFS mice model. These results strongly support the contribution of genotoxic anticancer treatments to MPC development in LFS patients. Therefore, to reduce the risk of MPCs in germline TP53 mutation carriers, radiotherapy should be avoided whenever possible, surgical treatment prioritised, and non-genotoxic treatments considered.

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1732-1742, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089825

RESUMO

In oncology, the expanding use of multi-gene panels to explore familial cancer predisposition and tumor genome analysis has led to increased secondary findings discoveries (SFs) and has given rise to important medical, ethical, and legal issues. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics published a policy statement for managing SFs for a list of genes, including 25 cancer-related genes. Currently, there are few recommendations in Europe. From June 2016 to May 2017, the French Society of Predictive and Personalized Medicine (SFMPP) established a working group of 47 experts to elaborate guidelines for managing information given on the SFs for genes related to cancers. A subgroup of ethicists, lawyers, patients' representatives, and psychologists provided ethical reflection, information guidelines, and materials (written consent form and video). A subgroup with medical expertise, including oncologists and clinical and molecular geneticists, provided independent evaluation and classification of 60 genes. The main criteria were the "actionability" of the genes (available screening or prevention strategies), the risk evaluation (severity, penetrance, and age of disease onset), and the level of evidence from published data. Genes were divided into three classes: for class 1 genes (n = 36), delivering the information on SFs was recommended; for class 2 genes (n = 5), delivering the information remained questionable because of insufficient data from the literature and/or level of evidence; and for class 3 genes (n = 19), delivering the information on SFs was not recommended. These guidelines for managing SFs for cancer-predisposing genes provide new insights for clinicians and laboratories to standardize clinical practices.

16.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(12): 1632-1639, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114415

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A minority of patients with sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit de novo germ line mutations in the autosomal dominant genes such as APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2. We hypothesized that negatively screened patients may harbor somatic variants in these genes. METHODS: We applied an ultrasensitive approach based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes followed by deep next generation sequencing of 11 genes to 100 brain and 355 blood samples from 445 sporadic patients with AD (>80% exhibited an early onset, <66 years). RESULTS: We identified and confirmed nine somatic variants (allele fractions: 0.2%-10.8%): two APP, five SORL1, one NCSTN, and one MARK4 variants by independent amplicon-based deep sequencing. DISCUSSION: Two of the SORL1 variant might have contributed to the disease, the two APP variants were interpreted as likely benign and the other variants remained of unknown significance. Somatic variants in the autosomal dominant AD genes may not be a common cause of sporadic AD, including early onset cases.

17.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Integration of gene panels in the diagnosis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) requires a careful evaluation of the risk associated with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (PVs) detected in each gene. Here we analyzed 34 genes in 5131 suspected HBOC index cases by next-generation sequencing. METHODS: Using the Exome Aggregation Consortium data sets plus 571 individuals from the French Exome Project, we simulated the probability that an individual from the Exome Aggregation Consortium carries a PV and compared it to the estimated frequency within the HBOC population. RESULTS: Odds ratio conferred by PVs within BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2, and MSH6 were estimated at 13.22 [10.01-17.22], 8.61 [6.78-10.82], 8.22 [4.91-13.05], 4.54 [2.55-7.48], 5.23 [1.46-13.17], 3.20 [2.14-4.53], 2.49 [1.42-3.97], 1.67 [1.18-2.27], and 2.50 [1.12-4.67], respectively. PVs within RAD51C, RAD51D, and BRIP1 were associated with ovarian cancer family history (OR = 11.36 [5.78-19.59], 12.44 [2.94-33.30] and 3.82 [1.66-7.11]). PALB2 PVs were associated with bilateral breast cancer (OR = 16.17 [5.48-34.10]) and BARD1 PVs with triple-negative breast cancer (OR = 11.27 [3.37-25.01]). Burden tests performed in both patients and the French Exome Project population confirmed the association of PVs of BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51C with HBOC. CONCLUSION: Our results validate the integration of PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D in the diagnosis of HBOC and suggest that the other genes are involved in an oligogenic determinism.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1597-1602, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967336

RESUMO

We have developed and validated for the diagnosis of inherited colorectal cancer (CRC) a massive parallel sequencing strategy based on: (i) fast capture of exonic and intronic sequences from ten genes involved in Mendelian forms of CRC (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, APC, MUTYH, STK11, SMAD4, BMPR1A and PTEN); (ii) sequencing on MiSeq and NextSeq 500 Illumina platforms; (iii) a bioinformatic pipeline that includes BWA-Picard-GATK (Broad Institute) and CASAVA (Illumina) in parallel for mapping and variant calling, Alamut Batch (Interactive BioSoftware) for annotation, CANOES for CNV detection and finally, chimeric reads analysis for the detection of other types of structural variants (SVs). Analysis of 1644 new index cases allowed the identification of 323 patients with class 4 or 5 variants, corresponding to a 20% disease-causing variant detection rate. This rate reached 37% in patients with Lynch syndrome, suspected on the basis of tumour analyses. Thanks to this strategy, we detected overlapping phenotypes (e.g., MUTYH biallelic mutations mimicking Lynch syndrome), mosaic alterations and complex SVs such as a genomic deletion involving the last BMPR1A exons and PTEN, an Alu insertion within MSH2 exon 8 and a mosaic deletion of STK11 exons 3-10. This strategy allows, in a single step, detection of all types of CRC gene alterations including SVs and provides a high disease-causing variant detection rate, thus optimizing the diagnosis of inherited CRC.

19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(10): 1462-1477, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955172

RESUMO

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare cerebral microvascular calcifying disorder with a wide spectrum of motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is typically inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait with four causative genes identified so far: SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, and XPR1. Our study aimed at screening the coding regions of these genes in a series of 177 unrelated probands that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for primary brain calcification regardless of their family history. Sequence variants were classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or of uncertain significance (VUS), based on the ACMG-AMP recommendations. We identified 45 probands (25.4%) carrying either pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (n = 34, 19.2%) or VUS (n = 11, 6.2%). SLC20A2 provided the highest contribution (16.9%), followed by XPR1 and PDGFB (3.4% each), and PDGFRB (1.7%). A total of 81.5% of carriers were symptomatic and the most recurrent symptoms were parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric disturbances (52.3%, 40.9%, and 38.6% of symptomatic individuals, respectively), with a wide range of age at onset (from childhood to 81 years). While the pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants identified in this study can be used for genetic counseling, the VUS will require additional evidence, such as recurrence in unrelated patients, in order to be classified as pathogenic.

20.
Genet Med ; 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790873

RESUMO

PurposeConstitutional epimutations are an alternative to genetic mutations in the etiology of genetic diseases. Some of these epimutations, termed secondary, correspond to the epigenetic effects of cis-acting genetic defects transmitted to the offspring following a Mendelian inheritance pattern. In Lynch syndrome, a few families with such apparently heritable MLH1 epimutations have been reported so far.MethodsWe designed a long-range polymerase chain reaction next-generation sequencing strategy to screen MLH1 entire gene and applied it to 4 French families with heritable epimutations and 10 additional patients with no proven transmission of their epimutations.ResultsThis strategy successfully detected the insertion of an Alu element in MLH1 coding sequence in one family. Two previously unreported MLH1 variants were also identified in other epimutation carriers: a nucleotide substitution within intron 1 and a single-nucleotide deletion in the 5'-UTR. Detection of a partial MLH1 duplication in another family required multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technology. We demonstrated the segregation of these variants with MLH1 methylation and studied the functional consequences of these defects on transcription.ConclusionThis is the largest cohort of patients with MLH1 secondary epimutations associated with a broad spectrum of genetic defects. This study provides further insight into the complexity of molecular mechanisms leading to secondary epimutations.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 12 April 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.47.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA