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1.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 14, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608052

RESUMO

When attempting to provide lessons for other countries from the successful Israeli COVID-19 vaccine experience, it is important to distinguish between the modifiable and non-modifiable components identified in the article by Rosen, et al. Two specific modifiable components included in the Israeli program from which the US can learn are (a) a national (not individual state-based) strategy for vaccine distribution and administration and (b) a functioning public health infrastructure. As a federal government, the US maintains an often complex web of state and national authorities and responsibilities. The federal government assumed responsibility for the ordering, payment and procurement of COVID vaccine from manufacturers. In designing the subsequent steps in their COVID-19 vaccine distribution and administration plan, the Trump administration decided to rely on the states themselves to determine how best to implement guidance provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This strategy resulted in 50 different plans and 50 different systems for the dissemination of vaccine doses, all at the level of each individual state. State health departments were neither financed, experienced nor uniformly possessed the expertise to develop and implement such plans. A national strategy for the distribution, and the workforce for the provision, of vaccine beyond the state level, similar to that which occurred in Israel, would have provided for greater efficiency and coordination across the country. The US public health infrastructure was ill-prepared and ill-staffed to take on the responsibility to deliver > 450 million doses of vaccine in an expeditious fashion, even if supply of vaccine was available. The failure to adequately invest in public health has been ubiquitous across the nation at all levels of government. Since the 2008 recession, state and local health departments have lost > 38,000 jobs and spending for state public health departments has dropped by 16% per capita and spending for local health departments has fallen by 18%. Hopefully, COVID-19 will be a wakeup call to the US with regard to the need for both a national strategy to address public health emergencies and the well-maintained infrastructure to make it happen.

2.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 147(3): 382e-390e, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BREAST-Q is the only questionnaire specific to bilateral breast reduction that was developed according to federal and international standards. Many payors mandate minimum resection weights for preapproval, despite lacking supportive evidence for this practice. This study aimed to assess changes in BREAST-Q scores after bilateral breast reduction, and determine whether compliance with Schnur requirements impacts improvement in patient-reported outcomes. METHODS: Patients presenting for bilateral breast reduction from 2011 to 2017 were asked to complete the BREAST-Q preoperatively and postoperatively. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to isolate factors associated with favorable outcomes. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 238 patients. Mean time to postoperative BREAST-Q was 213 days. Complications occurred in 31 patients (13.0 percent). Mean preoperative BREAST-Q scores were below normative values (p < 0.001), and mean postoperative scores were above normative values (p < 0.001 for Satisfaction with Breasts, Psychosocial Well-being, and Sexual Well-being; and p = 0.05 for Physical Well-being). Postoperative Physical Well-being scores were similar to normative values for resections less than Schnur (p = 0.32), but below norms for resections greater than Schnur (p < 0.0001). On multivariate regression (n = 230), complication and surgeon experience were the only independent predictors of lesser improvement on the Satisfaction with Breasts subscale. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest to include both preoperative and postoperative bilateral breast reduction BREAST-Q scores, and to compare multiple subscales to normative data. Scores overwhelmingly increased, regardless of age or Schnur compliance. Complications negatively impacted degree of BREAST-Q improvement. Interestingly, postoperative Physical Well-being was slightly higher in women with non-Schnur-compliant resections. Bilateral breast reduction substantially improves patient welfare, and our data question the validity of insurer-mandated minimum resections. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.

3.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To inform discussions of pediatric subspecialty workforce adequacy and characterize its pipeline, we examined trends in first-year fellows in the 14 American Board of Pediatrics (ABP)-certified pediatric medical subspecialties, 2001-2018. METHODS: Data were obtained from the ABP Certification Management System. We determined, within each subspecialty, the annual number of first-year fellows. We assessed for changes in the population using variables available throughout the study period (gender, medical school location, program region, and program size). We fit linear trendlines and calculated χ2 statistics. RESULTS: The number of first-year pediatric medical subspecialty fellows increased from 751 in 2001 to 1445 in 2018. Fields with the growth of 3 or more fellows per year were Cardiology, Critical Care, Emergency Medicine, Gastroenterology, Neonatology, and Hematology Oncology (P value <0.05 for all). The number of fellows entering Adolescent Medicine, Child Abuse, Infectious Disease, and Nephrology increased at a rate of 0.5 fellows or fewer per year. Female American Medical Graduates represented the largest and growing proportions of several subspecialties. Distribution of programs by region and size were relatively consistent over time, but varied across subspecialties. CONCLUSIONS: The number of pediatricians entering medical subspecialty fellowship training is uneven and patterns of growth differ between subspecialties. IMPACT: The number of individuals entering fellowship training has increased between 2001 and 2018. Growth in the number of first-year fellows is uneven. Fields with the greatest growth: Critical Care, Emergency Medicine, and Neonatology. Fields with limited growth: Adolescent Medicine, Child Abuse, Infectious Disease, and Nephrology. Concerns about the pediatric medical subspecialty workforce are not explained by the number of individuals entering the fellowship.

5.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(11): 1924-1932, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958425

RESUMO

Abdominoperineal resection (APR) in patients with anorectal carcinomas may involve flap-based perineal reconstruction techniques, such as rectus abdominis, myocutaneous, gracilis, and gluteal flaps. There is no consensus on the optimal approach. We evaluated the outcomes of perineal reconstruction following APR in the literature and identified a predominance of abdominal-based approaches, though overall outcomes were similar compared with thigh or perineal-based options. Statistical power to detect small differences in outcomes is limited, however, due to the retrospective design, relatively short-term follow-up, and potential selection bias based on morbidities associated with reconstructive techniques. Lacking randomized studies to define optimum approaches to perineal reconstruction, clinicians should individualize surgical strategy.

8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 174(6): 622-623, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202599
9.
Pediatr Res ; 88(3): 369-371, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958801
10.
Health Serv Res ; 55(2): 310-317, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop, test, and validate the performance of ICD-10-CM claims-based case definitions for identifying children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). DATA SOURCES: Medicaid administrative claims (2016) for children <18 years with potential SCA (any D57x diagnosis code) and newborn screening records from Michigan and New York State. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a secondary data analysis. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Using specific SCA-related (D5700, D5701, and D5702) and nonspecific (D571) diagnosis codes, 23 SCA case definitions were applied to Michigan Medicaid claims (2016) to identify children with SCA. Measures of performance (sensitivity, specificity, area under the ROC curve) were calculated using newborn screening results as the gold standard. A parallel analysis was conducted using New York State Medicaid claims and newborn screening data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Michigan Medicaid, 1597 children had ≥1 D57x claim; 280 (18 percent) were diagnosed with SCA. Measures of performance varied, with sensitivities from 0.02 to 0.97 and specificities from 0.88 to 1.0. The case definition of ≥1 outpatient visit with a SCA-related or D571 code had the highest area under the ROC curve, with a sensitivity of 95 percent and specificity of 92 percent. The same definition also had the highest performance in New York Medicaid (n = 2454), with a sensitivity of 94 percent and specificity of 86 percent. CONCLUSIONS: Children with SCA can be accurately identified in administrative claims using this straightforward case definition. This methodology can be used to monitor trends and use of health services after transition to ICD-10-CM.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/classificação , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Guias como Assunto , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Medicaid/normas , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , New York/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
11.
Acad Pediatr ; 20(8): 1109-1115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess use and needs for general practitioner, specialist, emergency department, hospital inpatient, and hospital outpatient services for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To assess the level of CSHCN's needs compared with other children. METHODS: Health service use and needs for children aged 4 to 15 years were assessed using the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children survey with 25,011 observations. Odds ratios of service use and unmet needs for CSHCN compared to other children were estimated. CSHCN were further grouped as those 1) needing only additional medication, 2) needing only additional medical care, or 3) needing both as defined by the CSHCN screener questions. RESULTS: The prevalence of those meeting criteria for CSHCN was 16.1%. In the past 12 months, 77.7% of CSHCN used any general practitioner care and 46.4%, 21.7%, 12.4%, and 15.0%, respectively, used specialty care, emergency department, hospital inpatient, and outpatient services. Approximately half of CSHCN were identified as having special needs due to needing additional medication. Their service use and unmet needs are only slightly elevated. Another group of CSHCN who need both more medication and medical care comprises less than one third of all CSHCN. These children have the highest odds of using specialty care (odds ratio 12.3, P < .001), and of having unmet specialty care need (odds ratio 7.4, P < .001) compared to children without special needs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring specialty care for CSHCN, especially the one third with most elevated needs. This estimate might guide future care planning.

12.
Health Informatics J ; 26(1): 474-485, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880544

RESUMO

Hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) are a major source of unintended patient harm and unnecessary costs. The Braden Scale is widely used for risk assessment, yet it lacks specificity and clinical applications. This study used the electronic health record to examine associations between patient-specific factors and pressure injury. Adult patients (age >18) with 3-day length of stay from April 2011 to December 2016 were included. Pressure injuries were identified by ICD-9/ICD-10 codes. Longitudinal multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between patient-specific factors and HAPIs. This included 57,227 hospital encounters and 241 HAPIs. We observed 2-3 times increased likelihood of acquiring a pressure injury among patients who were malnourished or who had increased intraoperative time. The Braden subscales of nutrition, mobility, and friction showed significant predictive value. Future work is needed to assess the clinical applicability of this work.

13.
Ann Plast Surg ; 85(2): 110-114, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688122

RESUMO

The opioid epidemic in the United States resulted in 42,000 deaths in 2016, 40% of which involved a prescription opioid. It is estimated that 2 million patients become opioid-dependent after elective, ambulatory surgery each year. There has been increased interest in quantifying the need for postoperative narcotic pain medications for a variety of surgical procedures. However, studies have been limited. We sought to quantify the analgesic usage after one of the most common operations performed in plastic surgery, bilateral breast reduction.In this prospective, observational study, sequential breast reduction patients were contacted by telephone on the evening of postoperative days 3 and 7. Patients were queried as to which analgesic medications were used on the day of the phone call. Data relating to dosage, frequency, and satisfaction with pain control were sought. Patients taking chronic narcotics, postoperative complications requiring surgical intervention, and those unable to be reached after multiple attempts were excluded.Complete data were obtained for 40 patients. Narcotic prescriptions were written for oxycodone, hydromorphone and tramadol, with the number prescribed ranging from 0 to 20 tablets. The median total number used was 6 tablets. Eighty percent of patients used a total of 10 tablets or less. Fifty percent of patients were using only nonnarcotic analgesia by postoperative day 3. Patient-reported satisfaction with pain control was overwhelmingly positive, with 95% being either somewhat satisfied or very satisfied with postoperative pain control. Of those taking any medication on postoperative day 3, only half were using a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) as part of their pain regimen.The number of tablets prescribed after breast reduction surgery varies considerably, and there is no consensus regarding the appropriate number to prescribe. Currently, few patients use all the medication prescribed to them, indicating a high rate of overprescribing. The overwhelming majority are satisfied with their pain control. Most patients use less than 10 tablets of narcotic pain medication after surgery. Acetaminophen is widely used as an adjunct but NSAIDs remain underutilized. Based on these data, we recommend that breast reduction patient's pain is best managed with acetaminophen, NSAIDs, and expectation management.

14.
Pediatr Res ; 87(6): 1128-1134, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amid concerns about the pediatrician-scientist workforce, we hypothesized that declining numbers of pediatric subspecialists devote at least 25% of their professional time to research with fewer younger and female pediatricians engaged in research over the study period. METHODS: Board-certified pediatricians enrolling online in the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP's) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program October 2009 through 2016 were invited to complete a survey with questions about the allocation of their professional time. Responses from individuals in the 14 ABP-certified subspecialties were analyzed. The number and proportions of respondents devoting 25-49% and 50% or more of professional time to research were calculated over time. Age and gender were also examined. RESULTS: We analyzed 21,367 responses over 8 years. A small number of pediatric subspecialists engaged in research with 5.2-6.7% devoting 25-49% and 5.6-8.4% at least 50% of their professional time to research across subspecialties. There was no discernable increase or decrease over time or pattern by age or gender. CONCLUSION: Less than 10% of pediatric medical subspecialists devote at least 50% of their professional time to research. Efforts to promote research among pediatric subspecialists have not increased the size of the population that reports engaging in research at this level.

15.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 42(3): e152-e158, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725546

RESUMO

Newly developed measures of health care quality for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have revealed significant performance gaps in recommended care. Historically, health systems, Medicaid health plans, and state Medicaid programs have not partnered with patients and families to improve SCA care delivery. We organized 2 novel multistakeholder design meetings to identify potential interventions to deliver high-quality preventive care for children with SCA. Invitees included patients with SCA, families, and representatives from pediatric hematology clinics, Medicaid health plans, community organizations, and a state Medicaid program. Participants identified some barriers to care through presentations and facilitated discussions. Over 35 potential interventions and 6 drivers of high-quality SCA preventive care delivery were organized into a key driver diagram. Many barriers to SCA care delivery could be addressed by Medicaid health plan resources to support members with chronic disease; however, these resources are infrequently used in the pediatric SCA population. Bridging gaps between stakeholder groups identified many potential interventions to improve SCA preventive care delivery at all levels of the health care system. Similar multistakeholder discussions may be useful for other communities interested in improving preventive care for children with SCA or other chronic pediatric diseases.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Colaboração Intersetorial , Medicina Preventiva/organização & administração , Criança , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Medicaid , Estados Unidos
16.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US physician workforce includes an increasing number of women, with pediatrics having the highest percentage. In recent research on physicians, it is indicated that men earn more than women. It is unclear how this finding extends to pediatricians. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional 2016 data on earnings from the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatrician Life and Career Experience Study, a longitudinal study of early- and midcareer pediatricians. To estimate adjusted differences in pediatrician earnings between men and women, we conducted 4 ordinary least squares regression models. Model 1 examined gender, unadjusted; model 2 controlled for labor force characteristics; model 3 controlled for both labor force and physician-specific job characteristics; and model 4 controlled for labor force, physician-specific job, and work-family characteristics. RESULTS: Sixty-seven percent of Pediatrician Life and Career Experience Study participants completed the 2016 surveys (1213 out of 1801). The analytic sample was restricted to participants who completed training and worked in general pediatrics, hospitalist care, or subspecialty care (n = 998). Overall pediatrician-reported mean annual income was $189 804. Before any adjustment, women earned ∼76% of what men earned, or ∼$51 000 less. Adjusting for common labor force characteristics such as demographics, work hours, and specialty, women earned ∼87% of what men earned, or ∼$26 000 less. Adjusting for a comprehensive set of labor force, physician-specific job, and work-family characteristics, women earned ∼94% of what men earned, or ∼$8000 less. CONCLUSIONS: Early- to midcareer female pediatricians earned less than male pediatricians. This difference persisted after adjustment for important labor force, physician-specific job, and work-family characteristics. In future work, researchers should use longitudinal analyses and further explore family obligations and choices.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatras/economia , Médicas/economia , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pediatras/provisão & distribução , Médicas/provisão & distribução , Estados Unidos , Trabalho , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida/economia
17.
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