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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(581)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597266

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), can deliver durable antitumor effects, most patients with cancer fail to respond. Recent studies suggest that ICI efficacy correlates with a higher load of tumor-specific neoantigens and development of vitiligo in patients with melanoma. Here, we report that patients with low melanoma neoantigen burdens who responded to ICI had tumors with higher expression of pigmentation-related genes. Moreover, expansion of peripheral blood CD8+ T cell populations specific for melanocyte antigens was observed only in patients who responded to anti-PD-1 therapy, suggesting that ICI can promote breakdown of tolerance toward tumor-lineage self-antigens. In a mouse model of poorly immunogenic melanomas, spreading of epitope recognition toward wild-type melanocyte antigens was associated with markedly improved anti-PD-1 efficacy in two independent approaches: introduction of neoantigens by ultraviolet (UV) B radiation mutagenesis or the therapeutic combination of ablative fractional photothermolysis plus imiquimod. Complete responses against UV mutation-bearing tumors after anti-PD-1 resulted in protection from subsequent engraftment of melanomas lacking any shared neoantigens, as well as pancreatic adenocarcinomas forcibly overexpressing melanocyte-lineage antigens. Our data demonstrate that somatic mutations are sufficient to provoke strong antitumor responses after checkpoint blockade, but long-term responses are not restricted to these putative neoantigens. Epitope spreading toward T cell recognition of wild-type tumor-lineage self-antigens represents a common pathway for successful response to ICI, which can be evoked in neoantigen-deficient tumors by combination therapy with ablative fractional photothermolysis and imiquimod.

2.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589424

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy revolutionized cancer treatment, but many patients with impaired MHC-I expression remain refractory. Here, we combined FACS-based genome-wide CRISPR screens with a data-mining approach to identify drugs that can upregulate MHC-I without inducing PD-L1. CRISPR screening identified TRAF3, a suppressor of the NF-kB pathway, as a negative regulator of MHC-I but not PD-L1. The Traf3-knockout (Traf3-KO) gene expression signature is associated with better survival in ICB-naive cancer patients and better ICB response. We then screened for drugs with similar transcriptional effects as this signature and identified SMAC mimetics. We experimentally validated that the SMAC mimetic birinapant upregulates MHC-I, sensitizes cancer cells to T-cell-dependent killing, and adds to ICB efficacy. Our findings provide preclinical rationale for treating tumors expressing low MHC-I expression with SMAC mimetics to enhance sensitivity to immunotherapy. The approach used in this study can be generalized to identify other drugs that enhance immunotherapy efficacy.

3.
Haematologica ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538148

RESUMO

We have developed a personalized vaccine whereby patient derived leukemia cells are fused to autologous dendritic cells, evoking a polyclonal T cell response against shared and neo-antigens. We postulated that the dendritic cell (DC)/AML fusion vaccine would demonstrate synergy with checkpoint blockade by expanding tumor antigen specific lymphocytes that would provide a critical substrate for checkpoint blockade mediated activation. Using an immunocompetent murine leukemia model, we examined the immunologic response and therapeutic efficacy of vaccination in conjunction with checkpoint blockade with respect to leukemia engraftment, disease burden, survival and the induction of tumor specific immunity. Mice treated with checkpoint blockade alone had rapid leukemia progression and demonstrated only a modest extension of survival. Vaccination with DC/AML fusions resulted in the expansion of tumor specific lymphocytes and disease eradication in a subset of animals, while the combination of vaccination and checkpoint blockade induced a fully protective tumor specific immune response in all treated animals. Vaccination followed by checkpoint blockade resulted in upregulation of genes regulating activation and proliferation in memory and effector T cells. Long term survivors exhibited increased T cell clonal diversity and were resistant to subsequent tumor challenge. The combined DC/AML fusion vaccine and checkpoint blockade treatment offers unique synergy inducing the durable activation of leukemia specific immunity, protection from lethal tumor challenge and the selective expansion of tumor reactive clones.

4.
Cell ; 184(5): 1281-1298.e26, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592174

RESUMO

T cells are critical effectors of cancer immunotherapies, but little is known about their gene expression programs in diffuse gliomas. Here, we leverage single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to chart the gene expression and clonal landscape of tumor-infiltrating T cells across 31 patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type glioblastoma and IDH mutant glioma. We identify potential effectors of anti-tumor immunity in subsets of T cells that co-express cytotoxic programs and several natural killer (NK) cell genes. Analysis of clonally expanded tumor-infiltrating T cells further identifies the NK gene KLRB1 (encoding CD161) as a candidate inhibitory receptor. Accordingly, genetic inactivation of KLRB1 or antibody-mediated CD161 blockade enhances T cell-mediated killing of glioma cells in vitro and their anti-tumor function in vivo. KLRB1 and its associated transcriptional program are also expressed by substantial T cell populations in other human cancers. Our work provides an atlas of T cells in gliomas and highlights CD161 and other NK cell receptors as immunotherapy targets.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While evidence indicates that Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) may promote colorectal carcinogenesis through its suppressive effect on T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity, the specific T-cell subsets involved remain uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured F. nucleatum DNA within tumor tissue by quantitative PCR on 933 cases (including 128 F. nucleatum-positive cases) among 4,465 incident colorectal carcinoma cases in two prospective cohorts. Multiplex immunofluorescence combined with digital image analysis and machine learning algorithms for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC isoform), and FOXP3 measured various T-cell subsets. We leveraged data on Bifidobacterium, microsatellite instability (MSI), tumor whole-exome sequencing, and M1/M2-type tumor-associated macrophages [TAM; by CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206) multimarker assay]. Using the 4,465 cancer cases and inverse probability weighting method to control for selection bias due to tissue availability, multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis assessed the association between F. nucleatum and T-cell subsets. RESULTS: The amount of F. nucleatum was inversely associated with tumor stromal CD3+ lymphocytes [multivariable OR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28-0.79, for F. nucleatum-high vs. -negative category; P trend = 0.0004] and specifically stromal CD3+CD4+CD45RO+ cells (corresponding multivariable OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.85; P trend = 0.003). These relationships did not substantially differ by MSI status, neoantigen load, or exome-wide tumor mutational burden. F. nucleatum was not significantly associated with tumor intraepithelial T cells or with M1 or M2 TAMs. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of tissue F. nucleatum is associated with lower density of stromal memory helper T cells. Our findings provide evidence for the interactive pathogenic roles of microbiota and specific immune cells.

6.
Trends Immunol ; 42(3): 209-227, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495077

RESUMO

V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a B7 family member that maintains T cell and myeloid quiescence and is a promising target for combination cancer immunotherapy. During inflammatory challenges, VISTA activity reprograms macrophages towards reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines and increased production of interleukin (IL)-10 and other anti-inflammatory mediators. The interaction of VISTA with its ligands is regulated by pH, and the acidic pH ~6.0 in the tumor microenvironment (TME) facilitates VISTA binding to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). Targeting intratumoral pH might be a way to reduce the immunoinhibitory activity of the VISTA pathway and enhance antitumor immune responses. We review differences among VISTA therapeutics under development as candidate immunotherapies, focusing on VISTA binding partners and the unique structural features of this interaction.

7.
Sci Immunol ; 6(55)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452107

RESUMO

Boosting immune cell function by targeting the coinhibitory receptor PD-1 may have applications in the treatment of chronic infections. Here, we examine the role of PD-1 during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection of rhesus macaques. Animals treated with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody developed worse disease and higher granuloma bacterial loads compared with isotype control-treated monkeys. PD-1 blockade increased the number and functionality of granuloma Mtb-specific CD8 T cells. In contrast, Mtb-specific CD4 T cells in anti-PD-1-treated macaques were not increased in number or function in granulomas, expressed increased levels of CTLA-4, and exhibited reduced intralesional trafficking in live imaging studies. In granulomas of anti-PD-1-treated animals, multiple proinflammatory cytokines were elevated, and more cytokines correlated with bacterial loads, leading to the identification of a role for caspase 1 in the exacerbation of tuberculosis after PD-1 blockade. Last, increased Mtb bacterial loads after PD-1 blockade were found to associate with the composition of the intestinal microbiota before infection in individual macaques. Therefore, PD-1-mediated coinhibition is required for control of Mtb infection in macaques, perhaps because of its role in dampening detrimental inflammation and allowing for normal CD4 T cell responses.

8.
J Exp Med ; 218(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045061

RESUMO

Inhibitory signals through the PD-1 pathway regulate T cell activation, T cell tolerance, and T cell exhaustion. Studies of PD-1 function have focused primarily on effector T cells. Far less is known about PD-1 function in regulatory T (T reg) cells. To study the role of PD-1 in T reg cells, we generated mice that selectively lack PD-1 in T reg cells. PD-1-deficient T reg cells exhibit an activated phenotype and enhanced immunosuppressive function. The in vivo significance of the potent suppressive capacity of PD-1-deficient T reg cells is illustrated by ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and protection from diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice lacking PD-1 selectively in T reg cells. We identified reduced signaling through the PI3K-AKT pathway as a mechanism underlying the enhanced suppressive capacity of PD-1-deficient T reg cells. Our findings demonstrate that cell-intrinsic PD-1 restraint of T reg cells is a significant mechanism by which PD-1 inhibitory signals regulate T cell tolerance and autoimmunity.

9.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229411

RESUMO

Blockade of the PD1 pathway is a broadly effective cancer therapy, but additional immune inhibitory pathways contribute to tumor immune evasion. HERV-H LTR-associating 2 (HHLA2; also known as B7H5 and B7H7) is a member of the B7 family of immunoregulatory ligands that mediates costimulatory effects through its interaction with the CD28 family member transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain containing 2 (TMIGD2). However, HHLA2 is also been known to have inhibitory effects on T cells. Here, we report that we have identified killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three immunoglobulin domains and long cytoplasmic tail 3 (KIR3DL3) as an inhibitory receptor for HHLA2 in T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and have generated HHLA2 and KIR3DL3 antibodies that block the immune-inhibitory activity of HHLA2, preserving the costimulatory signal. It is known that HHLA2 is frequently expressed in several tumor types, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We found that HHLA2 expression was non-overlapping with PDL1 expression in ccRCC, suggesting that HHLA2 mediates a mechanism of tumor immune evasion that is independent from PDL1. Blockade of both PD1 and KIR3DL3 pathways may be a more effective way to reverse tumor immune evasion.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to validate levels of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating cells (TIC) expressing PD-1 but not TIM-3 and LAG-3 (IF biomarker) (Pignon et al, 2019) and to investigate human endogenous retroviruses (hERVs) as predictors of response to anti-PD-1 in a randomized trial of nivolumab (nivo) versus everolimus (evero) in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC) (CheckMate-025). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor tissues (nivo: n=116, evero: n=107) were analyzed by multiparametric immunofluorescence (IF) and qRT-PCR. Genomic/transcriptomic analyses were performed in a subset of samples. Clinical endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and durable response rate (DRR, defined as CR or PR with a PFS ≥ 12 months). RESULTS: In the nivo (but not evero) arm, patients with high-IF biomarker density (24/116, 20.7%) had higher ORR (45.8% vs 19.6%, p=0.01) and DRR (33.3% vs 14.1%, p=0.03) and longer median PFS (9.6 vs 3.7 months, p=0.03) than low-IF biomarker patients. By RNA-seq, several inflammatory pathways (q<0.1) and immune-related gene signature scores (q<0.05) were enriched in the high-IF biomarker group. When combined with the IF biomarker, tumor cell (TC) PD-L1 expression (≥1%) further separated clinical outcomes in the nivo arm. ERVE4 expression was associated with increased DRR and longer PFS in nivo-treated patients. CONCLUSION: High levels of CD8+ TIC expressing PD-1 but not TIM-3 and LAG-3 and ERVE4 expression predicted response to nivo (but not to evero) in mccRCC patients. Combination of the IF biomarker with TC PD-L1 improved its predictive value, confirming our previous findings.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dexamethasone, a uniquely potent corticosteroid, is frequently administered to patients with brain tumors to decrease tumor-associated edema, but limited data exist describing how dexamethasone affects the immune system systemically and intratumorally in patients with glioblastoma (GBM), particularly in the context of immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated the dose-dependent effects of dexamethasone when administered with programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade and/or radiotherapy in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice with syngeneic GL261 and CT-2A GBM tumors. Clinically, the effect of dexamethasone on survival was evaluated in 181 patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type GBM treated with PD-(L)1 blockade, with adjustment for relevant prognostic factors. RESULTS: Despite the inherent responsiveness of GL261 to immune checkpoint blockade, concurrent dexamethasone administration with anti-PD-1 therapy reduced survival in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrent dexamethasone also abrogated survival following anti-PD-1 therapy with or without radiotherapy in immune-resistant CT-2A models. Dexamethasone decreased T-lymphocyte numbers by increasing apoptosis, in addition to decreasing lymphocyte functional capacity. Myeloid and natural killer cell populations were also generally reduced by dexamethasone. Thus, dexamethasone appears to negatively affect both adaptive and innate immune responses. As a clinical correlate, a retrospective analysis of 181 consecutive patients with IDH wild-type GBM treated with PD-(L)1 blockade revealed poorer survival among those on baseline dexamethasone. Upon multivariable adjustment with relevant prognostic factors, baseline dexamethasone administration was the strongest predictor of poor survival [reference, no dexamethasone; <2 mg HR, 2.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30-3.68; P = 0.003 and ≥2 mg HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.23-3.16; P = 0.005]. CONCLUSIONS: Our preclinical and clinical data indicate that concurrent dexamethasone therapy may be detrimental to immunotherapeutic approaches for patients with GBM.

12.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 263, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has improved patient survival in a variety of cancers, but only a minority of cancer patients respond. Multiple studies have sought to identify general biomarkers of ICB response, but elucidating the molecular and cellular drivers of resistance for individual tumors remains challenging. We sought to determine whether a tumor with defined genetic background exhibits a stereotypic or heterogeneous response to ICB treatment. RESULTS: We establish a unique mouse system that utilizes clonal tracing and mathematical modeling to monitor the growth of each cancer clone, as well as the bulk tumor, in response to ICB. We find that tumors derived from the same clonal populations showed heterogeneous ICB response and diverse response patterns. Primary response is associated with higher immune infiltration and leads to enrichment of pre-existing ICB-resistant cancer clones. We further identify several cancer cell-intrinsic gene expression signatures associated with ICB resistance, including increased interferon response genes and glucocorticoid response genes. These findings are supported by clinical data from ICB treatment cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates diverse response patterns from the same ancestor cancer cells in response to ICB. This suggests the value of monitoring clonal constitution and tumor microenvironment over time to optimize ICB response and to design new combination therapies. Furthermore, as ICB response may enrich for cancer cell-intrinsic resistance signatures, this can affect interpretations of tumor RNA-seq data for response-signature association studies.

13.
Blood ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871584

RESUMO

T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B cell lymphoma (TCRLBCL) is an aggressive variant of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) characterized by rare malignant B cells within a robust but ineffective immune cell infiltrate. The mechanistic basis of immune escape in TCRLBCL is poorly defined and not targeted therapeutically. We performed a genetic and quantitative spatial analysis of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in a multi-institutional cohort of TCRLBCLs and found that malignant B cells harbor PD-L1/PD-L2 copy gain or amplification in 64% of cases, which is associated with increased PD-L1 expression (p = 0.0111). By directed and unsupervised spatial analyses of multi-parametric cell phenotypic data within the tumor microenvironment, we found that TCRLBCL is characterized by tumor-immune 'neighborhoods' in which malignant B cells are surrounded by exceptionally high numbers of PD-L1-expressing TAMs and PD-1-positive T cells. Further, unbiased clustering of spatially-resolved immune signatures distinguished TCRLBCL from related subtypes of B-cell lymphoma, including classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and DLBCL-NOS. Finally, we observed clinical responses to PD-1 blockade in three of five patients with relapsed/refractory TCRLBCL who were enrolled in clinical trials for refractory hematologic malignancies, including two complete responses and one partial response. Taken together, these data implicate PD-1 signaling as an immune escape pathway in TCRLBCL, and also support the potential utility of spatially-resolved immune signatures to aid the diagnostic classification and immunotherapeutic prioritization of diverse tumor types.

14.
J Transl Autoimmun ; 3: 100028, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743513

RESUMO

Objective: Active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is accompanied by increased appendicular and axial bone loss, closely associated to the degree of inflammation. The programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway is important for maintaining peripheral tolerance, and its ligand PD-L2 has recently been associated with bone morphogenetic protein activity. Here, we report that PD-L2 plays a central role in RA osteoimmunology. Methods: Femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone microstructure were evaluated by micro-CT in wild type (WT) and PD-L2-/- mice. Osteoclasts were generated from RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells and peripheral blood monocytes. The effects of recombinant PD-L2, was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the development of bone erosions in the presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). Plasma soluble (s)PD-L2 levels were measured in patients with early (e)RA (n â€‹= â€‹103) treated with methotrexate alone or in combination with the TNF inhibitor Adalimumab. Results: PD-L2-/- mice had a decreased BMD and deteriorated trabecular bone microstructure that was not related to the RANKL/OPG pathway. PD-L2 decreased TRAP activity in osteoclasts and decreased ACPA-induced erosions. In the RA synovial membrane PD-L2 was highly expressed especially in the lining layer and plasma sPD-L2 levels were increased in eRA patients and decreased with treatment. One-year sPD-L2 correlated inversely with erosive progression two years after treatment initiation with methotrexate and placebo. Conclusion: PD-L2 regulates bone homeostasis in RA. Our findings provide new insight into the relationship between the immune system and bone homeostasis, and suggest a potential therapeutic target for limiting inflammatory bone loss in RA.

15.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(9): 1064-1075, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839551

RESUMO

Immunotherapies that target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 as well as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) have shown impressive clinical outcomes for multiple tumours. However, only a subset of patients achieves durable responses, suggesting that the mechanisms of the immune checkpoint pathways are not completely understood. Here, we report that PD-L1 translocates from the plasma membrane into the nucleus through interactions with components of the endocytosis and nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways, regulated by p300-mediated acetylation and HDAC2-dependent deacetylation of PD-L1. Moreover, PD-L1 deficiency leads to compromised expression of multiple immune-response-related genes. Genetically or pharmacologically modulating PD-L1 acetylation blocks its nuclear translocation, reprograms the expression of immune-response-related genes and, as a consequence, enhances the anti-tumour response to PD-1 blockade. Thus, our results reveal an acetylation-dependent regulation of PD-L1 nuclear localization that governs immune-response gene expression, and thereby advocate targeting PD-L1 translocation to enhance the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Células RAW 264.7
16.
Cell Rep ; 31(13): 107827, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610128

RESUMO

The PD-1 pathway regulates dysfunctional T cells in chronic infection and cancer, but the role of this pathway during acute infection remains less clear. Here, we demonstrate that PD-1 signals are needed for optimal memory. Mice deficient in the PD-1 pathway exhibit impaired CD8+ T cell memory following acute influenza infection, including reduced virus-specific CD8+ T cell numbers and compromised recall responses. PD-1 blockade during priming leads to similar differences early post-infection but without the defect in memory formation, suggesting that timing and/or duration of PD-1 blockade could be tailored to modulate host responses. Our studies reveal a role for PD-1 as an integrator of CD8+ T cell signals that promotes CD8+ T cell memory formation and suggest PD-1 continues to fine-tune CD8+ T cells after they migrate into non-lymphoid tissues. These findings have important implications for PD-1-based immunotherapy, in which PD-1 inhibition may influence memory responses in patients.

17.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550264

RESUMO

Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a product of the RB tumor suppressor gene. Its expression is highly prevalent in luminal breast cancers and is critical to the success of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor therapy. Expression of Rb in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), tumors generally associated with basal biology, is not well known. However, heterogeneity among TNBC and presence of subtypes with luminal features are well described. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of Rb protein expression in BRCA1-associated and sporadic TNBCs. We studied 180 TNBC patients (70 BRCA1-associated and 110 sporadic). The clinical and pathologic features of these cases were previously assessed and reported. For this study, immunohistochemical stains for Rb were performed on tissue microarray sections. Details of treatment and outcome were abstracted from medical records. Fifty-one percent of TNBC were Rb positive (≥10% nuclei staining), and 85% of these cases had ≥50% nuclei staining. Rb expression was significantly associated with sporadic TNBC (71.4% vs 49.4%; p < 0.001), androgen receptor (AR) expression (16.5% vs 3.4%; p = 0.007), histologic grade 1 or 2 (9.9% vs 2.2%; p = 0.04), and first recurrence in bone (8.8% vs 1.1%; p = 0.03). Expression of p53 was not associated with Rb expression. Expression of Rb in TNBC was significantly associated with sporadic TNBC, AR expression, lower histologic grade, and metastasis to bone. These observations characterize a TNBC subtype with features suggestive of luminal-like biology and the potential to benefit from CDK 4/6 inhibition.

18.
Cancer Discov ; 10(9): 1296-1311, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371478

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms leading to resistance to PD-1 blockade are largely unknown. Here, we characterize tumor biopsies from a patient with melanoma who displayed heterogeneous responses to anti-PD-1 therapy. We observe that a resistant tumor exhibited a loss-of-function mutation in the tumor suppressor gene FBXW7, whereas a sensitive tumor from the same patient did not. Consistent with a functional role in immunotherapy response, inactivation of Fbxw7 in murine tumor cell lines caused resistance to anti-PD-1 in immunocompetent animals. Loss of Fbxw7 was associated with altered immune microenvironment, decreased tumor-intrinsic expression of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensors MDA5 and RIG1, and diminished induction of type I IFN and MHC-I expression. In contrast, restoration of dsRNA sensing in Fbxw7-deficient cells was sufficient to sensitize them to anti-PD-1. Our results thus establish a new role for the commonly inactivated tumor suppressor FBXW7 in viral sensing and sensitivity to immunotherapy. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings establish a role of the commonly inactivated tumor suppressor FBXW7 as a genomic driver of response to anti-PD-1 therapy. Fbxw7 loss promotes resistance to anti-PD-1 through the downregulation of viral sensing pathways, suggesting that therapeutic reactivation of these pathways could improve clinical responses to checkpoint inhibitors in genomically defined cancer patient populations.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1241.

19.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 909-918, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472114

RESUMO

PD-1 blockade has transformed the management of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but the drivers and resistors of the PD-1 response remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we analyzed 592 tumors from patients with advanced ccRCC enrolled in prospective clinical trials of treatment with PD-1 blockade by whole-exome and RNA sequencing, integrated with immunofluorescence analysis, to uncover the immunogenomic determinants of the therapeutic response. Although conventional genomic markers (such as tumor mutation burden and neoantigen load) and the degree of CD8+ T cell infiltration were not associated with clinical response, we discovered numerous chromosomal alterations associated with response or resistance to PD-1 blockade. These advanced ccRCC tumors were highly CD8+ T cell infiltrated, with only 27% having a non-infiltrated phenotype. Our analysis revealed that infiltrated tumors are depleted of favorable PBRM1 mutations and enriched for unfavorable chromosomal losses of 9p21.3, as compared with non-infiltrated tumors, demonstrating how the potential interplay of immunophenotypes with somatic alterations impacts therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Deleção de Genes , Genômica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Prognóstico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 128, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184441

RESUMO

Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibits T cell responses. This function relies on interaction with SHP-2. PD-1 has one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) at Y223 and one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) at Y248. Only ITSM-Y248 is indispensable for PD-1-mediated inhibitory function but how SHP-2 enzymatic activation is mechanistically regulated by one PD-1 phosphotyrosine remains a puzzle. We found that after PD-1 phosphorylation, SHP-2 can bridge phosphorylated ITSM-Y248 residues on two PD-1 molecules via its amino terminal (N)-SH2 and carboxyterminal (C)-SH2 domains forming a PD-1: PD-1 dimer in live cells. The biophysical ability of SHP-2 to interact with two ITSM-pY248 residues was documented by isothermal titration calorimetry. SHP-2 interaction with two ITSM-pY248 phosphopeptides induced robust enzymatic activation. Our results unravel a mechanism of PD-1: SHP-2 interaction that depends only on ITSM-Y248 and explain how a single docking site within the PD-1 cytoplasmic tail can activate SHP-2 and PD-1-mediated inhibitory function.

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