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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown an approximately two-fold elevation in the relative risk of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) among people with a family history that could not be entirely explained by shared environmental exposures, thus suggesting a genetic component in its predisposition. Multiple genome-wide association studies and recent gene panel sequencing studies identified several genetic loci that are associated with UBC risk; however, the list of UBC-associated variants and genes is incomplete. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We exome sequenced eight patients from three multiplex UBC pedigrees and a group of 77 unrelated familial UBC cases matched to 241 cancer-free controls. In addition, we examined pathogenic germline variation in 444 candidate genes in 392 The Cancer Genome Atlas UBC cases. RESULTS: In the pedigrees, segregating variants were family-specific although the identified genes clustered in common pathways, most notably DNA repair (MLH1 and MSH2) and cellular metabolism (IDH1 and ME1). In the familial UBC group, the proportion of pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants was significantly higher in cases compared with controls (P = .003). Pathogenic and likely pathogenic variant load was also significantly increased in genes involved in cilia biogenesis (P = .001). In addition, a pathogenic variant in CHEK2 (NM_007194.4:c.1100del; p.T367Mfs*15) was over-represented in cases (variant frequency = 2.6%; 95% CI, 0.71 to 6.52) compared with controls (variant frequency = 0.21%; 95% CI, 0.01 to 1.15), but was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: These results point to a complex polygenic predisposition to UBC. Despite heterogeneity, the genes cluster in several biologically relevant pathways and processes, for example, DNA repair, cilia biogenesis, and cellular metabolism. Larger studies are required to determine the importance of CHEK2 in UBC etiology.

2.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 17(1): 120, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis posits that microbial exposure reduces risk of asthma and other respiratory-related diseases. Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are common fecal-oral infections. Our study aimed to examine associations of seropositivity to these agents with asthma in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). METHODS: A total of 12,471 HCHS/SOL participants with baseline data on self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma, and antibodies anti-H. pylori and anti-HAV were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the overall associations of seropositivity to each agent with asthma. Analyses were also stratified by Hispanic/Latino background. Effect modification by smoking status and nativity were tested. An analysis restricted to individuals with spirometry-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was also considered. RESULTS: The weighted overall prevalence of asthma was 16.6%. The weighted seroprevalence of H. pylori was 56.6% and of HAV was 76.6%, and they significantly differed by Hispanic/Latino background. After accounting for age, sex, education and other key confounders, we found no associations between H. pylori or HAV seropositivity with asthma (with and without COPD), either for all individuals combined or for any of the six specific backgrounds. There were no significant interactions by smoking and nativity. CONCLUSION: Our findings did not provide support for the role of H. pylori or HAV, as evidence of the hygiene hypothesis in asthma among the large and diverse Hispanic/Latino populations of the HCHS/SOL. Trial registration NCT02060344.

3.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although racial/ethnic disparities in U.S. COVID-19 death rates are striking, focusing on COVID-19 deaths alone may underestimate the true effect of the pandemic on disparities. Excess death estimates capture deaths both directly and indirectly caused by COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To estimate U.S. excess deaths by racial/ethnic group. DESIGN: Surveillance study. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: All decedents. MEASUREMENTS: Excess deaths and excess deaths per 100 000 persons from March to December 2020 were estimated by race/ethnicity, sex, age group, and cause of death, using provisional death certificate data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Census Bureau population estimates. RESULTS: An estimated 2.88 million deaths occurred between March and December 2020. Compared with the number of expected deaths based on 2019 data, 477 200 excess deaths occurred during this period, with 74% attributed to COVID-19. Age-standardized excess deaths per 100 000 persons among Black, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN), and Latino males and females were more than double those in White and Asian males and females. Non-COVID-19 excess deaths also disproportionately affected Black, AI/AN, and Latino persons. Compared with White males and females, non-COVID-19 excess deaths per 100 000 persons were 2 to 4 times higher in Black, AI/AN, and Latino males and females, including deaths due to diabetes, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and Alzheimer disease. Excess deaths in 2020 resulted in substantial widening of racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause mortality from 2019 to 2020. LIMITATIONS: Completeness and availability of provisional CDC data; no estimates of precision around results. CONCLUSION: There were profound racial/ethnic disparities in excess deaths in the United States in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in rapid increases in racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause mortality between 2019 and 2020. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Program.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing proportions of smokers in Japan smoke <10 cigarettes per day (CPD). Yet, the health risks of low-intensity smoking in Asia are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 410 294 adults from nine population-based prospective cohort studies participating in the Japan Cohort Consortium. Cigarette-use data were collected at each study baseline in 1983-1994. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were calculated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression by CPD among current smokers and by age at cessation among former smokers, with never smokers as the referent group. Pooled HRs and CIs were computed using a random-effect model. RESULTS: The smoking prevalence was 54.5% in men and 7.4% in women. About 15.5% of male and 50.4% of female current smokers smoked 1-10 CPD (low-intensity). Both male and female low-intensity smokers had higher all-cause mortality risks than never smokers. Risks were further higher with increasing CPD in a dose-response manner. HRs (95% CIs) were 1.27 (0.97-1.66), 1.45 (1.33-1.59) and 1.49 (1.38-1.62) for 1-2, 3-5 and 6-10 CPD, respectively, in men; 1.28 (1.01-1.62), 1.49 (1.34-1.66) and 1.68 (1.55-1.81) for 1-2, 3-5 and 6-10 CPD, respectively, in women. Similar associations were observed for smoking-related causes of death. Among former low-intensity smokers, younger age at cessation was associated with lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking very low amounts was associated with increased mortality risks in Japan. All smokers should quit, even if they smoke very few CPD.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1802-1813, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggests chronically higher bile acid (BA) concentrations may be associated with multiple health conditions. Diet may affect BA metabolism and signaling; however, evidence from human populations is lacking. OBJECTIVES: We systematically investigated cross-sectional associations of a priori-selected dietary components (fiber, alcohol, coffee, fat) with circulating BA concentrations. METHODS: We used targeted, quantitative LC-MS/MS panels to measure 15 circulating BAs in a subset of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC; n = 2224) and Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO; n = 986) comprising Finnish male smokers and United States men and women, respectively. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of each dietary component with log-transformed BAs; exponentiated coefficients estimate proportional differences. We included the median of the dietary component quartile in linear regression models to test for trend. RESULTS: In ATBC, fiber was inversely associated with multiple circulating BAs. The proportional difference was -10.09% (95% CI: -19.29 to 0.16; P-trend = 0.04) when comparing total BAs among those in the highest relative to the lowest fiber quartile. Alcohol, trans fat, and polyunsaturated fat were positively associated with BAs in ATBC. The proportional difference comparing total BAs among those in the highest relative to the lowest alcohol quartile was 8.76% (95% CI: -3.10 to 22.06; P-trend = 0.03). Coffee and monounsaturated fat were inversely associated with BAs. The proportional difference comparing total BAs among those in the highest relative to the lowest coffee quartile was -24.03% (95% CI: -31.57 to -15.66; P-trend < 0.0001). In PLCO, no dietary components were associated with BAs except fiber, which was inversely associated with tauroursodeoxycholic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol, coffee, certain fat subtypes, and fiber were associated with circulating concentrations of multiple BAs among Finnish male smokers. Given the potential role of BAs in disease risk, further investigation of the effects of diet on BAs in humans is warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Dieta , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Café , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(9): 1844-1852, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240714

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To help target preventive strategies, we estimated US population attributable risks (PARs) of demographic and potentially modifiable risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). METHODS: We prospectively examined the associations for risk factors and these cancers in 490,605 people in the National Institutes of Health-the American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health cohort Diet and Health Study cohort from 1995 to 2011. Exposures were obtained from the baseline questionnaire. Diagnoses of gastroesophageal reflux disease were extracted for a subset of eligible National Institutes of Health-the American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health cohort subjects through linkage to Medicare and then multiply imputed for non-Medicare-eligible subjects. Hazard ratios were calculated using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression. Adjusted population attributable risks were calculated for the US population aged 50-71 years by combining the hazard ratios with the estimated joint distribution of risk factor prevalence from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. RESULTS: Smoking remained the most important risk factor for ESCC and was estimated to cause more than 1/3 of EAC and GCA and 1/10 of GNCA. Obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease were associated with more than 1/2 of EAC and 1/3 of GCA. Compared with each lowest-risk level category, common risk factors were estimated to be associated with 73.7% of ESCC (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.1%-85.4%), 70.3% of EAC (95% CI: 64.4%-76.2%), 69.3% of GCA (95% CI: 61.0%-77.7%), and 33.6% of GNCA (95% CI: 21.7%-45.5%). DISCUSSION: These factors accounted for a large proportion of esophageal and gastric cancers in the United States, highlighting opportunities for education and intervention to reduce the burden of these highly fatal cancers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Idoso , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13805, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226613

RESUMO

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m2 increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Carbono/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Cinurenina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vitaminas/sangue
8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(11): 1193-1196, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To inform prevention efforts, we sought to determine which cancer types contribute the most to cancer mortality disparities by individual-level education using national death certificate data for 2017. METHODS: Information on all US deaths occurring in 2017 among 25-84-year-olds was ascertained from national death certificate data, which include cause of death and educational attainment. Education was classified as high school or less (≤ 12 years), some college or diploma (13-15 years), and Bachelor's degree or higher (≥ 16 years). Cancer mortality rate differences (RD) were calculated by subtracting age-adjusted mortality rates (AMR) among those with ≥ 16 years of education from AMR among those with ≤ 12 years. RESULTS: The cancer mortality rate difference between those with a Bachelor's degree or more vs. high school or less education was 72 deaths per 100,000 person-years. Lung cancer deaths account for over half (53%) of the RD for cancer mortality by education in the US. CONCLUSION: Efforts to reduce smoking, particularly among persons with less education, would contribute substantially to reducing educational disparities in lung cancer and overall cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adolescente , Escolaridade , Humanos , Mortalidade
9.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(2): pkab007, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308104

RESUMO

Background: Pediatric cancers are the leading cause of death by disease in children despite improved survival rates overall. The contribution of germline genetic susceptibility to pediatric cancer survivors has not been extensively characterized. We assessed the frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in 5451 long-term pediatric cancer survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Methods: Exome sequencing was conducted on germline DNA from 5451 pediatric cancer survivors (cases who survived ≥5 years from diagnosis; n = 5105 European) and 597 European cancer-free adults (controls). Analyses focused on comparing the frequency of rare P/LP variants in 237 cancer-susceptibility genes and a subset of 60 autosomal dominant high-to-moderate penetrance genes, for both case-case and case-control comparisons. Results: Of European cases, 4.1% harbored a P/LP variant in high-to-moderate penetrance autosomal dominant genes compared with 1.3% in controls (2-sided P = 3 × 10-4). The highest frequency of P/LP variants was in genes typically associated with adult onset rather than pediatric cancers, including BRCA1/2, FH, PALB2, PMS2, and CDKN2A. A statistically significant excess of P/LP variants, after correction for multiple tests, was detected in patients with central nervous system cancers (NF1, SUFU, TSC1, PTCH2), Wilms tumor (WT1, REST), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PMS2), and soft tissue sarcomas (SDHB, DICER1, TP53, ERCC4, FGFR3) compared with other pediatric cancers. Conclusion: In long-term pediatric cancer survivors, we identified P/LP variants in cancer-susceptibility genes not previously associated with pediatric cancer as well as confirmed known associations. Further characterization of variants in these genes in pediatric cancer will be important to provide optimal genetic counseling for patients and their families.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299799

RESUMO

Biomarkers of tobacco exposure are known to be associated with disease risk but previous studies are limited in number and restricted to certain regions. We conducted a nested case-control study examining baseline levels and subsequent lung cancer incidence among current male exclusive cigarette smokers in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. We calculated geometric mean biomarker concentrations for 28 matched cases and 52 controls for the correlation of biomarker levels among controls and for adjusted odds' ratios (ORs) for lung cancer incidence by biomarker concentration, accounting for demographic characteristics, smoking quantity and duration, and opium use. Lung cancer cases had higher average levels of most biomarkers including total nicotine equivalents (TNE-2), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and 3-hydroxyfluorene (3-FLU). Many biomarkers correlated highly with one another including TNE-2 with NNAL and N-Acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (2CYEMA), and N-Acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (t4HBEMA) with N-Acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl-1-methyl)-L-cysteine (3HMPMA) and N-Acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (4HMBEMA). Lung cancer risk increased with concentration for several biomarkers, including TNE-2 (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.78) and NNN (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.13, 5.27), and estimates were significant after further adjustment for demographic and smoking characteristics for 2CYEMA (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.55), N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (2CAEMA) (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.01, 4.55), and N-Acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (2HPMA) (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.04, 7.81). Estimates were not significant with adjustment for opium use. Concentrations of many biomarkers were higher at the baseline for participants who subsequently developed lung cancer than among the matched controls. Odds of lung cancer were higher for several biomarkers including with adjustment for smoking exposure for some but not with adjustment for opium use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nitrosaminas , Produtos do Tabaco , Biomarcadores , Carcinógenos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fumantes
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With advancing therapeutics, lung cancer (LC) survivors are rapidly increasing in number. While mounting evidence suggests LC survivors have high risk of second primary lung cancer (SPLC), there is no validated prediction tool available for clinical use to identify high-risk LC survivors for SPLC. METHODS: Using data from 6,325 ever-smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) diagnosed with initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) in 1993-2017, we developed a prediction model for 10-year SPLC risk after IPLC diagnosis using cause-specific Cox regression. We evaluated the model's clinical utility using decision curve analysis and externally validated it using two population-based data, PLCO and NLST, that included 2,963 and 2,844 IPLC (101 and 93 SPLC cases), respectively. RESULTS: Over 14,063 person-years, 145 (2.3%) developed SPLC in MEC. Our prediction model demonstrated a high predictive accuracy (Brier score = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4-3.3) and discrimination (AUC = 81.9%, 95% CI = 78.2%-85.5%) based on bootstrap validation in MEC. Stratification by the estimated risk quartiles showed that the observed SPLC incidence was statistically significantly higher in the 4th versus 1st quartile (9.5% versus 0.2%; P < .001). Decision curve analysis indicated that in a wide range of 10-year risk thresholds from 1% to 20%, the model yielded a larger net-benefit versus hypothetical all-screening or no-screening scenarios. External validation using PLCO and NLST showed an AUC of 78.8% (95% CI = 74.6%-82.9%) and 72.7% (95% CI = 67.7%-77.7%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a SPLC prediction model based on large population-based cohorts. The proposed prediction tool can help identify high-risk LC patients for SPLC and can be incorporated into clinical decision-making for SPLC surveillance and screening.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous studies suggest that serum ferritin may be associated with higher risk of liver cancer. However, additional studies of the association are needed. It is also not clear whether serum ferritin is associated with mortality from chronic liver disease (CLD). METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials. Baseline serum ferritin was measured for 226 incident primary liver cancer cases, 281 CLD mortalities diagnosed, and 1061 age-matched, gender-matched, and trial-matched controls. We used multivariable logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analysis and interaction tests were performed by age, gender, alcohol drinking, hepatitis B virus seropositivity (HBV+)/hepatitis C virus seropositivity (HCV+), and trial. RESULTS: Participants with serum ferritin in the highest quartile, as compared with those in the lowest quartile, had an increased risk of CLD mortality (odds ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval = 1.12, 2.64, P-trend < 0.01). Moreover, the association with higher serum ferritin was stronger among alcohol drinkers and those who were HCV+ (P-interaction < 0.05). For incident liver cancer, risk estimates were above one but were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: In this study, higher levels of serum ferritin at baseline were associated with subsequent mortality from CLD, particularly if combined with alcohol drinking or viral hepatitis. Further work is warranted to confirm our findings.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chordoma is a rare bone cancer with an unknown etiology. TBXT is the only chordoma susceptibility gene identified to date; germline single nucleotide variants and copy number variants in TBXT have been associated with chordoma susceptibility in familial and sporadic chordoma. However, the genetic susceptibility of chordoma remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated rare germline genetic variants in genes involved in TBXT/chordoma-related signaling pathways and other biological processes in chordoma patients from North America and China. METHODS: We identified variants that were very rare in general population and internal control datasets and showed evidence for pathogenicity in 265 genes in a whole exome sequencing (WES) dataset of 138 chordoma patients of European ancestry and in a whole genome sequencing (WGS) dataset of 80 Chinese patients with skull base chordoma. RESULTS: Rare and likely pathogenic variants were identified in 32 of 138 European ancestry patients (23%), including genes that are part of notochord development, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, Sonic Hedgehog, SWI/SNF complex and mesoderm development pathways. Rare pathogenic variants in COL2A1, EXT1, PDK1, LRP2, TBXT and TSC2, among others, were also observed in Chinese patients. CONCLUSION: We identified several rare loss-of-function and predicted deleterious missense variants in germline DNA from patients with chordoma, which may influence chordoma predisposition and reflect a complex susceptibility, warranting further investigation in large studies.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 450-461, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status. METHOD: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Associations were evaluated for dairy product and calcium intakes and risk of incident invasive breast cancer overall (n = 37,861 cases) and by subtypes defined by ER status. Study-specific multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated and then combined using random-effects models. RESULTS: Overall, no clear association was observed between the consumption of specific dairy foods, dietary (from foods only) calcium, and total (from foods and supplements) calcium, and risk of overall breast cancer. Although each dairy product showed a null or very weak inverse association with risk of overall breast cancer (P, test for trend >0.05 for all), differences by ER status were suggested for yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese with associations observed for ER-negative tumors only (pooled HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98 comparing ≥60 g/d with <1 g/d of yogurt and 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 comparing ≥25 g/d with <1 g/d of cottage/ricotta cheese). Dietary calcium intake was only weakly associated with breast cancer risk (pooled HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.99 per 350 mg/d). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that adult dairy or calcium consumption is unlikely to associate with a higher risk of breast cancer and that higher yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative breast cancer, a less hormonally dependent subtype with poor prognosis. Future studies on fermented dairy products, earlier life exposures, ER-negative breast cancer, and different racial/ethnic populations may further elucidate the relation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Laticínios , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(11): 1542-1550, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is an established risk factor for several cancers, but modest alcohol-cancer associations may be missed because of measurement error in self-reported assessments. Biomarkers of habitual alcohol intake may provide novel insight into the relationship between alcohol and cancer risk. METHODS: Untargeted metabolomics was used to identify metabolites correlated with self-reported habitual alcohol intake in a discovery dataset from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; n = 454). Statistically significant correlations were tested in independent datasets of controls from case-control studies nested within EPIC (n = 280) and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC; n = 438) study. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of alcohol-associated metabolites and self-reported alcohol intake with risk of pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver cancer, and liver disease mortality in the contributing studies. RESULTS: Two metabolites displayed a dose-response association with self-reported alcohol intake: 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid and an unidentified compound. A 1-SD (log2) increase in levels of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid was associated with risk of HCC (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.51 to 4.27) and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.99) in EPIC and liver cancer (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.44 to 2.77) and liver disease mortality (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.63 to 2.86) in ATBC. Conversely, a 1-SD (log2) increase in questionnaire-derived alcohol intake was not associated with HCC or pancreatic cancer in EPIC or liver cancer in ATBC but was associated with liver disease mortality (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.60 to 2.98) in ATBC. CONCLUSIONS: 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid is a candidate biomarker of habitual alcohol intake that may advance the study of alcohol and cancer risk in population-based studies.

16.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 589, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood type has been associated with the risk of gastric cancer, but few studies have examined the association with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using genotyping data of Chinese individuals, including cases of 2022 ESCC, 1189 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, 1161 gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma, and 2696 controls. Genetic blood type was imputed using three single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used logistic regression to examine the association between blood type and the risk of each cancer. RESULTS: Compared to blood type O, the risk of ESCC was significantly elevated for blood type B and AB, with the highest risk for type AB (OR, 95%CI: 1.34, 1.07-1.67). Analysis of genotype suggested that the association of ESCC was from carrying the B allele. Similarly, blood type was significantly associated with gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (P < 0.001) with risk significantly elevated in type A (1.37, 1.14-1.65) and AB (1.44, 1.10-1.89) compared to type O. Blood type was not associated with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel insights into the association between blood type and the risk of ESCC and restricted previously observed association to only gastric noncardia cancer, providing important evidence to clarify the pattern of association and suggesting mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/sangue , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue
17.
Science ; 372(6543): 725-729, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888597

RESUMO

Effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear accident remain a topic of interest. We investigated germline de novo mutations (DNMs) in children born to parents employed as cleanup workers or exposed to occupational and environmental ionizing radiation after the accident. Whole-genome sequencing of 130 children (born 1987-2002) and their parents did not reveal an increase in the rates, distributions, or types of DNMs relative to the results of previous studies. We find no elevation in total DNMs, regardless of cumulative preconception gonadal paternal [mean = 365 milligrays (mGy), range = 0 to 4080 mGy] or maternal (mean = 19 mGy, range = 0 to 550 mGy) exposure to ionizing radiation. Thus, we conclude that, over this exposure range, evidence is lacking for a substantial effect on germline DNMs in humans, suggesting minimal impact from transgenerational genetic effects.

18.
Cancer Res ; 81(8): 2246-2255, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820799

RESUMO

The average age at menarche declined in European and U.S. populations during the 19th and 20th centuries. The timing of pubertal events may have broad implications for chronic disease risks in aging women. Here we tested for associations of recalled menarcheal age with risks of 19 cancers in 536,450 women [median age, 60 years (range, 31-39 years)] in nine prospective U.S. and European cohorts that enrolled participants from 1981 to 1998. Cox regression estimated multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of the age at menarche with risk of each cancer in each cohort and random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary estimates for each cancer. Over a median 10 years of follow-up, 60,968 women were diagnosed with a first primary incident cancer. Inverse linear associations were observed for seven of 19 cancers studied. Each additional year in the age at menarche was associated with reduced risks of endometrial cancer (HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.89-0.94), liver cancer (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99), melanoma (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), bladder cancer (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and cancers of the colon (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), lung (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), and breast (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). All but one of these associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for baseline body mass index. Similarities in the observed associations between menarche and seven cancers suggest shared underlying causes rooted early in life. We propose as a testable hypothesis that early exposure to sex hormones increases mid-life cancer risks by altering functional capacities of stem cells with roles in systemic energy balance and tissue homeostasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Age at menarche is associated with risk for seven cancers in middle-aged women, and understanding the shared underlying causal pathways across these cancers may suggest new avenues for cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Menarca/fisiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1165-1174, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that non-daily smokers have higher disease and mortality risks than never smokers. Yet, the accuracy of self-reported non-daily cigarette smoking is poorly understood. METHODS: We examined the concordance between self-reported non-daily smoking and serum cotinine in 18,835 adult participants (20 years or older) of the 2007 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, in comparison with daily smokers and nonsmokers. We also analyzed concentrations of the urinary biomarker 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) by smoking status. RESULTS: In the study sample, 77.8% (14,660) reported currently not smoking (nonsmokers), 18.3% (3,446) smoked every day (daily smokers), and 3.9% (729) smoked on some days of the past month (non-daily smokers). Just 2.1% of nonsmokers had cotinine concentrations in the active smoking range (>10 ng/mL), compared with 70.4% of non-daily and 98.8% of daily smokers. Non-daily smokers reported smoking a median of 24 cigarettes per month [interquartile range (IQR) = 9-60] and had substantially higher concentrations of NNAL (median = 72.5; IQR = 14.8-211.0 pg/mL) than nonsmokers (median = 0.4; IQR = 0.4-2.1 pg/mL), although lower than daily smokers (median = 294.0; IQR = 148.0-542.0 pg/mL). Among non-daily smokers, concentrations of cotinine and NNAL were positively correlated with days and cigarettes smoked per month (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed excellent concordance between self-reported non-daily cigarette smoking and concentrations of serum cotinine. IMPACT: These results provide evidence for the validity of self-reported non-daily smoking and indicate that non-daily smokers are exposed to substantial concentrations of carcinogenic nitrosamines regardless of the low number of cigarettes they smoke per month.

20.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(6): 968-979, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer survivors are at high risk of developing a second primary lung cancer (SPLC). However, SPLC risk factors have not been established and the impact of tobacco smoking remains controversial. We examined the risk factors for SPLC across multiple epidemiologic cohorts and evaluated the impact of smoking cessation on reducing SPLC risk. METHODS: We analyzed data from 7059 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) diagnosed with an initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) between 1993 and 2017. Cause-specific proportional hazards models estimated SPLC risk. We conducted validation studies using the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (N = 3423 IPLC cases) and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (N = 4731 IPLC cases) cohorts and pooled the SPLC risk estimates using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 163 MEC cases (2.3%) developed SPLC. Smoking pack-years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.18 per 10 pack-years, p < 0.001) and smoking intensity (HR = 1.30 per 10 cigarettes per day, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with increased SPLC risk. Individuals who met the 2013 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's screening criteria at IPLC diagnosis also had an increased SPLC risk (HR = 1.92; p < 0.001). Validation studies with the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition revealed consistent results. Meta-analysis yielded pooled HRs of 1.16 per 10 pack-years (pmeta < 0.001), 1.25 per 10 cigarettes per day (pmeta < 0.001), and 1.99 (pmeta < 0.001) for meeting the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's criteria. In MEC, smoking cessation after IPLC diagnosis was associated with an 83% reduction in SPLC risk (HR = 0.17; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for SPLC. Smoking cessation may reduce the risk of SPLC. Additional strategies for SPLC surveillance and screening are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar Tabaco
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