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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1015, 2021 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was recognized in Wuhan, China. It was characterised by rapid spread causing a pandemic. Multiple public health interventions have been implemented worldwide to decrease the transmission of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the implemented public health interventions to control the spread of the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Science Direct and MedRxiv for relevant articles published in English up to March 16, 2021. We included quasi experimental studies, clinical trials, cohort studies, longitudinal studies, case-control studies and interrupted time series. We included the studies that investigated the effect of the implemented public health measures to prevent and control the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). RESULTS: The database search using the predefined combinations of Mesh terms found 13,497 studies of which 3595 in PubMed, 7393 in Science Direct 2509 preprints in MedRxiv. After removal of the duplicates and the critical reading only 18 articles were included in this systematic review and processed for data extraction. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions and non-pharmaceutical measurements were effective in decreasing the transmission of COVID-19. The included studies showed that travel restrictions, borders measures, quarantine of travellers arriving from affected countries, city lockdown, restrictions of mass gathering, isolation and quarantine of confirmed cases and close contacts, social distancing measures, compulsory mask wearing, contact tracing and testing, school closures and personal protective equipment use among health workers were effective in mitigating the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 101, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to determine through a systematic review and meta-analysis the incubation period of COVID-19. It was conducted based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Criteria for eligibility were all published population-based primary literature in PubMed interface and the Science Direct, dealing with incubation period of COVID-19, written in English, since December 2019 to December 2020. We estimated the mean of the incubation period using meta-analysis, taking into account between-study heterogeneity, and the analysis with moderator variables. RESULTS: This review included 42 studies done predominantly in China. The mean and median incubation period were of maximum 8 days and 12 days respectively. In various parametric models, the 95th percentiles were in the range 10.3-16 days. The highest 99th percentile would be as long as 20.4 days. Out of the 10 included studies in the meta-analysis, 8 were conducted in China, 1 in Singapore, and 1 in Argentina. The pooled mean incubation period was 6.2 (95% CI 5.4, 7.0) days. The heterogeneity (I2 77.1%; p < 0.001) was decreased when we included the study quality and the method of calculation used as moderator variables (I2 0%). The mean incubation period ranged from 5.2 (95% CI 4.4 to 5.9) to 6.65 days (95% CI 6.0 to 7.2). CONCLUSIONS: This work provides additional evidence of incubation period for COVID-19 and showed that it is prudent not to dismiss the possibility of incubation periods up to 14 days at this stage of the epidemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pandemias , Argentina , China , Humanos , Singapura
3.
Sante Publique ; 32(2): 189-198, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of adverse events (AE) in a Tunisian university hospital. METHOD: We carried out a longitudinal observational study in 2016 over a period of 3 months in the Sahloul university hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Data were collected using a pretested form filled by doctors previously trained in the collection methodology, upon each visit to all hospitalized patients. RESULTS: Overall, 1,357 patients were eligible. We identified 168 AEs in 131 patients with AEs incidence of 12.4% (95% CI: [7.41 – 17.38]), and patient incidence of 9.7% (95% CI: [4.63 – 14.76]). The incidence density of AEs was 1.8 events per 100 days of hospitalization. Hospital acquired infection and unplanned readmission related to previous healthcare management were the most common AEs (43.4 and 12.5% respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed as independent factors of AEs: surgery (P = 0.013; RR = 1.68; CI: [1.11-2.54]), the use of central-venous-catheter (P < 10–3; RR = 4.1 ; CI: [2.1-8]), tracheotomy (P = 0.001; RR = 21.8; CI: [3.7-127.8]), transfusion (P = 0.014; RR = 2.1; CI: [1.16-3.87]) and drug intake (P = 0.04; RR = 2.2; CI: [1.04-4.7]). CONCLUSION: The present study showed a high incidence of AEs and the involvement of invasive devices in their occurrence. Thus, targeted interventions are needed.


Assuntos
Hospitais Universitários , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Tunísia
4.
Sante Publique ; 32(2-3): 189-198, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of adverse events (AE) in a Tunisian university hospital. METHOD: We carried out a longitudinal observational study in 2016 over a period of 3 months in the Sahloul university hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Data were collected using a pretested form filled by doctors previously trained in the collection methodology, upon each visit to all hospitalized patients. RESULTS: Overall, 1,357 patients were eligible. We identified 168 AEs in 131 patients with AEs incidence of 12.4% (95% CI: [7.41 – 17.38]), and patient incidence of 9.7% (95% CI: [4.63 – 14.76]). The incidence density of AEs was 1.8 events per 100 days of hospitalization. Hospital acquired infection and unplanned readmission related to previous healthcare management were the most common AEs (43.4 and 12.5% respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed as independent factors of AEs: surgery (P = 0.013; RR = 1.68; CI: [1.11-2.54]), the use of central-venous-catheter (P < 10–3; RR = 4.1 ; CI: [2.1-8]), tracheotomy (P = 0.001; RR = 21.8; CI: [3.7-127.8]), transfusion (P = 0.014; RR = 2.1; CI: [1.16-3.87]) and drug intake (P = 0.04; RR = 2.2; CI: [1.04-4.7]). CONCLUSION: The present study showed a high incidence of AEs and the involvement of invasive devices in their occurrence. Thus, targeted interventions are needed.


Assuntos
Hospitais Universitários , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Tunísia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550234

RESUMO

Background Facebook is by far the most popular social network. Thus, it is important to use a valid measuring tool. This study aimed to validate an Arabic version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS). Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted among public secondary schools, within the city of Sousse, Eastern Tunisia over 2 months. Students completed self-administrated questionnaires. The revised test-retest version of the scale was given to a sample of ten pilot students in order to check the readability of the translation. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient in order to assess the extent to which the BFAS items were interrelated. Results A total of 1399 participants took part in the study (60.5% females). Among 1353 students who are using Facebook, 71.8% had non-problematic use. The median score of addiction was 13 ranging from 6 to 30. The median time spent each day on Facebook was 3 h. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87. Students with higher Facebook addiction scores were significantly more addicted to video games (p = 0.001), and more depressed (p < 0.0001). Conclusion The Arabic-BFAS is consistent as a screening test for Facebook addiction among secondary school students due to having good reliability and validity.

6.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc ; 94(1): 9, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smokers with comorbid anxio-depressive disorders are more prone to progress to a more severe level of dependence and to experience more severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms than smokers without anxio-depressive disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the relationship between tobacco dependence and anxio-depressive disorders as well as assessing their impact on the withdrawal. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among attendees of the smoking cessation clinic of Sahloul University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia, from December 2009 to May 2015. The monitoring of the attendees was performed through retrieving the records until May 2016 in order to verify their smoking cessation status at 1 year. RESULTS: Overall, 534 smokers were included. We identified 315 smokers (59%) presenting an anxio-depressive disorder. Based on the HAD scale, we found 231 patients (43.4%) with anxiety disorders, 200 (37.6%) patients with depressive disorders, and 116 (21.8%) patients with anxio-depressive disorder. In multivariate analysis, only a high number of consultation was associated with a better rate of tobacco cessation at 6 months. However, no factor was found linked to the relapse at 1 year. CONCLUSION: According to our results, only a high number of consultation was revealed as an independent factor of withdrawal for anxio-depressed smokers. It is necessary to simultaneously use the nicotinic substitutions and anxio-depressive treatment to ensure the tobacco cessation.

7.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 31(4)2017 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632496

RESUMO

Background The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity and nutritional behavior intervention, on the reduction of clustering of chronic diseases risk factors among school children. Materials and methods A quasi-experimental school-based intervention was conducted with an intervention group and a control group in the region of Sousse in Tunisia. The intervention was implemented between 2010 and 2013, with data collected at pre and at post intervention. Studied risk factors were: smoking, sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake and obesity. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to calculate the clustering of two risk factors. We calculated ORs in each group before and after the intervention. Results In the intervention group, the prevalence of adolescents that had no risk factors has significantly increased (p = 0.004). In the control group the prevalence of adolescents carrying two or more risk factors has increased (p = 0.06). The results showed that all risk factors tended to cluster together in both groups. In the intervention group, the calculated OR for smoking and sedentary behavior decreased after assessment (OR = 5.93) as well as the OR for smoking and low fruit and vegetable intake (OR = 3.26). In the control group, all ORs increased, showing an enhancement of the association. Conclusion This study showed the effectiveness of a school-based intervention in reducing the clustering of chronic diseases risk factors.

8.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 29(2)2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26360490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious health issue and predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence in children has increased worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of a school-based management program based on healthy lifestyle promotion for obese and overweight adolescents in Sousse, Tunisia. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental study among overweight and obese school children enrolled in 7th and 8th grades in Sousse, Tunisia with two groups, intervention and control. The 1-year intervention was based on promoting healthy eating and physical activity through a collective intervention for all recruited children and an individual intervention only for obese children who require intensive managing. Data collection was done before, at the end and at a 4-month follow up of the intervention, both in intervention and control groups. RESULTS: The body mass index Z score decreased significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention (1.89±0.57 to 1.76±0.63, p<0.001) and from post-intervention to the follow-up (1.76±0.63 to 1.55±0.68, p<0.001) in the intervention group. In the control group, it decreased significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention but not significantly from post-intervention to follow-up assessment. Calorie intake decreased significantly both in intervention and control groups. CONCLUSION: This project began with introducing a new culture of health management in schools on one side and with increasing awareness of the importance of obesity prevention and treatment. The support of authorities for this type of action is very important to guarantee its sustainability.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Aconselhamento/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tunísia/epidemiologia
9.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 29(5)2016 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926862

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A better understanding of socio-demographic characteristics of subgroups, which have a high risk to develop chronic diseases, is essential to develop more efficient interventional programs especially for youth. This study aimed to determine the association between clusters of non communicable diseases (NCDs') risk factors and the socio-demographic characteristics among a sample of Tunisian school children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted, in 2013/2014, a cross-sectional study among a proportional and stratified school children sample, selected in 17 elementary public schools in Sousse (Tunisia). A cluster analysis was used to identify different NCDs risk factors clusters, based on tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and excess weight. Subsequent χ2-tests were used to identify differences between the NCDs risk factors clusters in regards to socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Four clusters of NCDs risk factors were found: 1) Cluster 1: physical inactivity behavior with normal weight, 2) Cluster 2: physical inactivity behavior associated to excess weight, 3) Cluster 3: unhealthy diet associated to excess weight and low practice of physical activity, and 4) Cluster 4: smoking behavior with physical activity behavior. The pattern of cluster membership differed across sex (<10-3), school level, and socioeconomic level (<10-3) but there was no significant difference between clusters for mother's education levels and household tenure. CONCLUSION: This study can have important implications for health policy and practice. Indeed, it found that many subjects have simultaneous multiple NCDs risk factors which leads to identify groups at risk and implement integrated intervention program.

10.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 28(2): 211-6, 2016 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26360487

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use, which begins in adolescence and childhood and continues in later life, is the major avoidable risk for non-communicable diseases and death in the world. Self-reports have frequently been used to estimate smoking prevalence and health consequences. This study explores the validity of self-reports of smoking behavior among schoolchildren in Tunisia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in March 2014 among a sample of 147 schoolchildren randomly selected. Data concerning the smoking habit were collected by a questionnaire designed for the purposes of this work. Then, exhaled CO, a biochemical marker of smoke exposure, was measured using piCO+ Smokerlyzer® breath CO monitor among participants. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reports were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported smoking was 9.5% with 16.7% and 1.7% respectively among boys and girls. Their mean age was 14.5±1.28 years old. When considering 4 ppm as the cut-off level of breath CO, sensitivity and specificity of self-reports were 100% and 93.7%, respectively. But at a breath CO cut-off of 3 ppm, self-reporting was 62.5% sensitive and 93.5% specific. CONCLUSION: According to our findings, we suggest that self-reports can be considered as a good tool to be used with a reasonable confidence to assess the smoking status.


Assuntos
Autorrelato/normas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Tunísia/epidemiologia
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