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1.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 183(39)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596511

RESUMO

About half of all Danish cancer patients are 70 years or older at diagnosis. The incidence is expected to increase further over the coming years because of an increasing longevity. Therefore, this review recommends that the Danish health care system develops and implement models to ensure optimal care for older adults with cancer. We are still in need of knowledge about the optimal treatment, rehabilitation, palliation and care for older adults with cancer. We encourage the Danish health authorities to formulate a national strategy for this area.

2.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592758

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare condition, defined as the presence of two autoimmune cytopenias, more frequently autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia, and rarely autoimmune neutropenia. ES can be classified as primary or secondary to various conditions, including lymphoproliferative disorders, other systemic autoimmune diseases, and primary immunodeficiencies, particularly in children. In adult ES, little is known about clinical features, disease associations and outcome. In this retrospective international study, we analyzed 116 adult patients followed at 13 European tertiary centers, focusing on treatment requirement, occurrence of complications and death. ES was secondary to or associated with an underlying condition in 24 cases (21%), mainly other autoimmune diseases and hematologic neoplasms. Bleeding occurred in 42% of subjects, mainly low grade and at ITP onset. Almost all patients received first line treatment (steroids+/-IVIG), and 23% needed early additional therapy for primary refractoriness. Further therapy lines included rituximab, splenectomy, immunosuppressants, thrombopoietin receptor agonists, and others, with response rates greater than 80%. However, a remarkable number of relapses occurred, requiring ≥3 therapy lines in 54% of cases. Infections and thrombotic complications occurred in 33% and 21% of subjects, respectively, mainly grade ≥3, and correlated with the number of therapy lines. Besides age, other factors negatively impacting on survival were severe anemia at onset and occurrence of relapse, infections and thrombosis. These data show that adult ES is often severe and marked by a relapsing clinical course and potentially fatal complications, pinpointing the need for high clinical awareness, prompt therapy, and anti-infectious/anti-thrombotic prophylaxis.

3.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(10): 961-974, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487679

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a bleeding disorder characterized by autoimmune destruction and impaired production of platelets. Immunosuppressive drugs are the main treatment and may increase risk of infection. AREAS COVERED: This systematic review included studies incorporating adult patients with primary ITP and infectious outcomes. Studies comparing risk of infection with the general population were included as primary and studies without this comparison were considered secondary. Three primary and 10 secondary studies were included. The main findings: 1-year adjusted relative-risk of infection was 4.5 (95% CI, 3.3-6.1) fold elevated compared to the general population. When comparing splenectomized with non-splenectomized ITP patients, the +1-year adjusted relative-risk of infection was 4.0 (95% CI, 2.8-5.6). The unadjusted 5-year mortality rate-ratio for infection-related deaths was 6.0 (95% CI, 3.0-11.8) in one study, and the hazard ratio was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.0-5.7) for fatal infections in another. EXPERT OPINION: This review emphasizes that patients with ITP have increased risk of infection. Since ITP is a benign hematologic disease, it is important to assess the extent and causes of infection in the clinical care and considerations before initiating treatment. More homogeneous studies are needed on this topic.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 74: 101983, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of cancer is related to how the cancer is identified, and where in the healthcare system the patient presents, i.e. routes to diagnosis (RtD). We aimed to describe the RtD for patients diagnosed with cancer in Denmark by using routinely collected register-based data and to investigate the association between RtD and prognosis measured as one-year all-cause mortality. METHODS: We conducted a population-based national cohort study by linking routinely collected Danish registry data. We categorised each patient into one of eight specified RtD based on an algorithm using a stepwise logic decision process. We described the proportions of patients with cancer diagnosed by different RtD. We examined associations between RtD and one-year all-cause mortality using logistic regression models adjusting for sex, age, cancer type, year of diagnosis, region of residence, and comorbidity. RESULTS: We included 144,635 cancers diagnosed in 139,023 patients in 2014-2017. The most common RtD were cancer patient pathway from primary care (45.9 %), cancer patient pathway from secondary care (20.0 %), unplanned hospital admission (15.8 %), and population-based screening (7.5 %). The one-year mortality ranged from 1.4 % in screened patients to 53.0 % in patients diagnosed through unplanned hospital admission. Patients with an unplanned admission were more likely to die within the first year after diagnosis (OR = 3.38 (95 %CI: 3.24-3.52)) compared to patients diagnosed through the cancer patient pathway from primary care. CONCLUSION: The majority of cancer patients were diagnosed through a cancer patient pathway. The RtD were associated with the prognosis, and the prognosis was worst in patients diagnosed through unplanned admission. The study suggests that linking routinely collected registry data could enable a national framework for RtD, which could serve to identify variations across patient-, health-, and system-related and healthcare factors. This information could be used in future research investigating markers for monitoring purposes.

7.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 183(29)2021 07 19.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356021

RESUMO

Vaccine-induced immune thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new syndrome, which has emerged after introduction of the adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccines ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 og Ad26.COV2-SVITT is characterised by venous thrombosis at unusual, and often multiple localisations, especially including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Besides, bleeding manifestations often occur. Biochemically, VITT is characterised by thrombocytopaenia and elevated fibrin d-dimer. VITT is a rapidly progressing and potentially life-threatening syndrome where rapid diagnosis and treatment are essential as argued in this review.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Trombocitopenia , Trombose , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/terapia
9.
Langmuir ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253018

RESUMO

Nanoparticle catalyst materials are becoming ever more important in a sustainable future. Specifically, platinum (Pt) nanoparticles have relevance in catalysis, in particular, fuel cell technologies. Sputter deposition into liquid substrates has been shown to produce nanoparticles without the presence of air and other contaminants and the need for precursors. Here, we produce Pt nanoparticles in three imidazolium-based ionic liquids and PEG 600. All Pt nanoparticles are crystalline and around 2 nm in diameter. We show that while temperature has an effect on particle size for Pt, it is not as great as for other materials. Sputtering power, time, and postheat treatment all show slight influence on the particle size, indicating the importance of temperature during sputtering. The temperature of the liquid substrate is measured and reaches over 150 °C during deposition which is found to increase the particle size by less than 20%, which is small compared to the effect of temperature on Au nanoparticles presented in the literature. High temperatures during Pt sputtering are beneficial for increasing Pt nanoparticle size beyond 2 nm. Better temperature control would allow for more control over the particle size in the future.

10.
Ann Hematol ; 100(8): 1947-1951, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136949

RESUMO

Priapism is a persistent, painful erection, which can lead to permanent penile damage and reduced quality of life. Patients with sickle cell disease have an increased risk of priapism which has been related to chronic hemolysis. This study investigates the prevalence of priapism in all major hereditary and acquired forms of hemolytic disorders. Patients with hemolytic disorders were identified in the nationwide Danish Hemolysis Cohort. Each patient was age-sex-matched with 50 comparisons from the general population without hemolysis. We identified the episodes of hospital-registered priapism events for both patients with hemolysis disorders and comparisons in the Danish National Patient Register between 1977 and 2016. We identified 4181 male patients with hemolytic disorders and 205,994 male comparisons, with 2,294,027 person-years of total observation time. Totally, 101 episodes of priapism occurred during follow-up period. Six episodes of priapism were recorded in three patients with a hemolytic disorder, all affected by sickle cell disease. Two of these patients had verified genotype HbSS. The incidence rate for first priapism in sickle cell disease was 432.8 per 100,000 person-years [95% CI: 139.6; 1341.8] versus 0.84 per 100,000 person-years [95% CI 0.54; 1.32] in comparisons. Using a large nationwide cohort, we found that only sickle cell disease is associated with priapism among patients with hemolytic disorders. The incidence rate of priapism in patients with sickle cell disease was lower than previously reported.


Assuntos
Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Priapismo/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/patologia , Hemólise , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Priapismo/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2100357, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170749

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The majority of young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are cured, but chemotherapy-induced infertility can have profound psychosocial consequences. Providing data on parenthood rates and use of assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) after contemporary HL treatment is important for patient counseling and survivorship care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All Danish patients with HL diagnosed during 2000-2015 at the ages 18-40 years who achieved remission after first-line therapy were included and matched on age, sex, and parenthood status to five random persons from the general population. Parenthood rates were defined as the rate of first live birth per 1,000 person years, starting 9 months after HL diagnosis. Nationwide birth and patient registers were used to capture parenthood outcomes and ARTs use. RESULTS: A total of 793 HL survivors and 3,965 comparators were included (median follow-up 8.7 years). Similar parenthood rates were observed for male and female HL survivors when compared with matched comparators (56.2 v 57.1; P = .871 for males and 63.8 v 61.2; P = .672 for females). For male HL survivors, BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) therapy was associated with lower parenthood rates as compared to the matched comparators (28.1 v 60.8; P = .020). Live birth after ARTs were more common for HL survivors than for comparators (males 21.6% v 6.3%; P < .001; females 13.6% v 5.5%; P = .001). There were no differences in gestational age, Apgar score, or newborn measurements between HL survivors and matched comparators. CONCLUSION: The parenthood rates for HL survivors who have not experienced relapse were generally similar to the general population. However, ARTs were used more often before the first live birth in HL survivors, which is relevant information when discussing possible long-term side effects and fertility-preserving treatment options.

12.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (wAIHA) is a haemolytic disorder, most commonly seen among adults and is classified as either primary or secondary to an underlying disease. We describe the age and sex distribution and the proportion of secondary wAIHA. METHOD: We retrieved 2635 published articles, screened abstracts and titles, and identified 27 articles eligible for full-text review. From these studies, we extracted data regarding number of patients, sex distribution, age at diagnosis, number of patients with secondary wAIHA, and whether the patients were diagnosed through local or referral centres. All data were weighted according to the number of included patients in each study. RESULTS: 27 studies including a total of 4311 patients with wAIHA, of which 66% were females, were included. The median age at diagnosis was 68.7 years, however, wAIHA affected all ages. The mean proportion of secondary wAIHA was 49%, most frequently secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus. The proportions of secondary wAIHA reported from primary vs. referral centres were 35% vs. 59%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This review consolidates previously reported gender distribution. The higher proportion of secondary wAIHA in referral centres suggests that the most severely affected patients are disproportionally more frequent in such facilities.

14.
Eur J Haematol ; 107(1): 145-156, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine predictors for bone marrow biopsy (BMB) and the outcome following BMB in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP). METHODS: We identified patients diagnosed with cITP during 2009-2017 and obtained information on BMB, cITP treatment and subsequent thrombotic events, hospitalized bleeding, hematological cancer, and death using data from population-based healthcare databases and medical records in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. RESULTS: Among 4471 adults (≥18 years) with cITP, 1683 (37.6%) underwent BMB before cITP diagnosis, while cumulative BMB incidence after cITP diagnosis date was 3.1% at 1 year and 7.5% at 5 years. Predictors of having a BMB after cITP diagnosis included older age, male sex, low baseline platelet count, splenectomy, and number of cITP treatments. Compared with patients without BMB, patients with BMB had higher rates of thrombotic events (1 year adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.53 [95% CI, 0.92-2.54]), hospitalized bleeding episodes (1 year adjusted HR 1.72 [95% CI, 1.15-2.58]), hematological cancer (1 year adjusted HR 35.26 [95% CI 17.67-70.34]), and all-cause mortality (1 year adjusted HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.44-2.68]). CONCLUSION: Patients who undergo BMB after cITP diagnosis represent a subset of patients with more severe disease and increased rates of complications as well as hematological malignancies.

15.
Am J Hematol ; 96(5): 599-605, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661547

RESUMO

Disease progression after frontline therapy for Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically significant event. Patients who experience early progression or have refractory disease have especially poor outcomes. Simple, clinically applicable prognostic tools are needed for selecting patients for consideration for novel therapies and prognostication in the relapsed/refractory (R/R) setting. Model building was performed in patients from the Surrogate endpoints in aggressive lymphoma (SEAL) consortium with disease progression after frontline immunochemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) measured from date of progression. Validation was performed in the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic SPORE Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) and Danish National Lymphoma Register (LYFO) cohorts. Model performance was assessed using time-dependent concordance indices (c-statistic) and calibration with metrics evaluated at 2 years from progression. Note, 1234 of 5112 patients treated with frontline immunochemotherapy in the SEAL consortium developed progressive disease. Time to progression on immunochemotherapy and age at progression were strongly associated with post-progression OS (both p < 0.001). A prognostic model was developed incorporating spline fit for both variables. The model had good concordance in the discovery (0.67) and validation sets (LYFO c = 0.64, MER c = 0.68) with generally good calibration. Time to progression on frontline therapy is strongly associated with post-progression OS in DLBCL. We developed and validated a simple to apply clinical prognostic tool in the R/R setting. The useful prediction of expected outcomes in R/R DLBCL and can inform treatment decisions such as considerations for CAR-T therapy as well as trial designs. The model is available in smartphone-based point of care applications.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Modelos Teóricos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Risco , Smartphone , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Acta Oncol ; 60(7): 872-880, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764267

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, high-risk patient groups might have practiced social distancing and sheltering, and hospitals may have changed or postponed treatments and examinations. We aimed to explore health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with haematological diseases during the early phase of the pandemic and their acceptability of using telehealth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey among patients at the Department of Haematology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Eligible participants were patients receiving either active treatment or survivors in a follow-up program. The survey was open from 22 May to 13 June 2020. The survey contained questions on concerns and the impact of COVID-19 and acceptability on telehealth in addition to the assessment of health-related QoL. The later was assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer core QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire with the subdomains Global QoL, emotional functioning (EF) and social functioning (SF) being of primary interest. Further, anxiety during COVID-19 was assessed by use of an adapted version of the generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7) questionnaire. RESULTS: 4420 patients were eligible to participate. The response rate was 53% (n = 2239) of which 37% where in a treatment program and 63% where in a follow-up program. The majority (80%) of patients were concerned about contracting COVID-19. The global QoL score (69.0, ±SD 22.6) was markedly lower than EF (84.5, ±SD 18.9) and SF (85.0, ±SD 23.4). Regression analysis showed that being concerned (a little, moderately, very, extremely) about contracting COVID-19 correlated with lower scores of global QoL (-3.86 to -22.76), EF (-3.81 to -26.41) and SF (-1.14 to -22.49). The GAD-7 score showed that approximately 20% of patients had symptoms of COVID-19 associated generalised anxiety. Finally, 67% of the patients were positive towards replacing face-to-face consultancies with phone calls, but video consultations were less preferred (47%). CONCLUSION: Danish patients with haematological cancer presented with low global QoL during the early phase of COVID-19, and 20% of the patients showed symptoms of generalised anxiety. Patients were overall positive towards the implementation of telehealth consultancies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Telemedicina , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Encaminhamento e Consulta , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Br J Haematol ; 193(2): 339-345, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570184

RESUMO

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) have an increased risk of new malignancies. However, limited data have been published about the impact of CLL treatment on this risk. Here we followed a Danish population-based cohort of CLL patients for risks of new malignancies. Patients in the Danish CLL registry (2008-2017) were included. Up to 50 CLL-free matched comparators were identified. First-line treatment was categorized into four groups; bendamustine, chlorambucil, fludarabine or other. Patients were followed from CLL diagnosis for individual types of malignancy. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for new malignancies and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Overall, 4286 CLL patients and 214 150 controls developed 594 and 20 565 new malignancies respectively. Risk of new malignancies was increased for CLL patients. Chemotherapy treatment was registered for 1064 (25%) patients with CLL. Chemotherapy was associated with increased HR (1·51, 95% CI: 1·3-1·8) of any new malignancy. Specifically, fludarabine was associated with an increased risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (HR 4·93, 95% CI: 1·2-19·8). Patients with CLL are at increased risk of other haematological and solid malignancies compared to the general population. Chemotherapy exposure is associated with increased risk of second malignancies and fludarabine is associated with increased risk of MDS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/induzido quimicamente , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/uso terapêutico , Clorambucila/efeitos adversos , Clorambucila/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/complicações , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Vidarabina/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico
18.
Leukemia ; 35(9): 2570-2580, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603143

RESUMO

Comorbid conditions are highly prevalent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), nevertheless, detailed information on the association of specific comorbidities with CLL prognosis is missing. Using Danish, nation-wide registers, we followed consecutive patients from CLL-diagnosis in 1997-2018, until death or end of follow-up. Sub-grouping of comorbidities was defined using a modified Charlson comorbidity index. Patients were matched on sex, date of birth (±1 month), and region of residency with up to ten comparators from the general population. In total, 9170 patients with CLL were included in the study, with a median of 5.0 years of follow-up. All comorbid conditions studied were individually associated with increased mortality, and many also with increased cause-specific mortality, related or unrelated to CLL. Comorbidity correlated with increased mortality from infections and cardiovascular disease. CLL patients, particularly older, had a significant loss of lifetime compared with the general population. This study highlights a large subgroup of comorbid CLL patients with an unmet treatment-need and missing efficacy and safety data on treatment, who are under-prioritized in clinical trials. Also, studies assessing interventions that may provide better tolerability of treatment in older or comorbid patients, with cancer in general, and CLL in particular, are warranted.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 94: 104335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has great health implications in older patients, including high mortality. In general, older patients often have atypical symptom presentations during acute illness due to a high level of comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presentation of symptoms at hospital admissions in older patients with COVID-19 and evaluate its impact on disease outcome. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients ≥80 years of age with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2, who were admitted to one of three medical departments in Denmark from March 1st to June 1st, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients (47% male) with a mean age of 85 years were included. The most common symptoms at admission were fever (74%), cough (62%), and shortness of breath (54%). Furthermore, atypical symptoms like confusion (29%), difficulty walking (13%), and falls (8%) were also present. In-hospital and 30-day mortality were 31% (n = 32) and 41% (n = 42), respectively. Mortality was highest in patients with confusion (50% vs 38%) or falls (63% vs 39%), and nursing home residency prior to hospital admission was associated with higher mortality (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.7). CONCLUSIONS: Older patients with SARS-Cov-2 displayed classical symptoms of COVID-19 but also geriatric frailty symptoms such as confusion and walking impairments. Additionally, both in-hospital and 30-day mortality was very high. Our study highlights the need for preventive efforts to keep older people from getting COVID-19 and increased awareness of frailty among those with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fragilidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
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