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1.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101586, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707214

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant Hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES), a rare immune deficiency affecting fewer than one per million people, is caused by heterozygous deleterious mutations in STAT3. STAT3 signaling plays crucial roles in basic cellular functions affecting broad aspects of cellular homeostasis. Accordingly, in addition to immunological deficits, patients experience severe multisystem non-immunological features. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are well established as in vivo disease models for various human pathologies. We describe the generation of iPSC from three AD-HIES patients. These iPSCs express pluripotency markers, differentiate into three germ layers, have normal karyotype and similar genome identity to parental cells.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493539

RESUMO

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Safe and effective reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) approaches that are associated with low toxicity, use alternative donors, and afford good immune reconstitution are needed to advance the field. Twenty PID patients, ranging in age from 4 to 58 years, were treated on a prospective clinical trial of a novel, radiation-free and serotherapy-free RIC, T-cell-replete BMT approach using pentostatin, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and busulfan for conditioning with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This was a high-risk cohort with a median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index of 3. With median follow-up of survivors of 1.9 years, 1-year overall survival was 90% and grade III to IV acute GVHD-free, graft-failure-free survival was 80% at day +180. Graft failure incidence was 10%. Split chimerism was frequently observed at early post-BMT timepoints, with a lower percentage of donor T cells, which gradually increased by day +60. The cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 15% and 5%, respectively. All aGVHD was steroid responsive. No patients developed chronic GVHD. Few significant organ toxicities were observed. Evidence of phenotype reversal was observed for all engrafted patients, even those with significantly mixed chimerism (n = 2) or with unknown underlying genetic defect (n = 3). All 6 patients with pre-BMT malignancies or lymphoproliferative disorders remain in remission. Most patients have discontinued immunoglobulin replacement. All survivors are off immunosuppression for GVHD prophylaxis or treatment. This novel RIC BMT approach for patients with PID has yielded promising results, even for high-risk patients.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(6): 592-595, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267431

RESUMO

Mutations in Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) are a rare cause of combined immunodeficiency associated with atopy, infectious susceptibility, and risk for malignancy. We describe a 22-year-old male with a diagnosis of B cell lymphoblastic leukemia followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with compound heterozygous mutations in DOCK8 and normal intracellular DOCK8 protein expression. Here, B cell lymphoblastic leukemia followed by EBV-associated DLBCL led to the discovery of DOCK8 deficiency. For instances of high clinical suspicion despite normal DOCK8 protein expression, additional functional testing is critical to make a diagnosis. Understanding the spectrum of DOCK8 mutants and their phenotypes will improve our understanding of DOCK8 deficiency.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1433, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354696

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1)1 gain of function (GOF) pathogenic variants have been associated with increased levels of phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT1-dependent cellular responses. Delayed dephosphorylation was proposed as the underlying mechanism leading to the characteristically raised pSTAT1 levels. We examined the levels of STAT1 protein and message as well as rates of STAT1 phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and degradation associated with STAT1 GOF pathogenic variants. Fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 STAT1 GOF patients carrying 10 different pathogenic variants in the coiled-coil, DNA binding, and SH2 domains and healthy donors were used to study STAT1 levels and phosphorylation (pSTAT1) following IFNγ and IFNα stimulation. STAT1 protein levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunoblot. STAT1 mRNA levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. STAT1 protein degradation was studied using cycloheximide. Patient IFNγ and IFNα induced peak pSTAT1 was higher than in healthy controls. The velocity of pSTAT1 dephosphorylation after treatment of IFNγ stimulated CD14+ monocytes with the Janus Kinase (JAK)-inhibitor ruxolitinib was significantly faster in patient cells. STAT1 protein levels in patient CD14+ monocytes and CD3+ T cells were higher than in healthy donors. There was a strong and positive correlation between CD14+ STAT1 protein levels and peak pSTAT1 levels. Patient fresh PBMC STAT1 mRNA levels were increased at rest and after 16 h of incubation. STAT1 protein degradation was similar in patient and healthy volunteer cells. Patient IFNγ receptors 1 and 2 and JAK2 levels were normal. One patient in our cohort was treated with the oral JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib. Treatment was associated with normalization of both STAT1 protein and peak pSTAT1 levels. After JAK inhibitor treatment was stopped the patient's CD14+ monocyte STAT1 protein and peak phosphorylation levels increased proportionally. These findings suggest that patients with STAT1 GOF mutations have higher levels of total STAT1 protein, leading to high levels of pSTAT1 after stimulation, despite rapid STAT1 dephosphorylation and normal degradation.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190050

RESUMO

Patients with primary immunodeficiencies undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for difficult-to-control infections can experience immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) following engraftment. We describe three patients with post-HCT IRIS related to mycobacterial infection, with in vitro data demonstrating emergence of pathogen-specific immune responses and concomitant rise in plasma inflammatory markers.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 621, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984189

RESUMO

Mycobacterial Infections can be severe in patients with T-cell deficiency or phagocyte disorders, and treatment is frequently complicated by antimicrobial resistance. Restoration of T-cell immunity via stem cell transplantation facilitates control of mycobacterial infections, but presence of active infections during transplantation is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has been successful in targeting viruses, but has not been attempted to treat mycobacterial infections. We sought to expand and characterize mycobacterial-specific T-cells derived from healthy donors in order to determine suitability for adoptive immunotherapy. Mycobacteria-specific T-cells (MSTs) were generated from 10 healthy donors using a rapid ex vivo expansion protocol targeting five known mycobacterial target proteins (AG85B, PPE68, ESXA, ESXB, and ADK). MSTs were compared to T-cells expanded from the same donors using lysate from M. tuberculosis or purified protein derivative from M. avium (sensitin). MST expansion from seven patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) and two patients with IFN-γ autoantibodies and invasive M. avium infections. MSTs expanded from healthy donors recognized a median of 3 of 5 antigens, with production of IFN-γ, TNF, and GM-CSF in CD4+ T cells. Comparison of donors who received BCG vaccine (n = 6) to those who did not (n = 4) showed differential responses to PPE68 (p = 0.028) and ADK (p = 0.015) by IFN-γ ELISpot. MSTs expanded from lysate or sensitin also recognized multiple mycobacterial antigens, with a statistically significant differences noted only in the response to PPE68 (p = 0.016). MSTs expanded from patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) and invasive mycobacterial infections showed activity against mycobacterial antigens in only two of seven subjects, whereas both patients with IFN-γ autoantibodies recognized mycobacterial antigens. Thus, MSTs can be generated from donors using a rapid expansion protocol regardless of history of BCG immunization. Most tested PID patients had no detectable T-cell immunity to mycobacteria despite history of infection. MSTs may have clinical utility for adoptive immunotherapy in T-cell deficient patients with invasive mycobacterial infections.

7.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021819

RESUMO

Bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe pathogen infections, eczema, allergies, malignancy and impaired humoral responses. These clinical features result from functional defects in most lymphocyte lineages. Thus, DOCK8 plays a key role in immune cell function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for DOCK8 deficiency. While previous reports have described clinical outcomes for DOCK8 deficiency following HSCT, the effect on lymphocyte reconstitution and function has not been investigated. Our study determined whether defects in lymphocyte differentiation and function in DOCK8-deficient patients were restored following HSCT. DOCK8-deficient T and B lymphocytes exhibited aberrant activation and effector function in vivo and in vitro. Frequencies of αß T and MAIT cells were reduced while γδT cells were increased in DOCK8-deficient patients. HSCT improved, abnormal lymphocyte function in DOCK8-deficient patients. Elevated total and allergen-specific IgE in DOCK8-deficient patients decreased over time following HSCT. Our results document the extensive catalogue of cellular defects in DOCK8-deficient patients, and the efficacy of HSCT to correct these defects, concurrent with improvements in clinical phenotypes. Overall, our findings provide mechanisms at a functional cellular level for improvements in clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency post-HSCT, identify biomarkers that correlate with improved clinical outcomes, and inform the general dynamics of immune reconstitution in patients with monogenic immune disorders following HSCT.

8.
Elife ; 82019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969166

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major hospital- and community-acquired pathogen, but the mechanisms underlying host-defense to MRSA remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of IL-21 in this process. When administered intra-tracheally into wild-type mice, IL-21 induced granzymes and augmented clearance of pulmonary MRSA but not when neutrophils were depleted or a granzyme B inhibitor was added. Correspondingly, IL-21 induced MRSA killing by human peripheral blood neutrophils. Unexpectedly, however, basal MRSA clearance was also enhanced when IL-21 signaling was blocked, both in Il21r KO mice and in wild-type mice injected with IL-21R-Fc fusion-protein. This correlated with increased type I interferon and an IFN-related gene signature, and indeed anti-IFNAR1 treatment diminished MRSA clearance in these animals. Moreover, we found that IFNß induced granzyme B and promoted MRSA clearance in a granzyme B-dependent fashion. These results reveal an interplay between IL-21 and type I IFN in the innate immune response to MRSA.

9.
Transplantation ; 103(10): 2144-2149, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An 11-year-old girl with dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency was proposed for potentially curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the donor being her haploidentical mother. However, end-stage liver disease caused by chronic Cryptosporidium infection required liver transplantation before HSCT. METHODS: Consequently, a staged approach of a sequential liver transplant followed by a HSCT was planned with her mother as the donor for both liver and HSCT. RESULTS: The patient successfully underwent a left-lobe orthotopic liver transplant; however, she developed a biliary leak delaying the HSCT. Notably, the recipient demonstrated 3% donor lymphocyte chimerism in her peripheral blood immediately before HSCT. Haploidentical-related donor HSCT performed 2 months after liver transplantation was complicated by the development of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus viremia, primary graft failure, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. The patient died from sinusoidal obstruction syndrome-associated multiorgan failure with Candida sepsis on day +40 following HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the many considerations inherent to planning for HSCT preceded by liver transplant in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, including the role of prolonged immunosuppression and the risk of infection before immune reconstitution. We also discuss the implications of potential recipient sensitization against donor stem cells precipitated by exposure of the recipient to the donor lymphocytes from the transplanted organ.

10.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 39(1): 49-61, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466772

RESUMO

Improvement in genetic testing has allowed specific delineation of several distinct clinical causes characterized by the hyperimmunoglobulin E (IgE) phenotype of eczema, recurrent infections, and elevated serum IgE. Mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, PGM3, ERBIN, IL6ST, and CARD11 cause clinical phenotypes that can present in this manner. This article focuses on loss of function STAT3 mutations causing autosomal-dominant hyper-IgE syndrome and dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, with discussion of other more recently described diseases.

11.
Immunol Rev ; 287(1): 9-19, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565250

RESUMO

DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome (DIDS) is a progressive combined immunodeficiency that can be distinguished from other combined immunodeficiencies or hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndromes in featuring (a) profound susceptibility to virus infections of the skin, with associated skin cancers, and (b) severe food allergies. The DOCK8 locus has many repetitive sequence elements that predispose to the generation of large germline deletions as well as recombination-mediated somatic DNA repair. Residual DOCK8 protein contributes to the variable disease phenotype. The severe virus infections of the skin, and probably also VZV-associated vasculopathy, reflect an important function of DOCK8, which is normally required to maintain lymphocyte shape integrity as the cells migrate through dense tissues. Loss of DOCK8 also causes immune deficits through other mechanisms including a milder generalized cell survival defect and skewing of T helper cell subsets. Recent work has uncovered the roles for DOCK8 in dendritic cell responses that can also help explain the virus susceptibility, as well as in regulatory T cells that might help explain autoimmunity in a minority of patients. Fortunately, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation cures the eczema and infection susceptibility of DIDS, but not necessarily the other disease manifestations including food allergies.

12.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 7(suppl_2): S79-S82, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590619

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been the standard of care for infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) for several decades due to the dismal prognosis early in life without immune reconstitution. In recent years, as HSCT conditioning regimens and supportive care have greatly improved, HSCT is gaining in acceptance for more non-SCID primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and outside the early childhood period. In addition, potential donor options for non-SCID PIDs are expanding with increasing success for haploidentical donor transplants. In this brief report of a presentation at the PIDS-St. Jude 2018 conference, PIDs for which transplants are increasingly performed outside of early childhood will be discussed.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Criança , Deficiência de GATA2/terapia , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Humanos , Lactente , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the DOCK8 gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8 deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range: 0.7-27.2) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (3-135), 68 of 81 patients are alive (84%). Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurred in 11% and 10% respectively. Causes of death wereinfections (n=5), GVHD (5), multi-organ failure (2) and pre-existent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n=40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared to fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs. 78%; p=0.049). 96% of patients aged <8 years at HSCT survived, compared to 78% of those ≥8 years (p=0.06). Of 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had >90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections and Mollusca resolved better than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8 deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

14.
Nat Med ; 24(12): 1815-1821, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397357

RESUMO

Human microbiome studies have revealed the intricate interplay of host immunity and bacterial communities to achieve homeostatic balance. Healthy skin microbial communities are dominated by bacteria with low viral representation1-3, mainly bacteriophage. Specific eukaryotic viruses have been implicated in both common and rare skin diseases, but cataloging skin viral communities has been limited. Alterations in host immunity provide an opportunity to expand our understanding of microbial-host interactions. Primary immunodeficient patients manifest with various viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections, including skin infections4. Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is a rare primary human immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent cutaneous and systemic infections, as well as atopy and cancer susceptibility5. DOCK8, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor highly expressed in lymphocytes, regulates actin cytoskeleton, which is critical for migration through collagen-dense tissues such as skin6. Analyzing deep metagenomic sequencing data from DOCK8-deficient skin samples demonstrated a notable increase in eukaryotic viral representation and diversity compared with healthy volunteers. De novo assembly approaches identified hundreds of novel human papillomavirus genomes, illuminating microbial dark matter. Expansion of the skin virome in DOCK8-deficient patients underscores the importance of immune surveillance in controlling eukaryotic viral colonization and infection.

16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476213

RESUMO

The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO)-a standardized vocabulary of phenotypic abnormalities associated with 7000+ diseases-is used by thousands of researchers, clinicians, informaticians and electronic health record systems around the world. Its detailed descriptions of clinical abnormalities and computable disease definitions have made HPO the de facto standard for deep phenotyping in the field of rare disease. The HPO's interoperability with other ontologies has enabled it to be used to improve diagnostic accuracy by incorporating model organism data. It also plays a key role in the popular Exomiser tool, which identifies potential disease-causing variants from whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing data. Since the HPO was first introduced in 2008, its users have become both more numerous and more diverse. To meet these emerging needs, the project has added new content, language translations, mappings and computational tooling, as well as integrations with external community data. The HPO continues to collaborate with clinical adopters to improve specific areas of the ontology and extend standardized disease descriptions. The newly redesigned HPO website (www.human-phenotype-ontology.org) simplifies browsing terms and exploring clinical features, diseases, and human genes.

17.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(463)2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333238

RESUMO

Periodontitis is one of the most common human inflammatory diseases, yet the mechanisms that drive immunopathology and could be therapeutically targeted are not well defined. Here, we demonstrate an expansion of resident memory T helper 17 (TH17) cells in human periodontitis. Phenocopying humans, TH17 cells expanded in murine experimental periodontitis through local proliferation. Unlike homeostatic oral TH17 cells, which accumulate in a commensal-independent and interleukin-6 (IL-6)-dependent manner, periodontitis-associated expansion of TH17 cells was dependent on the local dysbiotic microbiome and required both IL-6 and IL-23. TH17 cells and associated neutrophil accumulation were necessary for inflammatory tissue destruction in experimental periodontitis. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TH17 cell differentiation conferred protection from immunopathology. Studies in a unique patient population with a genetic defect in TH17 cell differentiation established human relevance for our murine experimental studies. In the oral cavity, human TH17 cell defects were associated with diminished periodontal inflammation and bone loss, despite increased prevalence of recurrent oral fungal infections. Our study highlights distinct functions of TH17 cells in oral immunity and inflammation and paves the way to a new targeted therapeutic approach for the treatment of periodontitis.

18.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 14(12): 1029-1041, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT3 fulfill fundamental functions in nonimmune and immune cells. The description and follow-up of patients with germline mutations that result in either loss-of-function or gain-of-function have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of these regulators. Depending on the type of mutations, clinical symptoms are complex and can include infection susceptibility, immune dysregulation as well as characteristic nonimmune features. Areas covered: In this review, we provide an overview about mechanistic concepts, clinical manifestations, diagnostic process, and traditional as well as innovative treatment options aiming to help the clinical immunologist to better understand and manage these complex and rare diseases. Clinical and research papers were identified and summarized through PubMed Internet searches, and expert opinions are provided. Expert commentary: The last several years have seen an explosion in the clinical descriptions and pathogenesis knowledge of the diseases caused by GOF and LOF mutations in STAT1 and STAT3. However, harmonization of laboratory testing and follow-up in international cohorts is needed to increase our knowledge about the natural history of these disorders as well as the development of curative or supportive targeted therapies.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease that is known to be, at least in part, genetically determined. Mutations in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14 (CARD14) have been shown to result in various forms of psoriasis and related disorders. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify rare DNA variants conferring a significant risk for AD through genetic and functional studies in a cohort of patients affected with severe AD. METHODS: Whole-exome and direct gene sequencing, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, ELISA, and functional assays in human keratinocytes were used. RESULTS: In a cohort of patients referred with severe AD, DNA sequencing revealed in 4 patients 2 rare heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding CARD14, a major regulator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). A dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that both mutations exert a dominant loss-of-function effect and result in decreased NF-κB signaling. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry staining showed decreased expression of CARD14 in patients' skin, as well as decreased levels of activated p65, a surrogate marker for NF-κB activity. CARD14-deficient or mutant-expressing keratinocytes displayed abnormal secretion of key mediators of innate immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Although dominant gain-of-function mutations in CARD14 are associated with psoriasis and related diseases, loss-of-function mutations in the same gene are associated with a severe variant of AD.

20.
JCI Insight ; 3(17)2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185668

RESUMO

Studies in patients with genetic defects can provide unique insights regarding the role of specific genes and pathways in humans. Patients with defects in the Th17/IL-17 axis, such as patients harboring loss-of-function STAT3 mutations (autosomal-dominant hyper IgE syndrome; AD-HIES) present with recurrent oral fungal infections. Our studies aimed to comprehensively evaluate consequences of STAT3 deficiency on the oral commensal microbiome. We characterized fungal and bacterial communities in AD-HIES in the presence and absence of oral fungal infection compared with healthy volunteers. Analyses of oral mucosal fungal communities in AD-HIES revealed severe dysbiosis with dominance of Candida albicans (C. albicans) in actively infected patients and minimal representation of health-associated fungi and/or opportunists. Bacterial communities also displayed dysbiosis in AD-HIES, particularly in the setting of active Candida infection. Active candidiasis was associated with decreased microbial diversity and enrichment of the streptococci Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis) and S. mutans, suggesting an interkingdom interaction of C. albicans with oral streptococci. Increased abundance of S. mutans was consistent with susceptibility to dental caries in AD-HIES. Collectively, our findings illustrate a critical role for STAT3/Th17 in the containment of C. albicans as a commensal organism and an overall contribution in the establishment of fungal and bacterial oral commensal communities.

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